SERVICE	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  IN	
  SMALL	
  AN...
 
	
  
	
  

TABLE	
  OF	
  CONTENTS	
  

	
  
	
  
	
  
SERVICE	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  IN	
  SMALL	
  AND	
  MEDIUM	
  S...
1.	
  ABSTRACT	
  
	
  
Design	
  has	
  many	
  faces	
  within	
  an	
  organization	
  –	
  a	
  designer	
  can	
  act...
•
•
•
•
•

DESIGN	
  PROBES:	
  MOBILE	
  
FIVE	
  TIMES	
  WHY	
  
DAY	
  IN	
  A	
  LIFE	
  
AFFINITY	
  DIAGRAMS	
  
CO...
2.	
  INTRODUCTION	
  
	
  

2.1	
  Service	
  design	
  as	
  a	
  function	
  
	
  
Service	
  design	
  is	
  an	
  int...
intrusive	
  even	
  though	
  it	
  is	
  common	
  to	
  use	
  video	
  cameras	
  to	
  capture	
  information.	
  	
 ...
 
It	
  is	
  possible	
  to	
  keep	
  asking	
  more	
  Why’s	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  get	
  to	
  the	
  root	
  cause	...
 

	
  

	
  
Examples	
  of	
  user	
  diaries:	
  	
  Trambook,	
  an	
  Aalto	
  University	
  project	
  2012	
  
	
  ...
 
In	
  the	
  service	
  concept	
  phase,	
  the	
  purpose	
  is	
  to	
  generate	
  multiple	
  ideas	
  for	
  alter...
 
	
  
Example	
  of	
  a	
  storytelling	
  service	
  prototype	
  from	
  Lauttasaari	
  bridge18,	
  2012	
  
	
  
Dur...
 

3.	
  	
  ANALYSIS	
  
	
  

3.1	
  	
  	
  Introducing	
  the	
  business	
  need	
  
	
  
Many	
  travel	
  and	
  de...
 
In	
  2010,	
  Finland	
  received	
  73,000	
  visitors	
  from	
  China.	
  42%	
  of	
  the	
  Chinese	
  visitors	
 ...
The	
  second	
  task	
  is	
  not	
  finding	
  a	
  solution	
  by	
  ‘lowering	
  the	
  price’	
  but	
  identifying	
...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

ETHNOGRAPHY:	
  SHADOWING	
  
CONTEXT	
  MAPPING:	
  MAKE	
  TOOLS	
  
DESIGN	
  PROBES:	
  DIARY	
  ...
...	
  

Browse	
  
ladies	
  
department	
  

Enter	
  
Stockmann	
  
department	
  
store	
  

Ask	
  driver	
  
to	
  d...
develop	
  the	
  methods,	
  with	
  some	
  training	
  most	
  people	
  could	
  start	
  using	
  them	
  to	
  gathe...
People	
  interaction	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  key	
  factors	
  in	
  travel	
  experience	
  and	
  cannot	
  be	
  ...
4.	
  SUMMARY	
  
	
  
This	
  research	
  paper	
  focuses	
  on	
  Service	
  Design	
  methodology	
  and	
  set	
  out...
 
	
  
	
  

APPENDIX	
  1:	
  	
  SERVICE	
  DESIGN	
  METHODS	
  ANALYSIS	
  TABLE	
  
	
  

	
  

	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
H...
 

APPENDIX	
  2:	
  	
  STEFAN	
  MORITZ	
  LIST	
  OF	
  TOOLS	
  AND	
  METHODS	
  DURING	
  
SERVICE	
  DESIGN	
  UNDE...
 

BIBLIOGRAPHY	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
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Service design methods in small and medium sized enterprises -­ Case study: Travel Agency

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Many design management methods for service design are a luxury of large companies, who have dedicated research budgets to throw into customer research. They can hire specialist companies around the world for the assignment and outsource the work to skilled design management professionals.

If you are a small or medium sized company (SME), you may not have enough expertise or money to use dedicated research companies. If your customer base is from a different culture or you don’t have a common language, it may seem impossible to use existing methodology to gain insights.

This paper aims to answer the following question: Which design management tools are best suited for a SME to gain a better understanding of end-­‐users/customers? As a case example, a small travel agency, which provides services for a foreign customer base and lacks a common language with its’ customers.

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Service design methods in small and medium sized enterprises -­ Case study: Travel Agency

  1. 1.                               SERVICE  DESIGN  METHODS  IN  SMALL  AND  MEDIUM  SIZED   ENTERPRISES  -­‐  CASE  STUDY:    TRAVEL  AGENCY                                             IDBM  PRO  2012     PIIA  TIILIKAINEN     27.12.2012  
  2. 2.       TABLE  OF  CONTENTS         SERVICE  DESIGN  METHODS  IN  SMALL  AND  MEDIUM  SIZED  ENTERPRISES  -­‐  CASE  STUDY:     TRAVEL  AGENCY  ......................................................................................................................................................  1   TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ............................................................................................................................................  2   1.  ABSTRACT  ..............................................................................................................................................................  3   2.  INTRODUCTION  ...................................................................................................................................................  5   2.1  Service  design  as  a  function  ....................................................................................................................  5   2.2.2  Design  methods  during  the  customer  insight  phase  ................................................................  5   2.2  Research  objective  ....................................................................................................................................   10   3.    ANALYSIS  .............................................................................................................................................................   11   3.1      Introducing  the  business  need  ...........................................................................................................   11   3.2  Tourism  as  a  service  .................................................................................................................................   11   3.2.1  Chinese  tourists  in  Finland  ...........................................................................................................   11   3.2.2  Characteristics  of  Chinese  Tourists  ...........................................................................................   12   3.3  Company  profile  .........................................................................................................................................   12   3.4  Service  design  tasks  during  the  customer  insight  phase  ..........................................................   12   3.5  Ideal  service  design  method  –  characteristics  ..............................................................................   13   3.6  Evaluation  of  service  design  methods  ..............................................................................................   13   3.7  Role-­‐play  immersion,  observation,  shadowing  and  day  in  a  life  ...........................................   14   3.8  Diary  methods  (video,  camera,  written)   ..........................................................................................   16   3.9  Other  methods  (Co-­‐design,  Make  Tools,  Five  Times  Why,  Affinity  Diagrams,  Mobile   probes)  ...................................................................................................................................................................   17   4.  SUMMARY  .............................................................................................................................................................   18   APPENDIX  1:    SERVICE  DESIGN  METHODS  ANALYSIS  TABLE  ..........................................................   19   APPENDIX  2:    STEFAN  MORITZ  LIST  OF  TOOLS  AND  METHODS  DURING  SERVICE  DESIGN   UNDERSTANDING  PHASE  ..................................................................................................................................   20   BIBLIOGRAPHY  .......................................................................................................................................................   21        
  3. 3. 1.  ABSTRACT     Design  has  many  faces  within  an  organization  –  a  designer  can  act  as  a  mediator  between   different  business  functions  in  visualizing  the  company  strategy  and  targets,  customer   segments,  products  and  services  etc.  Service  design  is  an  interdisciplinary  function1,  which   combines  different  methods  and  tools  from  various  disciples  such  as  market  research,   anthropology,  and  psychology  as  well  as  design  management.    It  is  a  new  way  of  thinking   and  an  evolving  approach  but  at  the  core  of  this  discipline  is  the  understanding  of  customer   needs,  dreams  and  wishes.2     This  research  paper  focuses  on  design  management  tools  and  methods,  which  can  be  used   to  gain  a  better  understanding  of  end-­‐user/customer  requirements  in  order  to  deliver   delightful  service  experiences  to  meet  those  requirements.    Service  design  process  and   tools  emphasize  strong  social  skills,  empathy  toward  user/customer,  creativity  and  visual   thinking.  3  The  link  to  design  thinking  comes  from  an  iterative  approach,  which  is  similar  to   an  empathic  design  process,  which  tries  to  visualize  the  future  service  concepts  through   prototyping.4  However,  as  Stickdorn  and  Schneider  point  out:  “If  you  would  ask  ten  people   what  service  design  is,  you  would  end  up  with  eleven  different  answers  –  at  least.”5     During  my  career,  I  have  been  developing  many  services  without  the  theoretical   background  on  service  design.    In  those  projects,  I  have  used  multiple  methods  such  as   focus  groups,  traditional  surveys,  customer  journey  mapping,  shadowing,  mystery   shopping,  UX  testing  with  cameras,  card  sorting  etc.  and  have  always  found  them  useful  in   understanding  the  customer  at  hand.    Now  that  I  am  managing  a  start  up  with  limited   money  and  resources,  I  am  curious  to  explore  what  kind  of  tools  and  methods  can  be   applied  with  relatively  low  cost.     Many  design  management  methods  for  service  design  are  a  luxury  of  large  companies,  who   have  dedicated  research  budgets  to  throw  into  customer  research.    They  can  hire  specialist   companies  around  the  world  for  the  assignment  and  outsource  the  work  to  skilled  design   management  professionals.     If  you  are  a  small  or  medium  sized  company  (SME),  you  may  not  have  enough  expertise  or   money  to  use  dedicated  research  companies.    If  your  customer  base  is  from  a  different   culture  or  you  don’t  have  a  common  language,  it  may  seem  impossible  to  use  existing   methodology  to  gain  insights.     This  paper  aims  to  answer  the  following  question:    Which  design  management  tools  are   best  suited  for  a  SME  to  gain  a  better  understanding  of  end-­‐users/customers?    As  a  case   example,  I  am  going  to  use  a  small  travel  agency,  which  provides  services  for  a  foreign   customer  base  from  a  different  culture  and  lacks  a  common  language  with  its’  customers.     I  decided  to  focus  on  the  initial  customer  insight  phase,  which  is  critical  in  designing  a  new   service.    I  used  Hämäläinen,  Vilkka  and  Miettinen’s  framework,  which  outlined  the   following  methods  that  can  be  used  during  the  customer  insight  phase  in  service  design:       • DESIGN  ETHNOGRAPHY:  ROLE  PLAY  IMMERSION   • ETHNOGRAPHY:  OBSERVATION   • ETHNOGRAPHY:  SHADOWING   • CONTEXT  MAPPING:  MAKE  TOOLS   • DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (WRITTEN)   • DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (CAMERA)   • DESIGN  PROBES:    DIARY  (VIDEO)     3  
  4. 4. • • • • • DESIGN  PROBES:  MOBILE   FIVE  TIMES  WHY   DAY  IN  A  LIFE   AFFINITY  DIAGRAMS   CO-­‐DESIGN  METHODS     These  methods  were  analyzed  from  the  target  customer  segment  (Chinese  tourist),   company  (small  travel  agency),  industry  application  (tourism),  tourism   product/experience  and  on  analysis  effort  dimensions  based  on  subjective  review.     Based  on  my  research,  it  seems  that  Role-­‐play  immersion,  Observation;  Shadowing  and  Day   in  a  life  method  offer  most  potential  for  the  travel  company,  when  they  want  to  design  new   travel  services  or  improve  existing  service.    Most  importantly,  they  don’t  require  a  heavy   up-­‐front  investment.     These  methods  can  be  used,  when  there  is  no  common  language  with  the  customer  and   they  don’t  require  deep  specialist  skills  in  order  to  use  them.    Some  training  will  be   required.    In  addition,  these  methods  produce  results  in  an  easily  ‘digestible’  and   reportable  format.    Their  shortcoming  is  limited  geographical  scope  and  dependency  on   understanding  the  customer’s  language;  however,  as  most  communication  is  anyhow  non-­‐ verbal,  observational  methods  can  still  be  used.             4  
  5. 5. 2.  INTRODUCTION     2.1  Service  design  as  a  function     Service  design  is  an  interdisciplinary  function,  which  has  similarities  with  an  iterative  and   empathic  design  process,  where  the  key  aim  is  to  involve  the  user  or  customer  into  the   design  process.    Although  there  seems  to  no  agreement  over  the  ‘correct’  way  of  defining   service  design,  there  are  certain  similarities  in  most  definitions.         The  following  phases  can  be  recognized  in  most  service  design  approaches.             FIGURE  1:  SERVICE  DESIGN  PROCESS  PHASES6     During  the  customer  insight  phase,  the  service  designer  should  focus  on  growing  his   understanding  of  user  needs  in  order  to  come  up  with  development  ideas.    Understanding  is   learning  about  customer’s  latent  and  conscious  needs.7      According  to  Moritz,  understanding   clients  is  about  understanding  their  goals,  values,  needs,  behavior,  problems,  group   dynamics,  interaction,  demographic  and  psychographic  factors.8     Hanington  divides  the  human  centered  research  methods  into  three  categories:  traditional   (such  as  customer  surveys,  focus  group  interviews),  adapted  (such  as  ethnographic  research,   video  ethnography)  and  innovative  (such  as  co-­‐creation  workshops,  user  diaries).9     2.2.2  Design  methods  during  the  customer  insight  phase     According  to  Hämäläinen,  Vilkka  and  Miettinen10  the  following  approaches  can  be  utilized   during  the  customer  insight  phase:     1. Design  ethnography,  where  the  service  designer  takes  the  role  of  the  customer  or   user  in  order  to  gain  insights  about  a  product  or  a  service.    For  example,  the   designer  could  take  the  role  of  a  tourist  bus  driver  in  order  to  capture  the  real   customer  journey  during  a  sightseeing  tour.    The  observation  process  should  not  be     5  
  6. 6. intrusive  even  though  it  is  common  to  use  video  cameras  to  capture  information.     The  designer  can  also  interview  the  users.    The  purpose  is  to  understand  the   motivations  of  people  to  use  a  product  or  a  service.     2. Ethnographic  methods  have  been  used  in  anthropology  and  they  aim  to  make  the   culture  visible,  audible  and  understandable  by  giving  meaning  to  the  symbols  and   rituals  in  a  culture.11    Traditionally  is  has  been  entirely  face  to  face  cultural   interaction  and  data  collection  but  lately,  the  virtual  online  world  has  been  studied   through  ‘netnography’,  where  the  interaction  and  data  collection  happens  purely   online.    A  mix  of  both  methods  can  also  be  used  to  study  cultures  and   communities.12     Observation  is  a  common  ethnographic  method.    It  is  easy  to  imagine  an   anthropologist  in  a  jungle  village,  sitting  on  a  stone  and  taking  notes  about  the   behavior  and  rituals  of  the  villagers.     Shadowing  is  similar  to  observation  but  focuses  more  on  user’s  interactions  and   tasks  through  real  time  interaction  processes.    In  tourism  context,  following  a   tourist  group  as  a  member  to  observe  how  the  group  interacts  with  the  guide  and   other  people  or  what  kind  of  tasks  do  the  tourists  perform  during  a  tour  are   examples  of  shadowing.     3. Context  mapping  methods  are  often  used  in  facilitated  workshops,  where  the  users   or  customers  carry  out  exercises  with  make  tools.    For  example,  they  could  be  asked   to  make  a  ‘future  airplane’  out  of  cardboard  and  other  handicraft  materials.     Through  visualization,  they  express  their  subconscious  and  underlying  needs.     4. Customer  uses  design  probes  to  document  ‘  day  in  a  life’  type  scenarios  or  other   contexts.    Design  probe  methods  are  based  on  self-­‐observation  and  documentation.     Typical  examples  are  photography  diaries,  video  diaries  or  written  diaries.  Mobile   probes  were  introduced  by  University  of  Art  and  Design  in  Helsinki.    Users  use  a   camera  phone  to  send  written  answers  and  pictures  and  the  researcher  has  a   browser-­‐based  application  to  send  questions  and  probes  to  users.    The  responses   are  recorded  in  a  server.    Lately  this  methodology  has  veered  more  towards   quantitative  research  due  to  the  limitations  in  designing  true  empathy  probes  with   mobile  technology.13    A  tourist  could  be  provided  with  a  camera  and  asked  to  record   ‘most  unusual  and  memorable  events’  during  this  tour  in  order  to  find  out  service   differentiation  options.     5. Five  times  why  method  focuses  on  finding  a  root  cause  to  the  problem  at  hand.    It  is   one  of  the  Six  Sigma14  methods  and  tries  to  establish  a  cause  and  effect  relationship   underlying  a  problem.       ‘Customers  think  our  prices  are  too  high’     1. Why?    They  are  saying  that  competitors  are  offering  the  same  tour  at  a  lower   price.    (First  why)   2. Why?    Maybe  the  competitors  have  been  able  to  negotiate  better  prices  with   hotels  and  taxis.    (Second  why)   3. Why?    Due  to  their  higher  volumes,  they  are  able  to  get  volume  discounts.    (Third   why)   4. Why?    Hotels  and  taxis  prefer  to  work  with  travel  agencies  who  bring  in  most   money.  (Fourth  why)   5. Why?    That’s  how  they  make  their  profit.  (Fifth  why)     6  
  7. 7.   It  is  possible  to  keep  asking  more  Why’s  in  order  to  get  to  the  root  cause  but  a   rule  of  thumb  seems  to  be  that  5  Why’s  are  often  sufficient  to  get  to  the  root   cause.     6. Day  in  a  Life  method  puts  the  service  designer  in  customer’s  shoes  and  makes   him  list  and  document  all  user  tasks,  circumstances  and  user  experiences  during   a  day.    This  method  can  be  used  to  discover  unusual  events  or  themes  in  daily   routines  of  people.    First  step  is  to  decide  what  is  the  scope  of  the  study,  where   do  we  need  more  information;  is  it  about  roles,  interactions  or  the  environment.     In  tourism,  this  method  could  be  used  for  example  when  observing  what   alterations  are  needed  to  a  pre-­‐programmed  tour  by  observing  when  the  group   does  not  follow  the  program  and  analyzing  the  context  of  the  deviations.     7. Affinity  diagrams  help  process  and  categorize  information,  which  has  been   collected  through  Affinity  notes.    It  brings  out  the  customer  needs,  issues  and   problems.    In  this  method,  all  ideas  and  notes  are  first  recorded  on  Post-­‐It  notes   and  then  collected  on  the  wall,  grouped  and  categorized.    In  Six  Sigma,  this   method  is  called  KJ  (Kawakita  Jiro)  Model.           8. Co-­‐creation  or  co-­‐design  methods  such  as  board  games,  card  games,  role-­‐plays   or  storytelling  aim  to  involve  and  empower  the  users  into  the  design  process   along  with  other  stakeholders  in  order  to  provide  ideas  and  solutions  for  the   design  of  multi-­‐channel  and  complex  services.    This  could  provide  a  nice   playground  for  designing  a  new  travel  service  just  as  an  example.    However,  use   will  be  limited  in  situations,  where  the  user/  customer  and  the  design  team  do   not  have  a  common  language.15     7  
  8. 8.       Examples  of  user  diaries:    Trambook,  an  Aalto  University  project  2012             8  
  9. 9.   In  the  service  concept  phase,  the  purpose  is  to  generate  multiple  ideas  for  alternative   service  implementations.    A  service  can  be  described  through  service  touch  points,   customer  journey  maps  or  other  structural  elements  needed  in  service  creation.16     This is an example of the output after a couple of steps; showing an approach to design a WOW experience for a flight to NYC. Reasons to like this tool: • It’s great to have a formal approach to describing/designing experiences • It starts with the description of a specific customer (in the center) • It recognizes the life cycle of experiences: before, during, and after • It’s easy to use and simple to understand http://experiencematters.wordpress.com/2009/03/03/legos-building-block-for-good-experiences/ Company Confidential. ©2010 Nokia 1     Example  of  a  customer  journey  map  from  Lego       Prototyping  makes  the  idea  of  a  service  visual  and  helps  to  communicate  it  to  the  end  user   or  customer.    Different  methods  have  to  be  applied  in  service  prototyping  than  product   prototyping,  where  the  designer  typically  builds  a  replica  of  the  intended  product  and   embeds  some  real  functionality  to  it.    Service  prototyping  methods  are  more  experimental   by  nature  and  often  use  storytelling  as  a  key  method.17         9  
  10. 10.     Example  of  a  storytelling  service  prototype  from  Lauttasaari  bridge18,  2012     During  the  launch  and  maintenance  phase,  service  design  is  not  over,  though  often   forgotten.    Many  companies  fall  into  the  traditional  ‘customer  survey’  cycle,  where   customers  are  being  questioned  at  regular  intervals  to  see  if  they  are  still  ‘happy  with  our   service’.    IDEO,  one  of  the  world’s  most  recognized  design  agencies,  think  that  today   companies  are  valued  less  for  their  current  offerings  than  for  their  ability  to  innovate  and   come  up  with  something  new.19    User-­‐centric  service  design  methods  can  also  be  applied   after  the  service  is  launched  to  help  keep  it  competitive  and  to  innovate  on  value  adding   elements  to  customers.20     Given  the  variety  of  services  that  exist,  service  design  also  has  to  cope  with  different   situations  and  contexts.    Services  live  –  they  cannot  be  pre-­‐produced  and  stored.21    This  is   especially  true  of  tourism,  where  the  service  is  co-­‐produced  by  multiple  actors,  each  having   an  influence  on  the  overall  customer  perception  of  the  service.     2.2  Research  objective     This  paper  aims  to  answer  the  following  question:    Taking  into  account  the  complexity  in   service  design  as  an  interdisciplinary  function,  tourism  as  an  amalgam  of  goods,  services   and  people  and  the  business  challenges  of  small  to  medium  sized  enterprises  in   understanding  design  or  having  resources  or  funds  to  allocate  to  it  –  what  are  feasible   methods  for  a  small  travel  service  provider  to  use  for  gaining  a  deeper  insight  about  their   customers  needs,  wants  and  dreams?     Although  it  would  be  very  tempting  to  analyze  all  four,  service  design  phases,  I  have   decided  to  focus  on  the  initial  customer  insight  phase,  which  is  critical  in  designing  a  new   service.    Travel  is  a  very  competed  industry  with  relatively  low  differentiation  and  the   companies  face  heavy  price  competition.    Understanding  your  customers’  hidden  needs   may  offer  potential  for  new  innovation  and  differentiation.         10  
  11. 11.   3.    ANALYSIS     3.1      Introducing  the  business  need     Many  travel  and  destination  service  providers  are  small  or  medium  sized  companies.     Design  is  commonly  used  among  large  businesses.    UK  Design  Council  research  into  the  use   of  design  also  revealed  that  rapidly  growing  businesses  were  six  times  more  likely  to  see   design  as  an  integral  part  of  their  operations  compared  to  the  static  businesses.22     Many  service  design  methods  are  a  luxury  for  a  SME,  who  may  lack  the  expertise,  people   and  money  to  carry  out  extensive  customer  research  projects  using  a  specialist  research   company.    Therefore  it  is  important  to  be  able  to  find  ‘good  enough’  and  more  cost-­‐effective   methods,  which  are  simple  to  take  into  use  and  apply  during  the  key  phases  of  a  service   design  project  –  when  exploring  and  discovering  customer  needs,  for  creating  and   visualizing  new  service  concepts  and  reflecting  on  them  for  improvement,  as  well  as  during   the  implementation  phase,  when  the  ideas  are  put  into  action  within  the  organization.     3.2  Tourism  as  a  service     “A  tourism  product  is  an  amalgam  of  all  goods,  activities,  and  services  offered  to  tourists  by   different  sectors  of  the  tourism  industry  in  order  to  satisfy  tourist  needs  while  they  are   away  from  home.  It  includes  the  journey  to  and  from  a  destination,  transfer  from  and  to  an   airport,  accommodation,  transportation  while  at  the  destination  and  everything  that  a   tourist  does,  sees,  and  uses  on  the  way  to  and  from  the  destination,  including  purchases  of   food  and  drinks,  souvenirs,  entertainment,  amusement  and  a  very  wide  range  of  other   services  such  as  financial,  medical,  insurance,  etc.”  23       The  tourism  product  is  not  only  a  collection  of  tangible  (hotel  building,  bus)  or  intangible   (accommodation  service,  transportation  service)  elements  but  also  has  psychological   experiences  from  the  moment  the  tourist  leaves  home  to  when  is  arrives  back  home.    All  of   these  experiences  are  highly  subjective  and  influenced  by  demographic  (e.g.  age),   socioeconomic  (e.g.  social  class),  geographic  (place  of  origin),  cultural  (e.g.  cultural  values)   and  psychological  (e.g.  needs  and  motivations)  factors.    The  tourism  service  also  has  a   human  component  and  the  perceptions  of  this  are  particularly  important.    During  their   travel,  tourists  come  into  contact  not  only  with  guides  but  also  flight  attendants,  waitresses   in  restaurants  and  local  residents,  just  to  mention  a  few.    Therefore  the  authors   Kandampully,  Mok  and  Sparkes  suggest  that  the  key  components  in  a  tourism  product  are:   access,  amenities,  accommodation,  attractions,  activities  and  people.24     3.2.1  Chinese  tourists  in  Finland     As  early  as  2012,  China  is  expected  to  replace  Japan  as  the  world’s  largest  tourism   market,  with  sixty-­‐six  million  Chinese  traveling  abroad  in  2011,  a  number  expected   to  hit  100  million  by  2020,  according  to  the  World  Tourism  Organization.  Despite   the  expected  tens  of  millions  expected  inbound  Chinese  tourists  in  the  next  few   years,  most  hotels,  airlines  and  retailers  do  not  yet  understand  how  to  successfully   capture  this  market.    These  travelers  are  affluent;  expect  customized  travel   experiences  with  some  of  the  comforts  of  home.  25     11  
  12. 12.   In  2010,  Finland  received  73,000  visitors  from  China.  42%  of  the  Chinese  visitors  in   Finland  were  on  business  trips  and  43%  on  leisure  trips.    The  average  stay  in   Finland  lasted  6  nights.  77%  of  the  visitors  stayed  at  a  hotel  or  motel.      Chinese   visitors  spent  around  EUR  36  million  while  in  Finland  in  2010.  The  average   spending  was  EUR  72  per  day  and  EUR  500  per  visit.      The  amount  of  travel  from   China  to  Finland  is  expected  to  increase  in  the  near  future  due  to  the  rising  living   standard  and  disposable  income.26     3.2.2  Characteristics  of  Chinese  Tourists     Chinese  tourists  are  used  as  a  case  example  to  represent  a  customer  base,  which   comes  from  a  very  different  cultural  background,  has  different  expectations  and   needs  regarding  travel  and  often  do  not  speak  English  or  Finnish.     The  first  barrier  that  needs  to  be  overcome  is  language  –  preparation  needs  to  go   into  translating  menus,  hotel  and  travel  information  and  basic  conversational   language  for  travelers.    Some  international  hotels  have  introduced  touches  aimed  at   Chinese  travelers  such  as  stocking  instant  noodles,  Chinese  teas  and  tea  kettles  in   mini-­‐bars,  offering  Chinese  TV  channels  and  slippers  in  guest  rooms,  and  serving   congee  (hot  rice  porridge)  and  dim  sum  at  breakfast.27     One  of  our  clients  said  that  getting  serviced  by  ‘white  people’28,  automatically   implies  a  better  level  of  service  than  being  chauffeured  by  a  Chinese  driver  living  in   Finland.    There  are  many  things  that  are  not  tangible  at  a  first  glance.       3.3  Company  profile     The  company  can  be  characterized  as  follows:     -­‐ Small  company  offering  travel  related  services  for  Chinese  tourists   -­‐ Number  of  employees  <  10   -­‐ Has  recently  entered  travel  business   -­‐ Privately  funded  company   -­‐ Offers  packaged  and  tailor-­‐made  travel  experiences  in  Finland  and  Scandinavia   -­‐ Aims  at  medium  to  high  end  Chinese  customers   -­‐ Does  not  employ  any  design  or  market  research  professionals  with  Chinese   language  skills     3.4  Service  design  tasks  during  the  customer  insight  phase     Although  service  design  aims  to  put  the  customer  at  the  center  of  its  process,  the  process   often  starts  with  the  company.    Since  service  design  is  often  a  co-­‐creative  process,  where   multiple  company  employees  and  managers  need  to  participate,  it  is  crucial  to  understand   the  company’s  point  of  view  on  a  certain  problem.29    Using  our  travel  company  example;   let’s  assume  that  the  company  thinks  it  is  failing  to  understand  the  correct  price  point  of   services  since  they  are  receiving  feedback  from  some  customers  that  their  prices  are  too   high  for  Chinese  people.       12  
  13. 13. The  second  task  is  not  finding  a  solution  by  ‘lowering  the  price’  but  identifying  the  real   problem.    Gaining  a  clear  understanding  of  the  situation  from  the  perspective  of  current   and  potential  customers  is  crucial  for  successful  service  design.    To  simplify,  it  is  not  about   trying  to  find  the  solution  immediately  –  it  is  about  finding  the  problem  first!    It  is  about   finding  the  true  motivations  behind  customer  behavior  by  understanding  the  behavior  and   mindset  of  people.30    Using  the  price  point  example:    there  could  be  multiple  reasons   behind  customer’s  price  perception  e.g.  travel  offering  is  described  poorly  and  not   reflecting  the  quality  of  service,  in  customer’s  culture  different  things  are  valued,  company   is  providing  too  many  ‘extras’,  which  customer  does  not  value…     The  third  task  is  to  visualize  the  findings  and  the  underlying  structure  of  the  previously   intangible  services.    This  helps  to  simplify  complex  and  intangible  processes  and  empowers   the  designer  and  team  to  change  those  parts  of  a  service,  which  might  not  be  functioning   properly.31    Let’s  use  a  city  sightseeing  tour  as  an  example.    If  the  service  designer  can   visualize  customer’s  expectations  on  what  happens  on  a  tour  by  building  a  storyboard  or  a   customer  journey  map,  it  will  be  easier  to  discuss  with  company  management  and   stakeholders  on  the  differences  between  customer’s  thinking  and  the  company  perspective.     3.5  Ideal  service  design  method  –  characteristics     From  the  service  designer’s  perspective,  an  ideal  method  would  have  the  following   characteristics:     -­‐ Suitable  to  use  during  customer  insight  phase  in  service  design    (choice  of  methods)   -­‐ Does  not  require  common  language  between  service  designer  and  customer  as  the   company  customer  base  is  Chinese  and  the  company  does  not  employ  Chinese   researchers  or  designers  (table:    LANGUAGE  DEPENDENT)   -­‐ Does  not  mandate  direct  interaction  between  designer  and  object,  as  the  company   in  question  does  not  have  Chinese  speaking  employees    (table:    INTERACTION  IS   INDIRECT)   -­‐ Suitable  for  researching  tourism  product  dimensions  (access,  amenities,   accommodation,  attractions,  activities  and  people)  (table:  INDUSTRY   APPLICATION)   -­‐ Captures  demographic  (e.g.  age),  socioeconomic  (e.g.  social  class),  geographic  (place   of  origin),  cultural  (e.g.  cultural  values)  and  psychological  (e.g.  needs  and   motivations)  dimensions    (table:    COLUMNS  H-­‐L)   -­‐ Does  not  require  specialist  skills,  the  researcher  can  be  trained  to  use  the  method   with  relatively  low  effort  (table:  SPECIALIST  SKILLS  NEEDED)   -­‐ Produces  research  insights,  which  are  relatively  easy  to  analyze  and  report    (not   requiring  complex  tools  or  systems  for  carrying  out  the  analysis)  (table:  LOW   EFFORT  ANALYSIS)   -­‐ Is  cost  effective  and  does  not  require  major  investments    (table:    LOW  COST)     Table  refers  to  the  Analysis  table  in  Appendix  1.     3.6  Evaluation  of  service  design  methods       I  carried  out  a  subjective  evaluation  between  the  following  methods  and  how  well  they  met   the  criteria  described  in  chapter  3.5:     • DESIGN  ETHNOGRAPHY:  ROLE  PLAY  IMMERSION   • ETHNOGRAPHY:  OBSERVATION     13  
  14. 14. • • • • • • • • • • ETHNOGRAPHY:  SHADOWING   CONTEXT  MAPPING:  MAKE  TOOLS   DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (WRITTEN)   DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (CAMERA)   DESIGN  PROBES:    DIARY  (VIDEO)   DESIGN  PROBES:  MOBILE   FIVE  TIMES  WHY   DAY  IN  A  LIFE   AFFINITY  DIAGRAMS   CO-­‐DESIGN  METHODS       Simple  green  (meets  the  requirement  well),  yellow  (somewhat  meets  the  requirement)  and   red  (does  not  meet  the  requirement)  symbols  are  being  used  to  provide  a  quick  visual   overview  of  the  methods.    Calculating  together  the  green  scores  out  of  the  eleven  (11)   evaluation  criteria  used  did  the  final  scoring.    See  Appendix  1  for  more  detail.     Based  on  the  subjective  evaluation,  the  methods  could  be  arranged  into  ‘Best  Fit’  order:     1. ROLE  -­‐PLAY  IMMERSION  (score:    9/11)   2. OBSERVATION    (score:    9/11)   3. SHADOWING    (score:  9/11)   4. DAY  IN  A  LIFE    (score:    9/11)   5. VIDEO  DIARY  (score:  7/11)   6. CAMERA  DIARY  (score:  6/11)   7. WRITTEN  DIARY  (score:  4/11)   8. FIVE  TIMES  WHY  (score:  4/11)   9. CO-­‐DESIGN  METHODS  (score:  4/11)   10. MOBILE  PROBES  (score:  3/11)   11. AFFINITY  DIAGRAMS  (score:  3/11)   12. CONTEXT  MAPPING:    MAKE  TOOLS    (score:  2/11)       It  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  that  ‘Best  Fit’  means  the  best  fit  for  the  company  and   industry  type  in  question  and  the  evaluated  methods  can  be  used  for  other  situations  and   businesses,  which  may  result  in  a  different  ranking.         3.7  Role-­‐play  immersion,  observation,  shadowing  and  day  in  a  life     At  a  glance,  these  methods  appear  very  similar  –  there  is  a  service  designer,  who  uses  the   method  on  his  own,  without  too  much  interaction  with  the  research  objects.    Using  the   travel  example,  perhaps  we  can  find  some  differences.    Let’s  use  the  following  research   objective  to  highlight  the  similarities  and  differences:     “Study  Chinese  female  visitors  in  Helsinki  to  create  new  shopping  related  tourist  services.”     In  role-­‐play  immersion,  the  service  designer  could  take  a  role  of  a  shopping  assistant,  who   is  helping  the  visitor  by  carrying  their  shopping  bags.    He  would  follow  her  around  and   study  where  she  goes,  who  she  interacts  with,  what  she  buys,  how  she  pays  for  the  goods,   what  are  the  ‘unknowns’  and  surprises…    The  designer  then  uses  this  information,  reflects   on  it  and  creates  first  prototype  concepts  of  the  new  shopping  related  travel  service.       14  
  15. 15. ...   Browse   ladies   department   Enter   Stockmann   department   store   Ask  driver   to  drive  to   Esplanadi   Study  This   Week  in   Helsinki  for   shopping   options   Order  cab   to  hotel     A  purely  observational  method  could  put  the  designer  in  a  luxury  goods  store,  for  example   sitting  behind  the  counter,  to  make  observations  about  Chinese  women  visiting  the  store.     How  are  they  behaving,  what  are  they  wearing,  what  are  they  looking  at  …    Based  on  the   observations,  service  prototypes  can  be  presented  for  further  evaluation.     Day  in  a  life  method  tries  to  capture  the  flow  of  events  during  a  day.    In  this  assignment,  the   designer  would  focus  on  documenting  the  interactions  and  events  in  a  journey  type   description.    In  this  method  it  is  important  to  also  focus  on  the  exceptions.    The  company   may  have  a  pre-­‐assumption  of  the  journey  such  as:     ...   Browse  ladies   department   Enter  Stockmann   department  store   Ask  driver  to   drive  to   Esplanadi   Cannot  pay  with  credit   card,  visits  bank  teller  to   draw  cash   Order  cab  to   hotel     Visits  hotel  concierge  to  rind   out  more  information   Notices  that  guide  is  only  in   English  and  cannot  read  it   Study  This  Week  in   Helsinki  for   shopping  options       In  practice  the  designer  can  notice  that  the  real-­‐life  journey  will  look  very  different:           Shadowing  is  similar  to  the  previous  methods.    Service  designer  observes  the  customer,   front-­‐line  staff  or  other  stakeholders  with  minimal  intrusion.    They  can  employ  a  range  of   methods  from  taking  pictures,  recording  conversations,  videotaping  etc.        Often  the   purpose  is  to  spot  situations  where  things  do  not  go  as  planned  or  where  people  may  say   one  thing  but  do  another.    Taking  the  Chinese  shopper  example,  the  service  designer  could   for  example  observe  the  dialogue  between  shop  assistant  and  client  to  capture  situations,   where  the  client  makes  a  spot  purchase  of  an  unexpected  item.     From  the  company  perspectives  these  methods  are  relatively  low  cost  and  do  not  require  a   lot  of  investment  into  technical  tools,  expensive  experts  or  facilities.    Although  experts     15  
  16. 16. develop  the  methods,  with  some  training  most  people  could  start  using  them  to  gather   customer  insights.  They  can  also  be  well  used  in  travel  industry,  where  there  is  often  a   need  to  observe  people  during  their  tour  or  travel  destination,  at  hotels,  restaurants  and   other  attractions.    The  methods  are  well  suited  to  observe  the  interaction  between  people,   which  is  one  of  the  key  psychological  dimensions  in  a  travel  experience.     Ideally,  some  interaction  between  the  service  designer  and  customer  would  be  possible,   e.g.  during  the  role-­‐play,  the  designer  could  carry  out  a  dialogue  with  the  client.    In  my   opinion,  these  methods  can  still  work  in  a  situation,  where  direct  conversations  are  not   possible  due  to  language  differences.     These  methods  are  also  suited  for  capturing  information  about  the  cultural,  demographic,   socioeconomic  and  psychological  dimensions  since  they  are  based  on  close  observation.         Cultural  differences  are  good  to  keep  in  mind,  as  a  smile  in  Eastern  cultures,  may  not  mean   the  same  here.    A  good  service  designer  would  therefore  do  background  research  into  the   cultural  differences  between  himself  and  the  customer  in  question.     The  limitations  of  these  methods  are  language  dependency,  limited  capability  to  capture   geographical  factors.  Ideally  the  service  designer  should  be  able  to  follow  the  discussions   and  have  a  dialogue  with  the  person  under  observation.    If  there  is  no  common  language,   this  will  not  be  possible.    These  methods  are  also  geographically  limited  for  a  small   company,  if  it  does  not  have  money  to  hire  specialist  companies  abroad  or  to  send  their   own  team  to  different  locations.    For  large  companies,  this  will  not  be  an  issue.     If  the  researcher  uses  a  lot  of  video  material,  the  analysis  can  become  cumbersome,  as   video  editing  is  very  time  consuming.    If  more  lightweight  capture  mechanisms  are  used,   such  as  writing  notes,  taking  pictures  with  a  camera  or  recording  sound  bites;  it  will  be   easier  to  create  a  presentation  of  the  results.    However,  video  is  a  powerful  visual  tool  and   if  the  results  need  to  be  communicated  to  a  larger  audience,  it  would  justify  some   investment  into  video  editing  and  producing  a  presentation  with  embedded  video  material.     3.8  Diary  methods  (video,  camera,  written)     Diary  methods  are  self-­‐reflective  and  the  customer  will  use  the  media  to  document  the   assignment  usually  over  a  longer  period.    The  service  designer  can  send  further  probes  and   instructions  during  the  period  to  gather  additional  views  or  to  direct  the  assignment.     Tourist  groups  could  be  equipped  with  a  digital  or  video  camera  and  be  asked  to  document   their  journey  or  certain  parts  of  it.    For  example:    a  Chinese  tourist  could  be  asked  to   document  typical  ‘Finnish  things’,  which  could  give  the  travel  agency  new  insights  on  their   customer  segment.    Tour  leader  could  be  asked  to  document  questions  from  the  tourist   group  in  a  normal  diary.    Travel  agency  can  use  the  information  to  write  more  descriptive   tour  brochures.     From  an  SME  perspective,  these  are  low  cost  methods  that  are  relatively  simple  to  use,  as   most  people  would  know  how  to  write  in  a  diary  or  take  photographs.    Video  cameras   require  more  technical  skills  from  the  users.    They  are  adept  for  documenting  cultural,   demographic  and  psychological  factors.    The  written  diary  falls  short  due  to  its’  language   dependency  (researcher  has  to  use  same  language  as  the  object)  and  it  provides  limited   capability  to  measure  demographic,  geographic  and  socioeconomic  factors;  written  text  is  a   simple  medium  compared  to  photographs  or  video,  where  contextual  information  is  more   rich  (visual,  audio…)           16  
  17. 17. People  interaction  is  one  of  the  key  factors  in  travel  experience  and  cannot  be  captured   well  in  written  or  camera  diary.    Video  is  a  good  medium  for  that,  even  when  there  is  no   common  language.    In  general,  these  methods  are  effective  in  overcoming  cultural   boundaries,  as  the  research  materials  are  highly  evocative.    The  challenge  for  analysis  is  the   abundance  of  material:  hundreds  of  photographs  or  hours  of  video  that  is  full  of  visual  and   audiovisual  pieces  of  information.     3.9  Other  methods  (Co-­‐design,  Make  Tools,  Five  Times  Why,  Affinity  Diagrams,  Mobile   probes)     Co-­‐design  and  Make  Tools  are  used  often  in  groups;  where  service  designer,  subject  matter   experts  and  customers  come  together  for  a  design  assignment.    Make  Tools  are  good  for   building  concrete  prototypes  of  new  tangible  products.    In  travel,  customers  can  build  a   prototype  of  a  new  hotel  or  to  illustrate  a  new  travel  brochure  design  using  Make  Tools.     Co-­‐design  is  a  good  method  for  analyzing  and  designing  processes  and  complex  systems   such  as  a  travel  reservation  system.     For  a  small  travel  agency,  the  shortcoming  of  these  methods  is  that  they  require  direct   interaction  between  customers  and  the  service  design  team  and  therefore  cannot  be  used   in  a  situation,  where  there  is  no  common  language.    The  methods  are  not  low  cost  since  the   company  has  to  hire  experts  to  facilitate  workshops,  hire  a  facility  to  hold  the  workshop   and  purchase  materials  for  prototype  building.     Six  sigma-­‐oriented  methods  –  Five  Times  Why  and  Affinity  Diagrams  –  are  not  optimal  for   capturing  tourism  experience  dimensions  (cultural,  demographic…)  or  people  interaction.     They  are  also  language  dependent.    They  might  be  better  suited  for  the  service  concept  or   prototyping  phases,  where  the  insight  information  has  to  be  sorted  through  and  analyzed   by  the  company.     Mobile  probes  have  a  more  quantitative  application  and  are  not  low  cost,  require  specialist   skills  from  the  service  designer,  are  dependent  on  language  and  an  interaction  between   customer  and  researcher.    Therefore  it  can’t  be  considered  as  a  suitable  method  for  a  small   travel  company.     On  the  positive  side,  some  of  these  methods  can  produce  very  visual  prototypes  or  reports   at  a  relatively  low  cost.    For  example,  if  customers  co-­‐create  a  travel  brochure  prototype,  it   can  instantly  be  used  in  reporting.    Same  if  they  create  service  mock-­‐ups.    Five  times  why   and  Affinity  diagrams  are  low-­‐effort  reporting  methods,  which  hardly  require  any  specialist   skills  or  complex  tools  for  creating  the  report.         17  
  18. 18. 4.  SUMMARY     This  research  paper  focuses  on  Service  Design  methodology  and  set  out  to  answer  the   following  question:    Taking  into  account  the  complexity  in  service  design  as  an   interdisciplinary  function;  tourism  as  an  amalgam  of  goods,  services  and  people  and  the   business  challenges  of  small  to  medium  sized  enterprises  in  understanding  design  or   having  resources  or  funds  to  allocate  to  it  –  what  are  the  feasible  methods  for  a  small  travel   agency  to  use  for  gaining  deeper  insights  about  their  customers’  needs,  wants  and  dreams?     I  decided  to  focus  on  the  initial  customer  insight  phase,  which  is  critical  in  designing  a  new   service.    I  used  Hämäläinen,  Vilkka  and  Miettinen’s  framework,  which  outlined  the   following  methods  that  can  be  used  during  the  customer  insight  phase  in  service  design:       • DESIGN  ETHNOGRAPHY:  ROLE  PLAY  IMMERSION   • ETHNOGRAPHY:  OBSERVATION   • ETHNOGRAPHY:  SHADOWING   • CONTEXT  MAPPING:  MAKE  TOOLS   • DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (WRITTEN)   • DESIGN  PROBES:  DIARY  (CAMERA)   • DESIGN  PROBES:    DIARY  (VIDEO)   • DESIGN  PROBES:  MOBILE   • FIVE  TIMES  WHY   • DAY  IN  A  LIFE   • AFFINITY  DIAGRAMS   • CO-­‐DESIGN  METHODS     These  methods  were  analyzed  from  the  target  customer  segment  (Chinese  tourist),   company  (small  travel  agency),  industry  application  (tourism),  tourism   product/experience  and  on  analysis  effort  dimensions  based  on  subjective  review.     Based  on  my  research,  it  seems  that  Role-­‐play  immersion,  Observation;  Shadowing  and  Day   in  a  life  method  offer  most  potential  for  the  travel  company,  when  they  want  to  design  new   travel  services  or  improve  existing  service.    Most  importantly,  they  don’t  require  a  heavy   up-­‐front  investment.     These  methods  can  be  used,  when  there  is  no  common  language  with  the  customer  and   they  don’t  require  deep  specialist  skills  in  order  to  use  them.    Some  training  will  be   required.    In  addition,  these  methods  produce  results  in  an  easily  ‘digestible’  and   reportable  format.    Their  shortcoming  is  limited  geographical  scope  and  dependency  on   understanding  the  customer’s  language;  however,  as  most  communication  is  anyhow  non-­‐ verbal,  observational  methods  can  still  be  used.             18  
  19. 19.       APPENDIX  1:    SERVICE  DESIGN  METHODS  ANALYSIS  TABLE               HOW  TO  READ  THE  TABLE:     Method  =  name  of  the  service  design  method     Variables  on  top  row    (low  cost,  specialist  skills  needed…)  =  analysis  dimensions  based  on   the  travel  company  requirements     Score  =  number  of  green  symbols  out  of  total  11  dimensions  analyzed       Green  symbol  means  that  this  method  meets  the  requirement  well       I Yellow  symbol  means  that  this  method  somewhat  meets  the  requirement,  but  there   are  some  reservations  about  using  it       ✗       Red  symbol  means  that  this  method  does  not  meet  the  requirements  as  specified  in   this  context    (travel  industry  and  company  specific  requirements)   19  
  20. 20.   APPENDIX  2:    STEFAN  MORITZ  LIST  OF  TOOLS  AND  METHODS  DURING   SERVICE  DESIGN  UNDERSTANDING  PHASE     Benchmarking   Client  segmentation   Context  analysis   Contextual  interviews   Contextual  enquiry   Critical  incident  technique   Ecology  map   Ethnography   Experience  test   Expert  interviews   Focus  groups   Gap  analysis   Historical  analysis   Inconvenience  analysis   Interviews   Market  segmentation   Mystery  shoppers   Net  scouting   Observation   Probes   Reading   Service  status   Shadowing   Thinking  aloud   Trend  scouting   User  surveys   Five  Times  Why   Insight  matrix   Tested  and  tried  components   Inspirational  specialists       SOURCE:    Moritz,  Stefan,  Service  Design  –  Practical  Access  to  an  Evolving  Field,  London   2005,  p  126           20  
  21. 21.   BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                                                       1  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  p  29   2  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  18   3  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  32   4  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  32   5  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  p  29   6  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  37   7  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  61   8  Moritz,  Stefan,  Service  Design  –  Practical  Access  to  an  Evolving  Field,  London  2005,  p  126   9  Hanington,  B  (2003),  Methods  in  the  Making:    A  Perspective  of  the  State  of  Human   Research  in  Design.    Design  Issues.    Volume  19.    Number  4.  Boston,  MA,  Autumn  2003   10  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  61-­‐75   11  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  pages  61-­‐75   12  Kozinets,  Robert  V.,  Netnography,  doing  ethnographic  research  online,  London  2010,   page  67   13  Mattelmäki,  Tuuli,  Design  Probes,  Publication  Series  of  the  University  of  Arts  and  Design   Helsinki  A  69,  Vaajakoski,  2006   14  Six  Sigma  is  a  business  management  strategy,  which  was  originally  developed  by   Motorola  in  1986.    Source:    www.wikipedia.org   15  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  page  77-­‐78   16  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  p  130-­‐131   17  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  132-­‐133   18  Helsinki  Tagged  project:    http://www.helsinkidesignweek.com/other/helsinki-­‐tagged   19  Kelley,  Tom,  The  ten  faces  of  innovation,  Great  Britain  2006,  p  4   20  Miettinen,  Satu  (toim.),  Palvelumuotoilu  –  uusia  menetelmiä  käyttäjätiedon  hankintaan  ja   hyödyntämiseen,  2.painos,  Helsinki  2011,  p  38   21  Moritz,  Stefan,  Service  Design  –  Practical  Access  to  an  Evolving  Field,  London  2005,  p  46   22  Design  Council  (2005),  National  survey  of  firms,  London   23  Kandampully  Jay,  Mok    Connie  &  Sparkes  Beverly,  Service  quality  management  in   hospitality,  tourism  and  leisure,  New  York,  2001,  p  8-­‐9   24  Kandampully  Jay,  Mok    Connie  &  Sparkes  Beverly,  Service  quality  management  in   hospitality,  tourism  and  leisure,  New  York,  2001,  p  10   25  Travel  Marketers  Aren’t  Prepared  for  Flood  of  Affluent  Chinese  Tourists,   www.adventuretravelnews.com,    Sept  30,  2012   26  Rajahaastattelututkimus,  osa  24,  Matkailunedistämiskeskuksen  julkaisuja,  MEKA:171   2011     21  
  22. 22.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     27  Travel  Marketers  Aren’t  Prepared  for  Flood  of  Affluent  Chinese  Tourists,   www.adventuretravelnews.com,  Sept  30,  2012   28  Refers  to  Finnish  people  in  this  context,  source:    Route  88  Oy  customer  data   29  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  128-­‐129   30  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  128-­‐129   31  Stickdorn  Mark  and  Schneider  Jakob,  This  is  service  design  thinking,  First  printing,   Amsterdam  2011,  129       22  

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