Punctuation

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Punctuation

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Punctuation

  1. 1. Contents Why Punctuate Full Stop (a.k.a. Period) Question Mark Exclamation Mark Capital Letters Comma Semi-Colon Colon Apostrophe Dash Hyphen Quotation Mark
  2. 2. Why Punctuate? To be understood
  3. 3. Read the following passage, without punctuation. i would like to apply for a job with your company for two years i have been employed as a sales clerk for the jones store i sold nothing that i did not take pride in i am sure it will be the same if I work for you
  4. 4. Now, look at how much easier it is to read with punctuation: I would like to apply for a job with your company. For two years I have been employed as a sales clerk for the Jones store. I sold nothing that I did not take pride in. I am sure it will be the same if I work for you.
  5. 5. Now, look at what happens when we change the position of the punctuation marks. It actually changes the meaning of the passage. I would like to apply for a job with your company for two years. I have been employed. As a sales clerk for the Jones store I sold nothing. That, I did not take pride in. I am sure it will be the same if I work for you.
  6. 6. Full Stop (.) Why do we use a full stop? To end a sentence when it’s a statement Example: The dog sat outside the door. His master had not fed him for a week. To indicate an abbreviation Example: N.S.W, e.g., Prof. Note: There’s a trend to phase out full stops with abbreviations.
  7. 7. Activity Put full stops in the correct places in these groups of sentences. (You'll need to add capitals where there are new sentences.) It had been raining for weeks the river was rising very quickly and the farmers were afraid the dam would burst we decided we would have to leave our farm You should not drive if you have been drinking it has been proven that accidents are more likely when drivers have been drinking
  8. 8. Activity Key It had been raining for weeks. The river was rising very quickly and the farmers were afraid the dam would burst. We decided we would have to leave our farm. You should not drive when you have been drinking. It has been proven that accidents are more likely when people have been drinking.
  9. 9. Question Mark (?) Why do we use a question mark? To end a sentence when it asks a question Examples: Why is it so cold? Where is your warm coat?
  10. 10. Activity Put question marks and full stops in the correct places in these groups of sentences. (There are two sentences in each example) I am going to wash the dishes will you peel the potatoes for me He is going by car are you going by bus How are you I hope you are well
  11. 11. Activity Key I am going to wash the dishes. Will you peel the potatoes for me? He is going by car. Are you going by bus? How are you? I hope you are well.
  12. 12. Exclamation Mark(!) Why do we use an exclamation mark? This mark shows strength of emotion. It is often used in direct speech and informal notes, messages and letters. It is less common in formal writing. Examples: Hi! Sorry I haven't written for so long!!! Great work! Congratulations! "Leave me alone!" she screamed
  13. 13. Activity Put exclamation marks in the correct places in the following sentences. What wonderful news Come here this instant Help
  14. 14. Activity Key What wonderful news! Come here this instant! Help!
  15. 15. Capital Letters Capital letters are used: At the start of a new sentence. Example: The cat sat on the mat. His owner sat nearby. For the letter "i" when you are referring to yourself. Example: He can run faster than I can. For people's names. Examples: Jim Smith, Bill Jones
  16. 16. Capital Letters (2) Capital letters are also used: For titles. Examples: Dr Jones, Mr Brown For book/film/company titles (main words only). Examples: The Catcher in the Rye, The Wizard of Oz, Briggs and Sons In direct speech, for the first spoken word. Example: She said, "My name is Mary."
  17. 17. Capital Letters (3) Capital letters are also used: For acronyms. Examples: TAFE, CIA For titles of days, months. Examples: Monday, July
  18. 18. Activity Put capital letters in the correct places in the following sentences: mr brown needed to see the doctor urgently. mary said, " may i come,too?" i will go to see joe on the first monday in may. she lives in sydney, nsw. karl and i went to the movies on wednesday night. we saw "one flew over the cuckoo's nest", starring jack nicholson.
  19. 19. Key Activity Mr Brown needed to see the doctor urgently Mary said, "May I come, too?” I will go to see Joe on the first Monday in May. She lives in Sydney, NSW. Karl and I went to the movies on Wednesday night. We saw "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" starring Jack Nicholson.
  20. 20. Commas (,) Why do we use a comma? This marks a natural pause during a sentence. It is only a short pause, and should not be confused with the longer full stop pause. Sometimes commas are essential to make the meaning of a sentence clear to the reader. Note: Don't use too many commas, as they can make your writing jerky and disjointed. If in doubt, leave out!
  21. 21. Commas (2) When do we use a commas? In a list. Example: We bought apples, bananas, pears and grapes. (Note: no comma before "and" in a list of single items) To separate adjectives (describing words) unless the words "go together". Examples: She had long, thick, wavy hair. (But: She had very dark brown hair.)
  22. 22. Commas (3) When do we also use a commas? To prevent the reader from connecting words that do not properly belong together. Example: While I cooked the baby played nearby. (While I cooked, the baby played nearby.) To separate an introductory expression of time from the rest of the sentence. Example: Three months later, it was all forgotten.
  23. 23. Commas (4) When do we also use a commas? To separate parts of a long sentence which contains "but" or "and". Example: The manager has given the instruction, and the staff must obey it. To enclose anything which interrupts the flow of the sentence. Example: I hope, of course, that they'll come.
  24. 24. Commas (5) When do we also use a commas? To enclose the name of a person or their position/job, if both are mentioned. Example: The coach, Bob Jones, was given an award. To separate direct speech from the rest of the Sentence. Example: "Go away," she said.
  25. 25. Activity 1 Insert commas where necessary. The house was cold damp small and inconvenient. When he fired the bullet hit the target accurately. Bill said "The train is late.” Andre the world famous clown is a Frenchman. Before we left we checked to make sure we'd turned off the computer.
  26. 26. Activity 1 (2) Insert commas where necessary. I insist on eating Grandfather before we leave the house. Wilma Fred's wife lived near the river. Jim will arrive sometime tonight but I don't know exactly when it will be.
  27. 27. Activity 1 Key The house was cold, damp, small and inconvenient. When he fired, the bullet hit the target accurately. Bill said, "The train is late.” Andre, the world famous clown, is a Frenchman.
  28. 28. Activity 1 Key (2) Before we left, we checked to make sure we'd turned off the computer. I insist on eating, Grandfather, before we leave the house. Wilma, Fred's wife, lived near the river. Jim will arrive sometime tonight, but I don't know exactly when it will be.
  29. 29. Activity 2 Some of the examples below need to be two sentences, instead of one sentence with a comma. Change the commas to full stops where necessary. The rain began to come down heavily, we were soon wet through. We ran down the road, and soon found shelter in a doorway.
  30. 30. Activity 2 (2) We waited for about an hour, but the rain would not stop. At three o'clock my friend drove by, he offered us a lift home. When we arrived home our house was flooded, we stayed with friends for the night.
  31. 31. Activity 2 (1) Key The rain began to come down heavily. We were soon wet through. We ran down the road, and soon found shelter in a doorway. We waited for about an hour, but the rain would not stop. At three o'clock my friend drove by. He offered us a lift home.
  32. 32. Activity 2 (2) Key When we arrived home our house was flooded. We stayed with friends for the night. Note: The examples in yellow each contain two statements with no joining word such as and, so, but or as. Because of this, they need to be made into two sentences.
  33. 33. Colon (:) The colon can be used to: Introduce a list of things example: Yesterday I had an enormous meal: onion soup, a dozen oysters, a pile of potatoes and apple pie and ice cream. Introduce something which is written in quotation marks example: Remember the old proverb: "More haste, less speed."
  34. 34. Colon (:) The colon can also be used to: Make two statements in the same sentence say something of equal value (one may be an explanation of the other). example: Mary is a regular world traveller: every year she visits many countries.
  35. 35. Activity Correctly insert colons into the following sentences. These meals will be dropped from this week's menu hamburgers, soup, tacos and vegetable pies. In his article, Bill Jones feels we should be firmer with our children "Let them know who's boss! Don't be weak!” Jane plays these instruments the trombone, the piano, the clarinet and the guitar.
  36. 36. Activity (2) Jane is a talented musician she has the ability to play any instrument you can name. I always listen to my mum's motto "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” There are various reasons for the types of vegetation in this area the soil type, the climate and the closeness to the ocean.
  37. 37. Activity Key These meals will be dropped from this week's menu: hamburgers, chicken soup, tacos and vegetable pies. In his article, Bill Jones feels we should be firmer with our children: "Let them know who's boss! Don't be weak!"
  38. 38. Activity (2) Key Jane plays these instruments: the trombone, the piano, the clarinet and the guitar. Jane is a talented musician: she has the ability to play any instrument you can name.
  39. 39. Activity (3) Key I always listen to my mum's motto: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” There are various reasons for the types of vegetation in this area: the soil type, the climate and the closeness to the ocean.
  40. 40. Semi-Colon (;) Why do we use a semi-colon? A semi-colon can be used instead of a full stop when the two parts of the sentence are too closely related in meaning to be put into separate sentences. Examples: We did not go into the theatre before our friends arrived; instead, we waited outside. I don't know who my grandfather was; I am more concerned to find out who his grandson will be.
  41. 41. Semi-Colon (;) Why do we use a semi-colon? Semi-colons can also be used between items on a list, when the items consist of a number of words, or when the use of commas alone would be confusing. Example: The committee consisted of Carol Jones, the staff representative; Bill Johnson, the boss; Terry Smith, the local doctor; Murray Todd, the fisherman; and Mary Renshaw, the cook.
  42. 42. Activity Put semi-colons in the correct places in the following sentences. He and his dog spent all their time together he had no other friends. She arranged to meet Tom inside the football ground she wanted to avoid paying his entry fee. I left the movie early I was not feeling well. The rain fell all day the carnival had to be called off.
  43. 43. Activity Key He and his dog spent all their time together; he had no other friends. She arranged to meet Tom inside the football ground; she wanted to avoid paying his entry I left the movie early; I was not feeling well. The rain fell all day; the carnival had to be called off.
  44. 44. Apostrophy (‘’) The apostrophy can be used to: Show that letters have been left out. These are called contractions. example: can't for cannot, didn't for did not, it's for it is or it has
  45. 45. Apostrophy (‘) 2 The apostrophe is also used to show possession (or ownership) in the following ways: If the thing/person that owns something is singular, add 's Examples: The girl's books (the books belonging to the girl) If the thing/person that owns something is plural and already ends with an "s", simply add an apostrophe. Examples: The girls' books (thebooks belonging to the girls)
  46. 46. Apostrophy (‘) 3 The apostrophy can also be used: If the thing/person that owns something is plural but does not end in an "s", add 's. Examples: The women's club (the club belonging to the women)
  47. 47. Activity Where does the apostrophe of possession belong in the following sentences? The dogs dinner (the dinner belonging to one dog) The dogs dinner (the dinner belonging to more than one dog) The cats whiskers (the whiskers belonging to one cat) The cats whiskers (the whiskers belonging to more than one cat)
  48. 48. Activity Key The dog’s dinner The dogs’ dinner The cat’s whiskers The cats’ whiskers
  49. 49. Dash (--) Used to strongly emphasize a point or set off an explanatory comment. Don’t overuse it. To some of you, my proposals may seem radical -- even revolutionary.
  50. 50. Hyphen (-) Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a noun: Example: a one-way street chocolate-covered peanuts Use a hyphen with numbers. Example: forty-six, sixty-three, a fifteen-year-old boy Use a hyphen with certain prefixes. Example: ex husband, self-assured, mid-September, all inclusive.
  51. 51. Quotation mark (‘’) To enclose direct quotations and dialogue. Example: “You must arrive on time,” the professor said. To denote titles and nicknames. Example: Her favourite book is “Brick Lane”. Note:Punctuation goes inside the quotation marks if it is part of the quote. Example: “Give me my dignity!” the prisoner pleaded. But: Have you seen “Pulp Fiction”?

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