The per capita GDP is higher than Hong Kong and Macao.
Visited may be an understatement. He was given refuge and in return return killed the host king. He was forced to leave by forces from Palembang who pursued him.
The Dutch did contest the British treaty with the Sultan of Jehore as they had an earlier treaty with the Sultan of Jehore granting them the Riau Islands. The problem was that there were two effective sultans; one who was under the control of Bugis and another who had returned to the mainland of Malaya. This was the product of the previous sultan dieing without a recognized heir. The two persons who functioned as sultans were the sons of commoner wife. The Bugis had chosen to back the younger. The Riau Islands produced pepper and gambier (a tanning agent).
The Michael Faye incident of 1994 brought issues of legal system to world attention.
Group Representation Constituency involve no more than three members. Members run as teams. The team that achieves the highest total vote wins. No more than half the total number of constituencies may be group type. There may be no more that
Lee Hsien Loong’s degree from Cambridge is in mathematics and computer science. His degree from Harvard is in Public Administration. Obviously, there have been charges of nepotism.
The Michael Fay incident and libel suits in 1995 against the International Harold Tribune tarnishing Singapore's image with articles about nepotism involving Lee Hsien Long and attempts to bankrupt the opposition through legal suits against opposition candidates and parties.
• Seceded from Malaysia in
• Entire country is 270 sq.
• Population is 4.5 million;
77% Chinese, 14% Malay
& 8% Indian.
• 42% Buddhist.
• Highest standard of living
in Asia with a per capita
GDP of $28,100, 11th
highest in world.
• Visited by Chinese
traveler in 1349. Called it
Tan-ma-hsi, a haven for
• As part of Srivijaya &
later Majaphit was called
• The Malays called it
Singapura, meaning “Lion
City” in Sanskrit.
• Was visited by
Parameshwara on the way
to establishing Malacca.
Singapore Becomes British
• The modern state of
Singapore was founded by
Thomas Stanford Raffles
in 1819 through a treaty
with the Sultan of Jehore.
• In the Treaty of London
(1824), the Dutch ceded
Malacca to the British and
recognized the British
claim to Singapore.
Early Colonial Period
• Singapore was
administered directly from
London as part of the
• Became self-governing in
1959 with Lee Kuan Yew
• In 1963, it became part of
Malaysia only to secede in
1965. The issue was the
• Political separation from Malaysia doesn’t make
Singapore self-sufficient. Economic ties remain.
– Utilities: Drinking Water, Natural Gas, Electricity.
– Other Necessities: Food, Raw Materials, Labor.
• Size and population density dictate certain
– Public housing, Public health, Highly competitive
educational system and employment, Demands for
social conformity, Ubiquitous & strict legal structure.
• Location and Free-port status dictate an export
• The establishment of Nanyang University in 1955
symbolized the divergent views of the future of
Singapore: western oriented in language and
culture vs. the Chinese orientation of Nanyang.
• The Peoples Action Party (PAP) split along
similar lines in 1961. PAP remained English
educated and anti-Communist. Barisian Socialis
(the Socialist Front) emerged as a new party.
• Lee Kuan Yew sought to create a multi-ethnic
society to avoid the image of a Chinese state.
Peoples Action Party
• Singapore has functioned as single party state.
PAP held all seats in the legislature until 1981,
when J. B. Jeyaretnam of the Workers party won a
seat. In 1984 & 1997 two other seats were won by
non-PAP parties (The Workers” Party and the
Singapore People’s Party).
• To create a legislative balance, up to nine nonconstituency members may be appointed from
opposition parties. These are selected from the
opposition members who came closest to wining a
• Singapore is a city-state,
governed by a unicameral
legislature of 84 seats plus 9
Members are elected for 5 years
by plurality for group
• It is headed by a president who
is elected by popular vote and a
prime minister. The cabinet
includes a Senior Minister (Goh
Chok Tong) and a Minister
President Sellapan Ramanathan
Mentor (Lee Kuan Yew).
• P. M. Lee Kuan Yew has
been the dominate figure
in Singapore politics since
1957. He retired to
become senior minister in
• Goh Chok Tong served as
P.M. from 1990 to 2004.
• Lee Kuan Yew’s son, Lee
Hsien Loong, became
P.M. in 2004. He’s an
honor graduate of
Cambridge and Harvard.
Lee Hsien Loong
• To avert the deleterious impact of Western values,
introduced Confucian “immune systems”:
– Starting in 1982, religion courses have been introduced
into the schools.
– Promoted family values by making adult offspring
responsible for the maintenance of their parents, denied
medical benefits to families of female civil servants and
disallowed subsidized housing for unmarried women.
– Encouraged the use of Mandarin Chinese.
– Incentive for well educated mothers to have more
children (improve the gene pool).
• Singapore has enjoyed growth rates as high as 11-13%
with unemployment as low as 3%. Its an export economy
heavily involved in electronics. The U.S. is Singapore’s
top trading partner (1/3 of sales).
• In 1979, launched its “Second Industrial Revolution” with
goal of restructuring and diversifying the economy.
• In 1992, initiated a “go regional” program of investments.
– Singapore is China’s fourth largest investor. Lauched the Suzhou
Industrial Township Project in China.
– Started industrial parks and resorts on Bantam Island, Indonesia.
– Launched collaborative projects in Bangalore, India.
– Provided expertise to Vietnam (infrastructure); Cambodia for a
seaport/airport; China in telecommunications and tourism.
• Relations between Singapore and the U.S. are friendly.
Singapore views the U.S. as not only a major trading
partner but a counterbalance to China, as well.
• In 1990, an agreement was signed for the U.S. Navy to use
Sembawang dockyard for repairs and the U.S. Air Force to
use Paya Lebar airport for training. In 1998, Singapore’s
new Changi naval facility was added to the agreement.
• The U.S. is the main supplier of defense equipment
including F-16s. Training for about 100 Singapore Air
Force personnel is regularly conducted at Luke AFB.
Q1. When and why did Singapore secede from Malaysia?
A1. 1965 due to dissatisfaction with the bargain.
Q2. Who founded the modern state of Singapore in 1819?
A2. Thomas Stanford Raffles.
Q3. Who was the first P.M. of Singapore?
A3. Lee Kuan Yew
Q4. What proportion of the population in Singapore lives
in public housing?
• A4. 80 to 90 %
• Q5.What is group constituency representation (GCR)?
• A5. Elections in which teams of 2 or 3 representatives run
from a combined electoral district.
• Q6. What is non-constituency representation?
• A6. Appointing candidates who are the closest runner ups
in an election to seats in the legislature.
• Q7. What is the Confucian “immune system?”
• A7. Through education and legislation combating the
deleterious effects of Westernization.