Introduction Reference words are used to:• refer back to people, objects and ideas that have been mentioned earlier, or• refer forward to people, objects and ideas that will be mentioned later. These words allow the writer to avoid repeating words, paragraphs, and sometimes whole sentences.
Introduction Reference words include:• it/they/them• this/that• these/those• the former/the latter/respectively• who/which/that• one/ones• such
It/they/them‘It’, ‘they’ and ‘them’ are used to replace subjects or ideas that have been mentioned previously.Relocating the research facility to Osakawould seem sensible. It would save the company aconsiderable amount of money each year.
It/they/themBavaria is an attractive region in which to live.It has mountains and lakes, and is close to theski resorts in Germany and Austria.
It/they/themWe have received large numbers of reportsabout the economic outlook in Japan. We arestudying them carefully. They contain usefulmarketing information.
This/that/these/those‘This’ and ‘these’ are used to refer to objects or ideas that are near in place or time. For example, ‘this/these proposal(s)’ mean(s) the one(s) just made or about to be made.‘That’ and ‘those’ are used to refer to objects or ideas that are more remote in place or time.
This/that/these/thoseAt our recent meeting, you suggested weestablish a joint venture in Japan.This seems to be an attractive proposal,and I should like to discuss it with youfurther.
This/that/these/thoseThank you for sending me some samples ofyour products. These are being inspected byour engineers and we expect to make a purchaseorder in the near future.
This/that/these/thoseThe Prime minister was accused in the press ofwishing to increase taxation. That is not thepolicy of the government, however, and thepress reports are incorrect.
This/that/these/thoseQueries from customers are dealt with by theCustomer Services Department. Those whocomplain receive an answer within 24 hours.
The former/the latterWhen you have written about two subjects or twoideas, you may then wish to refer to them again inthe next sentence. If you write ‘it’ or ‘he’, the readermay not understand which of the two you arereferring to.
The former/the latterYou can use:• ‘the former’ which refers to the first mentioned oftwo items• ‘the latter’ which refers to the second mentioned oftwo items• ‘respectively’ which refers to each of the items inthe order in which they were written, the former, thenthe latter
The former/the latterLast week , we experienced production problemsat our plants in Leeds and London. At theformer, there was a two-day strike by theworkers. At the latter, there was a machinebreakdown. Output, as a percentage of normalcapacity at these factories was 60% and 75%respectively.
The former/the latterWe will be visited on Tuesday 12 March byMr Laclos and Mr Ibsen. The former isManaging Director of our operation inFrance and Italy.
The former/the latterOur new 6 series and 8 series models sell for60,000 US dollars and 100,000 US dollarsrespectively.
Who/which/that‘Who’ refers only to people. ‘Which’ refers to thingsor ideas. ‘That’ refers to people, things or ideas,and can be used instead of who and which.
Who/which/thatThank you for your letter of 25 October, which Ireceived today.
Who/which/thatA dispute has arisen between management andthe sales staff who think that they are beingasked to do too much.
Who/which/thatAt the conference, Mr Naumann will talk aboutthe developments that are taking place in thecompany.
Who/which/thatNote:‘Which’ can be used with ‘all of’, ‘some of’ or ‘none of’ to qualify the amount or number of things being referred to.
Who/which/thatThe computers, all of which have been upgraded,will be in use from the beginning of next month.The goods, some of which have been dispatchedalready, should all have arrived by next Friday.The prices, none of which has been changed, arelisted in the brochure.
One/ones‘One’ (singular) or ‘ones’ (plural) can be used as a substitute for a noun that has previously been mentioned.
One/onesThere are two relevant laws. The mostimportant one refers to the rates of tax applicable.
One/onesI have quite a large number of 35 millimeterslides that you could borrow. I can let you haveany of the ones I don’t need myself.
One/onesThere are many problems to overcome,one of which is the security issue.
One/ones‘One of which’ can be used to refer to one itemfrom a number of previously mentioned items.
One/onesThere are three new productionassistants, one of whom is a French graduate.
One/ones‘One of whom’ can be used to refer to oneperson from a number of previously mentionedpeople.
Such‘Such’ refers to things or people of a similar typeto ones that have been mentioned previously.
SuchProfits form selling investments are capitalgains. Such gains are taxable at a rate of 40%.
SuchIn recent months, we have experienced manyproblems with hardware. Such problems arenot easy to solve and we have had to ask fortechnical assistance.