Cohesion: making connections between speech and writing


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Cohesion: making connections between speech and writing

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Cohesion: making connections between speech and writing

  1. 1. Cohesion: MakingConnections in Speech and Writing
  2. 2. CohesionWhen you speak or write, you usually need tomake some connection with other things thatyou are saying or writing. The most commonway of doing this is by referring back tosomething that has already been mentioned.
  3. 3. CohesionOne way of referring back to something is touse a personal pronoun such as ‘she’, ‘it’, or‘them’, or a possessive pronoun such as‘mine’ or ‘hers’.My father is fat. He weighs over 100 kilos.‘Have you ever been to London?’ - ‘Yes, itwas very crowded.’
  4. 4. CohesionYou can also use a specific determiner suchas ‘the’ or ‘his’ in front of a noun to refer backto something.A man and a woman were walking up the hill.The man wore shorts, a T-shirt, andbasketball sneakers. The woman wore a printdress.
  5. 5. Cohesion‘Thanks,’ said Brody. He put the telephonedown, turned out the light in his office, andwalked out to his car.
  6. 6. CohesionThe demonstratives ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’ and‘those’ are also used to refer back to a thingor fact that has just been mentioned.In 1973 he went on a caravan holiday. At thebeginning of this holiday he began toexperience pain in his chest.
  7. 7. CohesionThe following general determiners can also beused to refer back to something.another each everyother both eitherneither
  8. 8. CohesionFive officials were sacked. Another four werearrested.There are more than two hundred and fiftyspecies of shark, and every one is different.
  9. 9. CohesionAnother common way of making connectionsin spoken or written English is by using one ofthe following coordinating conjunctions:and but noror so thenyet
  10. 10. CohesionAnna had to go into town and she wanted togo to Bridge Street.I asked if I could borrow her bicycle but sherefused.He was only a boy then, yet he was notafraid.
  11. 11. CohesionYou can use a coordinating conjunction to linkclauses that have the same subject. Whenyou link clauses that have the same subjectyou do not always need to repeat the subjectin the second clause.
  12. 12. CohesionShe was born in born in Budapest and raisedin Manhattan.He didn’t yell or scream.When she saw Morris she went pale, thenblushed.
  13. 13. CohesionMost subordinating conjunctions can also beused to link sentences together, rather than tolink a subordinate clause with a main clausein the same sentence.‘When will you do it?’ - ‘When I get time.’‘Can I borrow your car?’ - ‘So long as youdrive carefully.’
  14. 14. CohesionWhen people are speaking or writing, theyoften use words that refer back to similarwords, or words that refer back to a wholesentence or paragraph.
  15. 15. CohesionEverything was quiet. Everywhere there wasthe silence of the winter night.‘What are you going to do?’ - ‘That’s a goodquestion.’
  16. 16. Questions?For more slide presentations visit: