Introduction When writing reports or complex emails and memos, it is often necessary to:• refer back to an earlier part of the text• refer forwards to something that is coming later• refer to visuals such as graphs or statistical tables
IntroductionEmployee SkillsIt was stated in paragraph 3.2 above that inour group of companies the majority of ouremployees have a university degree orprofessional qualification. The pie chart belowshows the current mix of employee skills. Itshould be noted that only 20% of our workforce is unskilled.
Referring to Earlier Parts of the Text described explained above, this surveyAs mentioned earlier, is extremely indicated in paragraph 1.0 above important. outlined
Referring to Earlier Parts of the Text The above facts should be above-mentioned considered carefully.
Referring to Earlier Parts of the TextThe facts mentioned above should be considered carefully.
Referring to Earlier Parts of the Text Please see paragraph 1.2 above.
Referring ForwardsWe sometimes wish to indicate that we aregoing to write about something later in theemail or report.
Referring Forwards describedAs explained below, the new product will be mentioned launched in January. indicated
Referring ForwardsThe following procedure should be adhered to very carefully.
Referring Forwards as 1. survey carried outThe procedure is follows: 2. report to the principal officer 3. necessary action taken
Referring to VisualsWe often wish to draw the reader’s attentionto a visual or a statistical table.
Referring to Visuals bar chart above, our share ofAs the table on page 12 indicates the market graph below has increased pie chart substantially.
Referring to Visuals above, showsThe table on page 12 gives the relevant figures. below
Referring to VisualsPlease see the graph on page 10.
Referring to Visuals bar chart our largestAs in the table below, markets are inindicated graph South East pie chart Asia.