Writing Critically

zondag 8 december 2013
Writing Critically
!

Writing critically means:

•

Analyzing your own work and othersʼ
– Examining and breaking informati...
Writing Critically
•

Presenting your point of view
– Giving your opinion

•

Supporting your point of view
– Supplying ar...
Writing Critically
!

In other words, you need to:

•

Consider different points of view and
discuss their positive and ne...
Support
•
•
•

Your opinions need to be supported
You need to provide evidence
You need to explain why the evidence
suppor...
Your point of view
•

Make sure you clearly distinguish between:
•
•
•

Your point of view
Your evidence
Your reasons for ...
Your point of view
Be sure that the evidence that you are
providing leads to the claim you are making

Claim
(thesis)

zon...
Presenting your argument
•

You can present your argument in two
ways:
•
•

The inductive or balanced approach
The deducti...
Presenting your argument
•

The inductive or balanced approach

!

You present both sides of the argument
without giving y...
Presenting your argument
When using the inductive/balanced approach,
your plan could look as follows:
1.! Introduction of ...
Presenting your argument
•

The deductive or persuasive approach

!

In this type of approach you state your point
of view...
Presenting your argument
When using the deductive/persuasive your
plan could look as follows:
Introduction of the topic in...
Presenting your argument
4.! Disposing of the above-mentioned reasons
(Provide evidence and your reasons)
5.! Reasons for ...
Giving reasons and explanations
!
!

Writing critically means that you have to
make connections between the ideas that
you...
Giving reasons and explanations
!
!

The situation: Pollution is increasing

!

One reason for this might be the fact that...
Arguing a point of view
!
!

Arguing means stating your claim (your
point of view). You need to support this by
giving evi...
Arguing a point of view
!

Generalizations

!

The claim that you make will be quite
general and it is likely that it will...
Arguing a point of view
!
!
!

Cautious language
It is important that you are careful about the
strength of your claims.

...
Evaluating a point of view
!

Besides stating your own point of view, you
need to comment and evaluate other
peopleʼs idea...
Evaluating a point of view
!

When evaluating a point of view or a
conclusion, you need to:

•
•

Present the point of vie...
Advantages and disadvantages
!

One important way to evaluate a proposal
or an idea is to look at its advantages and
disad...
Comparing and contrasting
!

When you are writing you do a lot more than
just give information. A common function in
writi...
Providing support
!

The claims that you make in your
discussions need to be quite general. You
need to draw general concl...
Drawing conclusions
!

After presenting your point of view,
evaluating the possible choices (all
supported with evidence),...
Drawing conclusions
!

A concluding section should:

•
•

Repeat the issues raised in the introduction
Summarize the point...
Drawing conclusions
!

Many conclusions, especially in reports,
finish with recommendations or
suggestions. For example:

!...
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Writing critically

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Writing critically

  1. 1. Writing Critically zondag 8 december 2013
  2. 2. Writing Critically ! Writing critically means: • Analyzing your own work and othersʼ – Examining and breaking information into parts • Evaluating – Making judgements about the value of information, ideas or materials for a given purpose in a given context zondag 8 december 2013
  3. 3. Writing Critically • Presenting your point of view – Giving your opinion • Supporting your point of view – Supplying arguments and reasons for your opinion zondag 8 december 2013
  4. 4. Writing Critically ! In other words, you need to: • Consider different points of view and discuss their positive and negative aspects On the basis of this discussion you choose a point of view and persuade the reader that your point of view is the correct one. • zondag 8 december 2013
  5. 5. Support • • • Your opinions need to be supported You need to provide evidence You need to explain why the evidence supports your point of view zondag 8 december 2013
  6. 6. Your point of view • Make sure you clearly distinguish between: • • • Your point of view Your evidence Your reasons for believing what you do. zondag 8 december 2013
  7. 7. Your point of view Be sure that the evidence that you are providing leads to the claim you are making Claim (thesis) zondag 8 december 2013 Evidence (support or grounds) Reasons (warrant or argument)
  8. 8. Presenting your argument • You can present your argument in two ways: • • The inductive or balanced approach The deductive or persuasive approach zondag 8 december 2013
  9. 9. Presenting your argument • The inductive or balanced approach ! You present both sides of the argument without giving your opinion until the last few sentences. You do need to provide evidence for your opinion. zondag 8 december 2013
  10. 10. Presenting your argument When using the inductive/balanced approach, your plan could look as follows: 1.! Introduction of the argument (Why it is relevant) 2.! Reasons against the argument. (Mention the position, the evidence and the reasons) 3.! Reasons in favor of your argument. (Mention the position, the evidence and the reasons) 4.! Summarize the two sides, state your own point of view and explain it. zondag 8 december 2013
  11. 11. Presenting your argument • The deductive or persuasive approach ! In this type of approach you state your point of view immediately and you try to convince your reader that your are right by presenting reasoned arguments. zondag 8 december 2013
  12. 12. Presenting your argument When using the deductive/persuasive your plan could look as follows: Introduction of the topic in general terms and your own point of view. 1. Explanation of what your are trying to prove. 2. Reasons against the argument zondag 8 december 2013
  13. 13. Presenting your argument 4.! Disposing of the above-mentioned reasons (Provide evidence and your reasons) 5.! Reasons for your argument (Provide evidence and your reasons and examples) 6.! Conclusion (Restate your claim and explain its importance) zondag 8 december 2013
  14. 14. Giving reasons and explanations ! ! Writing critically means that you have to make connections between the ideas that you are presenting. You need to explain why things happen the way they do, giving reasons and examples. zondag 8 december 2013
  15. 15. Giving reasons and explanations ! ! The situation: Pollution is increasing ! One reason for this might be the fact that people burn more fossil fuels ! ! ! So: Pollution is increasing (situation) People are burning more fossil fuels (reason or explanation) zondag 8 december 2013
  16. 16. Arguing a point of view ! ! Arguing means stating your claim (your point of view). You need to support this by giving evidence and reasons why you think your evidence supports your claim. It is likely that your claim is debatable. You may believe in it, but other people may disagree with you. The objective of your argument is to prove to your reader that you are correct. zondag 8 december 2013
  17. 17. Arguing a point of view ! Generalizations ! The claim that you make will be quite general and it is likely that it will apply to other contexts and situations as well, not just your own. Usually these generalizations are written in the present tense. ! The seems to be a important link between nutrition and heart disease. zondag 8 december 2013
  18. 18. Arguing a point of view ! ! ! Cautious language It is important that you are careful about the strength of your claims. ! Obesity during childhood may lead to an increase chance of becoming obese in later life. ! Most traffic accidents occur because of fatigue or excessive alcohol consumption. zondag 8 december 2013
  19. 19. Evaluating a point of view ! Besides stating your own point of view, you need to comment and evaluate other peopleʼs ideas as well. For example, you may want to use a point of view you have read about in a scientific journal. It is important that you explain why this point of view supports, or doesnʼt support your own. zondag 8 december 2013
  20. 20. Evaluating a point of view ! When evaluating a point of view or a conclusion, you need to: • • Present the point of view Comment on it positively or negatively. zondag 8 december 2013
  21. 21. Advantages and disadvantages ! One important way to evaluate a proposal or an idea is to look at its advantages and disadvantages. zondag 8 december 2013
  22. 22. Comparing and contrasting ! When you are writing you do a lot more than just give information. A common function in writing is comparing and contrasting, or writing about similarities and differences. It is important that before you start writing you decide which features, items, or ideas you are going to compare and organize them accordingly. zondag 8 december 2013
  23. 23. Providing support ! The claims that you make in your discussions need to be quite general. You need to draw general conclusions that will be valuable in solving problems in the future. Again, these generalizations need to be supported by examples, details, and evidence. zondag 8 december 2013
  24. 24. Drawing conclusions ! After presenting your point of view, evaluating the possible choices (all supported with evidence), you need to come to a conclusion. The main function of the conclusion is to show that the main purpose of the text has been achieved. zondag 8 december 2013
  25. 25. Drawing conclusions ! A concluding section should: • • Repeat the issues raised in the introduction Summarize the points made in the main body of your text Come to a clear conclusion • zondag 8 december 2013
  26. 26. Drawing conclusions ! Many conclusions, especially in reports, finish with recommendations or suggestions. For example: ! Further research is needed to determine whether …. zondag 8 december 2013

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