Conditionals

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Conditionals

  1. 1. C onditional C lauses
  2. 2. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>Y ou use a conditional clause to talk about a possible situation and its results. </li></ul><ul><li>C onditional clauses often begin with ‘if’. </li></ul><ul><li>T o make a complete sentence, a conditional clause needs a main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>A conditional clause can come before or after a main clause. </li></ul>
  3. 3. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>A conditional clause is used to talk about a situation that might happen and its possible results. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I f’ is used to talk about events that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>happen often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may happen in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>could have happened in the past but didn’t happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will probably not happen </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>E xamples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the light is red, the battery is probably empty. (This happens often.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll phone you if I need you. (This may happen in the future.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I had known, I’d have told you. (This could have happened, but it didn’t) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If she phoned me, I’d come immediately. (This will probably not happen.) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>W hen something is generally true or happens often the present tense or the present perfect tense is used in the main clause and also in the conditional clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you lose weight too quickly, you soon regain it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a driver does not own a license, he is breaking the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we have won the lottery, they tell us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the red light is blinking , the gas tank is probably empty. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>Note : You do not use the present continuous in both clauses. You don’t say ‘If they are losing money, they are getting angry.’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>W hen a conditional clause is used with a present or a present perfect tense , an imperative is used in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call me if you’re worried. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he has finished, ask him to leave quietly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are very early, don’t expect them to be ready. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>W hen talking about something that may happen in the future, a present or a present perfect tense is used in the conditional clause and a simple future in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you marry her, you will need money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are going to America, you will need a Visa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he has washed the windows, he will want his money. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>Note : You do not use ‘will’ in conditional clauses. You do not say ‘If I will see you tomorrow, I will give you the book.’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>W hen talking about something that is unlikely to happen, the past simple or the past continuous is used in the conditional clause an ‘ would ’ in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If I had enough money, I would buy a car. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If he was coming, I would call. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>Note : You do not use ‘would’ in a conditional clause. You do not say ‘If I would do it, I would do it like this.’ </li></ul>
  12. 12. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>‘ W ere ’ is sometimes used instead of ‘ was ’ in the conditional clause, especially after ‘I’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If I were as big as you, I would kill you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I weren’t to busy, I would do it for you. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Y ou often say ‘If I were you’ when you are giving advice to someone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If I were you, I would take the money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I should keep out of her way, if I were you. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>W hen talking about something which could have happened in the past but which did not actually happen, you use the past perfect in the conditional clause. You use ‘ would have ’ and a past participle in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If he had realized that, he would have run away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wouldn’t have been so depressed, if I had known how common this feeling is. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. C onditional C lauses <ul><li>Note : You do not use ‘would have’ in the conditional clause. You do not say ‘If I would have seen him, I would have told him’. </li></ul>
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