Chilli is one of the most important commercial crops of India. It is grown almost throughout the country.
There are more than 400 different varieties of chillie’s found all over the world. It is also called as hot
pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper, etc.
Both chilli and capsicum belong to same family as well as same genus that is Capsicum.
C. frutescens are used for their small and very pungent fruits in hot sauces and as a spices.
The species C. pubescens and C. baccatum are grown on a very small scale.
India is a major producer, consumer and exporter of chilli in the world.
China is a major capsicum producing country.
The major chilli growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu,
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
These states account for nearly 80% area under chillies cultivation in India.
Capsicum or Shimla mirch or bell pepper is one of the important vegetable grown in India which is less
Mid hills of Himachal Pradesh are leading suppliers of capsicum during off-season.
Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin, which has good export potentiality.
The red color of chillies is due to the presence pigment capsanthin.
Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : magnoliopsida
Order : Solanales
Family : Solanaceae
Species :annum; frutescence; baccatum; pubescence; chinense etc.
Nutritional aspect(Value per 100gm.)
246.000 K cal
29.000 K cal
Chillies can be grown from equator to 45 in both hemispheres i.e. tropical and sub tropical regions in
areas with over 40 C temperature.
It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter above sea level.
Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24 C.
Night temperature below 10 C fruit set restricted.
Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp thickness were high at 25 C day and 18 C night temperature.
Soil and field preparation
Chilli can be grown all types of soils from light
sandy to heavy clay.
Optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5.
Very sensitive to water logging.
Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed
by planking to level the field.
Manure and fertilizers
Apply 100q FYM or compost for one acre before
60kg N, 30kg P2O5 and 30kg K2O per acre recommended.
Full dose of P2O5 and K2Oand 1/3 dose of N should be
applied at the time of transplanting.
The remaining 2/3 N is applied in two equal splits i.e. 5-6
weeks after transplanting at the time of earthing up and 8-10
weeks after transplanting.
Apply 8-10kg of well rotten FYM and 500g of 15:15:15 NPK fertilizer during preparation of nursery bed.
About 6-8 beds of 6 1.2 0.15m size are sufficient to raise seedling for one acre.
Nursery soil should be drenched with Formalin solution or with Captan 0.3% @ 5 lit. sol/m2 for damping
off control of seedling.
After drenching, the bed should be covered with alkathene sheet for 48 hours then open for 48-72 hrs before
80-100 gm seed is sufficient for one acre.
2.5mm deep in rows 5-7cm apart is better sowing.
Optimum time for seed sowing in northern plains is October-November while February-April for hills.
Transplanting is done in the evening.
The optimum spacing is 60 45cm for open field conditions.
Immediate irrigation after transplanting facilitates better plant
Thereafter light and frequent irrigation should be given upto the
establishment of plant.
Depends on soil type and season.
Chilli plant cannot withstand water stagnation and excess moisture, hence light irrigation proper
drainage is recommended.
Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of 5-6 days in summers and 9-10 days in winters.
Sandy soils requires frequent irrigation than clay soils.
Inter-culture and Weed control
Gap filling is essential.
It should be done in the evening hours followed by
Two to three hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after
transplanting are essential.
Fluchlorin @0.5-1.0kg/ha pre plant incorporation before 10
days or Alachlor @2.5kg/ha pre transplant surface
application give good control of weeds in chilli crop.
Green chillies are harvested after 60 days of transplanting and dry chillies are
harvested after 90 days of transplanting.
5-6 picking is done for green chillies.
2-3 picking for red ripe fruits.
Normally 15-20 ton of green chilli are obtained from
About 25-40% dry chilli recovery is obtained
depending upon cultivars and thickness of the inner
Blossom end rot(BER):- appearance of water soaked spots
on blossom end of the fruit.
Supply light irrigation regularly. ). Avoid heavy application of N
Adding lime to the soil or spray anhydrous calcium chloride.
Sun scald :soft, light colored and slightly wrinkled areas
appear on the fruit surface
Flower and fruit drop:- due to high temperature and low
humidity, low light intensity, short day and high
Transplant seedling at closer spacing.
Grow abundant foliage varieties and control defoliating insects.
Give light and frequent irrigation at flowering and fruit set
b). Spray the crop either NAA 50 ppm or Tricontanol 2 ppm at
full bloom stage.
Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis):- The larvae and adult suck
the sap of leaves, buds, flowers and cause curling of
Aphid (Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae):- suck cell sap
Dimethoate 0.03% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 15 days interval.
Methyl Demeton 0.025% or Dimethoate 0.03% .
White fly (Bemisia tabaci):suck cell sap and spread leaf
Fruit borer (Spodoptera litura):-caterpillars feed
gregariously on leaves and scrap them
Cypermethrin 0.05% or Carbar.02% at 15 days interval.
Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia
solani, Fusarium spp., and Phytophthora spp.):-
Ripe fruit rot, Dieback and Anthracnose
Seed treatment with Captan or Thiram @ 2g/kg seed.
Nursery bed treatment with Formalin.
Drenching nursery bed with mixture of Dithane M-45 0.25% and Bavistin
Seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed.
Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%.
Fruit rot (Phytophthora capsici):-
seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed.
Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%.
Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica):-
Spray Karathane 0.2% at 15 days interval.
Leaf spot (Cercospora capsici)
Seed treatment with Thiram @ 2g/kg seed.
Spray Bordeaux mixture 1% or Bavistin 0.1% at 15 days interval.
Blight (Alternaria solani):- dark and leathery spots
appear on the leaves and defoliation occur
Spray Dithane M-45 (0.2%) and repeat after 10 days interval.
Bacterial & Viral Diseases
Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria):development of small dark and greasy spots on the
leaves, petioles and stems and water soaked spots on
the green fruits.
Seed treatment with hot water at 50 C for 25 minutes.
Remove affected plant.
Destroy weed hosts.
Spray Streptomycin 200 ppm + Copper Oxychloride (0.03%) thrice during
October – November at 15 days interval.
Mosaic(caused by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).
Chlorosis, mottling, thickening of leaf veins,
clustering of infected leaves and stunting of plants are
observed. Virus is transmitted by aphids.)
Grow tolerant varieties like Punjab Lal, Perennial etc.
Grow barrier crops like maize or amaranthus.
Spray Malathion 0.1% or Methyl Demeton 0.2% at 10 days interval.
Leaf curl:- characterized by curling, twisting,
crumpling and smalling of leaves. White fly is
responsible for transmission of disease.
Rogue out infected plants and weeds.
Apply Phorate @ 1.25kg a.i./ha followed by Carbofuran @ 1.25kg a.i./ha
Spray Dimethoate 0.05% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 10 days interval.