FragmentsFragments are incomplete sentencesor parts of sentences. Remember that acomplete sentence must contain at leastone main/independent clause, whichmeans it must contain a subject and a verb,so that it can stand by itself.
Examples of FragmentsBecause some students work part-timewhile taking a full load of classes.This is a dependent clause and it doesn’texpress a complete thought.
Examples of FragmentsAdd an independent clause: Because somestudents work part-time while taking a fullload of courses, they have very little freetime.Delete the subordinator (because): SomeStudents work part-time while taking a fullload of classes.
Examples of FragmentsFor example, the increase in the cost ofrenting an appartment.Solution: add a verb:For example, the increase in the cost ofrenting an appartment is one reason forpeople being homeless.
Run-on Sentences & Comma SplicesIn a run-on sentence two or moreindependent clauses are connected withoutpunctuation:My family went to Australia then theyemigrated to Canada.
Run-on Sentences & Comma SplicesA comma splice occurs when twoindependent clauses are incorrectly joinedby a comma without a linker:My family went to Australia, then theyemigrated to Canada.
Run-on Sentences & Comma Splices: SolutionsAdd a full-stop:My family went to Australia. Then theyemigrated to Canada.Add a semi-colon:My family went to Australia; then theyemigrated to Canada.
Run-on Sentences & Comma Splices: SolutionsAdd a coordinator:My family went to Australia, and then theyemigrated to Canada.Add a subordinator:After my family went to Australia, theyemigrated to Canada.
Choppy SentencesChoppy sentences are too short. Shortsentences can be effective, for instancewhen you want to make an impact;however, overuse of short sentences isconsidered poor style in academic writing.Choppy sentences are easy to correct;just combine two or three to make onecompound or complex sentence.
Choppy Sentences: SolutionsIf the sentences express equal ideas,use a coordinator to combine them.Choppy: Dams produce hydraulicpower. They have existed for a longtime. Windmills are relatively new.
Choppy Sentences: SolutionsCorrect: Dams have produced hydraulicpower for a long time, but windmills arerelatively new.
Choppy Sentences: SolutionsIf one sentence expresses a less importantidea than the other(s), use a subordinator tocombine them:Choppy: Solar energy is a promising newsource of energy. Solar energy is energyfrom the sun.
Choppy Sentences: SolutionsCorrect: Solar energy, which is energy fromthe sun, is a promising new source.
Stringy SentencesThese are sentences with too manyclauses, usually connected with and, but,so, or because:Many students attend classes all morning,and then they work all afternoon, and theyalso have to study at night, so they areusually exhausted by the weekend.
Stringy Sentences - SolutionsTo correct a stringy sentence, divide it and/orrecombine the clauses, using subordinatorswhen appropriate:Many students attend classes all morning andwork all afternoon. Since they also have tostudy at night, they are usually exhausted bythe weekend.
Stringy Sentences - SolutionsOr:Because many students attend classes allmorning, work all afternoon, and study atnight, they are usually exhausted by theweekend.