The masterplan for it in educationDocument Transcript
The Masterplan for IT in Education (MPITE) was launched in 1997 with the aim of integratinginformation technology (IT) into the Singapore education system.Phase 1 of the Masterplan consist of selected schools which will integrated IT into their curriculum.Phase 2 (MP2) will cover a total of 90 schools by 1998.Phase 3 (MP3) will extend the coverage to a total of 250 schools by 1999.By 2002, it is expected that the pupil-computer ratio in schools will be 2:1 and the curriculumtime will be 30% IT-based.In the Global Competitiveness Report 2001-2002, Singapore was ranked 2nd in the world, afterFinland for the availability of Internet access in schools.MOE Launches Third Masterplan for ICT in Education1The Ministry of Education has developed the third Masterplan for ICT in Education(2009-2014). The third masterplan represents a continuum of the vision of the first andsecond Masterplans i.e. to enrich and transform the learning environments of our studentsand equip them with the critical competencies and dispositions to succeed in a knowledgeeconomy.2The broad strategies of the third Masterplan for ICT in Education are: • To strengthen integration of ICT into curriculum, pedagogy and assessment to enhance learning and develop competencies for the 21st century; • To provide differentiated professional development that is more practice-based and models how ICT can be effectively used to help students learn better; • To improve the sharing of best practices and successful innovations; and • To enhance ICT provisions in schools to support the implementation of mp3.Strengthening Integration of ICT into Curriculum, Assessment & Pedagogy3ICT will be more extensively integrated into the planning, design and implementationstages of the curriculum, assessment and pedagogy. There will be greater alignment ofstudents’ learning outcomes in the syllabi, national examinations, and classroomexperience to 21st century skills such as IT skills, and the ability to communicatepersuasively and collaborate effectively. Students will be required to use ICT to look forinformation, synthesise reports, give feedback on each others’ work and collaborate withpeers within and outside school.Differentiated Professional Development4School leaders can create the environment for teachers to reflect and learn from eachother about effective teaching practices that incorporate ICT use in the classrooms toachieve desired learning outcomes for their students.
5In addition, MOE will train a pool of “ICT specialist teachers” with strong pedagogicalgroundings to model and lead professional development efforts within and acrossschools. A learning roadmap will also be developed to help pace teachers in learning howto effectively use ICT in their classes.Improve the sharing of best practices and successful innovations6To improve the sharing of best practices, MOE will support the establishment of anetwork of educational labs where innovations can be prototyped and tested. These labswill provide the latest technologies to promote exploration of learning possibilities. Theycan also serve as training ground for pre- and in-service teachers.7MOE will continue to support schools to innovate in the use of ICT and to facilitatesharing of good practices among schools through programmes like theFutureSchools@Singapore and LEAD ICT@Schools.Enhanced ICT Provisions8Accessibility of ICT to students will be increased through more flexible and mobileinfrastructure provisions such as wireless internet access, piloting 1-notebook-to-1-pupilratio in more schools, and higher data bandwidth to the Internet.Background9The Masterplans for ICT in Education drive the use of ICT in education. The underlyingphilosophy of the Masterplans is that education should continually anticipate the needs ofthe future and prepare pupils to meet those needs.10The first Masterplan for ICT in Education (1997 — 2002) laid a strong foundation forschools to harness ICT, particularly in the provision of basic ICT infrastructure and inequipping teachers with a basic level of ICT integration competency, which achieved awidespread acceptance for its use in education.11The second Masterplan for ICT in Education (2003 — 2008) built on this foundation tostrive for an effective and pervasive use of ICT in education by, for example,strengthening the integration of ICT into the curriculum, establishing baseline ICTstandards for students, and seeding innovative use of ICT among schools.IS MULTIMEDIA EDUCATION EFFECTIVE?In this section we would closely examine if there is any empirical evidence to support the assertion thatmultimedia improves effectiveness. We aim to derive scientific conclusions based on the various studiesdone by educationists. At present the most commonly used education method is Classroom lecture. Thus toascertain the effectiveness of Multimedia it would be reasonable to compare it with classroom lectures.A number of studies (cited in Najjar, 1996) have been conducted in the area to ascertain the effectiveness ofmultimedia instruction. Analysis has been done by Bosco, 1986; Fletcher, 1989, 1990; Khalili & Shashaani,1994; Kulik, Bangert, & Williams, 1983; Kulik, Kulik, & Bangert-Drowns, 1985; Kulik, Kulik, & Cohen, 1980;
Kulik, Kulik, & Schwalb, 1986; Schmidt, Weinstein and Niemic, & Walberg, 1985 by examining 200 overstudies. The information included sciences, foreign languages and electronics. The control group normallylearnt the information via classroom or lecture combined with hands-on experiments. The comparison grouplearnt information via interactive videodiscs or computer based instruction. The achievement of learning wasmeasured via tests taken at the end of the lessons. Over this wide range of students, meta-analysis foundthat learning was higher when computer-based education was used.Learning also appeared to take less time when multimedia instruction was used. Kulik, Bangert, andWilliams (1983) found one study that recorded an 88% savings in learning time with computerizedinstruction (90 minutes) versus classroom instruction (745 minutes) and another study that recorded a 39%savings in learning time (135 minutes for computerized instruction versus 220 minutes for classroominstruction). Kulik, Kulik, and Schwalb (1986) identified 13 studies in which students using computers mostlyfor tutoring learned in 71% less time than students in traditional classroom instruction. In a comparisoninvolving eight studies, Kulik, Kulik, and Cohen (1980) found that computer-based instruction took about2.25 hours per week while traditional classroom instruction took about 3.5 hours, a 36% savings in learningtime.The usage of multimedia has not always given good results. For example, in the Severin (1967) study,animal name recognition accuracy was highest when children were presented the names via simultaneousaudio and pictures (verbal and nonverbal channels). However, children who received the same informationvia audio and print (two verbal channels) did not outperform students who received the information via printalone (verbal channel).In a classroom test, Samuels (1967) found that a related picture accompanying a simple short storyinterfered with the ability of poor first grade readers to learn to read the 50 words in the short story. In alaboratory study, Samuels (1967 international study involving 26 other participating countries and economies,including Japan and Hong Kong, Singapore was ranked top in having a clearlyarticulated policy on the use of information technology (IT), the provision ofsome of the worlds best computers and peripherals to schools, and IT trainingfor its teachers. In short, foreign education planners and practitioners holdSingapore up as a model to emulate.
presented words alone or words with identifying pictures to kindergarten children who were learning to readfour words. After the children saw each word or word and picture, the experimenter read the word to thechildren. When the experimenter tested learning using only words, the children who saw only wordsperformed better than the children who saw words with pictures. For this latter test, it appears that thepictures distracted the children. A review of related literature (Samuels, 1970) also concluded that picturesinterfered with learning to read.Thus there is empirical evidence to suggest both the positive and negative effects of multimedia. The key isto analyze these findings and find out the precise reasons and the situations in which multimedia is usefuland in which it is not. While Multimedia seems to be improving the learning rate, it is not a universal fact. Inthe next section we would discuss the main conditions in which multimedia would be useful.WHEN IS MULTIMEDIA-BASED EDUCATION USEFUL?Multimedia-based education when used only in certain situations would maximize the returns. Using it inevery circumstance would not give the desired results and also require huge amounts in infrastructure costs.Here we will be discussing three main scenarios when using Multimedia instruction would be appropriate. 1. When the students have low prior domain knowledge or spatial learning aptitude. When multimedia is used with students who have low prior domain knowledge or spatial aptitude, the multimedia helps the students in developing mental models and connect to the new knowledge domain. They are better able to visualize the activities in the knowledge domain and learn from them. On the other hand a student with high prior domain knowledge or high spatial aptitude would be able to create mental models of the knowledge domain without any external help and not gain anything from the use of Multimedia. Thus the cost and the effort in multimedia instruction would go waste. 2. When students have low motivation When dealing with students with low learning motivation, it is very important to keep them interested in learning. Interesting lessons would keep the students interested and enable them to do their own self- directed learning and research (Tan and Leong, 2003). Use of pictures, animations and sounds can help in keeping the students interested in learning about a new domain. The interactivity generated by the use of multimedia instruction would also help in motivating the students towards learning. On the other hand highly motivated students might not need these audio-visual aids and be able to understand the instructions given in text format itself.
3. When effectively designed multimedia content is available.This is indeed the most difficult aspect to deal with in the use of multimedia-based instruction. Unlesswe have properly designed multimedia content, there is no point in using it. Mayer and Mareno suggestfew key design principles in the creation multimedia instruction.1. Multimedia Representation Principle- It is better to present an explanation in words and text rather than text alone.2. Contiguity Principle-Present the words and text contiguously rather than separately.3. Split Attention Principle-When giving explanation, present words as auditory narration rather than as visual on screen text.4. Coherence Principle-Wherever possible, it is better to use fewer words and pictures than using too many of them.