E-learning & future InternetNew Vistas in Educational Technology          Prof. Dr. Piet Desmet       (K.U.Leuven/KULAK – ...
0. Say it with metaphors….1. Beyond closed tasks: intelligent building blocks2. Adaptivity: construction of learning envir...
0. Future technologies, past didactics?0. Say it images...Say it with with metaphors….0.1.   Future technology & past peda...
Technological progress                                                              vs                                    ...
Metaphor 2: Can we drive our four-wheel drive?        first: setting up multimedia language lab or e-learning centre      ...
0.2.   Blended learning: relationship c- & e-learning?       Metaphor 3: Build a garden house or renovate the entire house...
1. Beyond closed tasks:           intelligent building blocks1.1. Global typology: EDUMA-TIC1.2. Approximate string matchi...
1.1. Global typology of learning activities                          # possible correct         Predictability of        A...
1.2. Half-open: based on Approximate String Matching   cf. Vous dites?!                                                   ...
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
1.3. Supported open questions: online legal cases (Jurim@tic)• Open question: free input entered by learner• Creation of f...
Supported open: frontend (legal case & input zone)                      EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                  ...
Supported open: back office – white list & black list                       EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet              ...
Supported open: semi-automatic correction                       EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                         E...
Supported open: adapt score and select feedback                       EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                    ...
Use of supported open in two steps:   – Step 1 : testing      as highlight and feedback tool (support), used by      teach...
1.4. New half-closed exercise type: Select text• Half-closed (possible answers are not given)• Indicate keyword(s) in a se...
select text: learning activity      EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet        E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
select text: feedback  EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet    E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
2. Adaptivity: construction of the      learning environment• Automobile industry  (e.g. adaptive lighting, adaptive winds...
Adaptive learning (cf. Brusilovsky)(a)   Adaptivity: to what?      - difficulty level of the tasks      - learner profile ...
Proficiency level: A1 – C2                                                                                       Motivatio...
Demo Maribel Camtasia                EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
3. Mobile learning: deviceDefinition?  Mobility of:   – technology: Handheld devices: Smartphone, cell phone,      MP3 pl...
Mobile learning• Trends & topics in literature:   – Adaptation of learning activities to       • technology (cf. limitatio...
Mobile assisted language learning (MALL)• 2 types of MALL applications (based on Kukulska-Hulme &  Shield 2008):   – Conte...
Content-delivery: vocabulary• Thornton & Houser (2005):   – Learners receive vocabulary via e-mail on their     Smartphone...
Design-based: Grammar• Tense ITS (Cui & Bull 2005): exercises on verb conjugation,  adapted to learners’ location and cont...
Design-based: Pronunciation• Uther et al. (2005): exercises for Japanese learners of English.  E.g. difficult sounds /r/ e...
Design-based: ListeningFrom www.franel.eu to franel.mobi                            EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet      ...
www.franel.euEFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
Demo: film franel.mobi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS579FeJB1g           EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet             E...
Challenges• More empirical research studies on the effectiveness of  mobile applications.• Towards a pedagogy of mobile le...
MAPLE• Mobile Adaptive Language Learning Experience• Mobile and adaptive learning environment for  French• Content:  –   L...
4. Serious gaming: type of learning              environmentAdded value?A. Situated, authentic content/input (multimedia)B...
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
Serious games: how to recognize one?Elements of game (Prensky, 2001)        Result (Prensky, 2001)            Serious game...
Situated Avatar-Based Immersive Learning (SAIL)   language as “resource”, as instrument to achieve certain goals   Mostly ...
LLINGO• Language Learning in an Interactive Game  Environment     Immersive language learning environment     Avatar-based...
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet DesmetE-Brain. The @rt of InnovationEFODL –      01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet    E-Brain; The @rt of...
MinigamesEFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
Mobile minigames    EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet      E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
5. Social software: contact is kingTechnology           Content                    Contact             EFODL – 01.03.2011 ...
Livemocha.com  EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet    E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
Geochallenge               EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                 E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
Wordchallenge                EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
6. Level of integration in the curriculumNeed for Integrated Language Learning Environments (ILLE)6.1. infrastructure: c- ...
6.1. Infrastructure: multimedia language lab              K.U.Leuven Kulak           30 networked Pc’s (learners): 5 trap...
EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet  E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
4 layers of a language lab   1) PC class with extra features (placing, extra equipment, etc.)   2) Operating system for co...
6.3. Content: optimal tuning of e- and c-contentAt least 2 strategies:            a) c-content as central part of the lear...
Blended learningMedical Frenchwww.blcc.be              EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet                E-Brain. The @rt of...
Deliverable 1 : e-learning modules – 62 hours e-learning  Generic modules                               Specific modules  ...
Deliverable 2: learning materials for c-learning                    8x 3 hours   •For each e-learning module:      • Commu...
6.4. CoachingBasic principles:•   E-environment should allow for e-coaching    for the learner: intelligent feedback      ...
7. The digital world: the new normal      1994                                      2006             EFODL – 01.03.2011 – ...
Digital (learning) is                          the new normal                          a must                          tri...
Some Key rules:Zero Tolerance for Digital FailureGood Enough Beats Perfect (cf. MP3, Skype, Netbooks, etc.)Abandon Absolut...
Contact• Prof. Dr. Piet Desmet   Piet.Desmet@kuleuven-kortrijk.be   http://wwwling.arts.kuleuven.ac.be/franling_e/pdesmet/...
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EF-ODL - E-learning & Future Internet

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EF-ODL - E-learning & Future Internet

  1. 1. E-learning & future InternetNew Vistas in Educational Technology Prof. Dr. Piet Desmet (K.U.Leuven/KULAK – itec) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  2. 2. 0. Say it with metaphors….1. Beyond closed tasks: intelligent building blocks2. Adaptivity: construction of learning environment3. Mobile learning: device4. Serious gaming: type of learning environment5. Social software: contact is king6. Integrated learning environment: relationship c-learning & e-learning7. The digital world: the new normal EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  3. 3. 0. Future technologies, past didactics?0. Say it images...Say it with with metaphors….0.1. Future technology & past pedagogy? (technology-driven vs pedogogy-driven)Metaphor 1: A new shop or just a new window? Exercise environment for verb conjugation or vocabulary Dos diskette -> Windows on cd-rom -> website -> LMS -> … But: extra didactical features? EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  4. 4. Technological progress vs Pedagogical innovation -> Technology is no longer king….Computerpower doubles every 2 years The Penrose impossible stairs EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  5. 5. Metaphor 2: Can we drive our four-wheel drive? first: setting up multimedia language lab or e-learning centre then: question of usefulness -> need for digital didactics (extra driving license) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  6. 6. 0.2. Blended learning: relationship c- & e-learning? Metaphor 3: Build a garden house or renovate the entire house? impact of e on c Metaphor 4 : Cherry on the cake or javanais? e –learning offered as extra feature (bonus) or as integrated part of the offer users: focus on engine or on driving comfort? EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  7. 7. 1. Beyond closed tasks: intelligent building blocks1.1. Global typology: EDUMA-TIC1.2. Approximate string matching and half-open learning tasks1.3. Extension of the typology: supported open (cf. legal cases online: Jurim@tic)1.4. New half-closed types: select text EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  8. 8. 1.1. Global typology of learning activities # possible correct Predictability of Automated correction answers answers Closed exercise One Total Yes half-open exercise Multiple High Yes open exercise any Limited No Closed: MC, drag-and-drop, fill in the blank, ordering/matching, cross words, etc. Half-open: translation rephrasing correction dictation www.edumatic.be Open: essay-question EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  9. 9. 1.2. Half-open: based on Approximate String Matching cf. Vous dites?! xxx = substitute (…) = insert (xxx) = delete EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  10. 10. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  11. 11. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  12. 12. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  13. 13. 1.3. Supported open questions: online legal cases (Jurim@tic)• Open question: free input entered by learner• Creation of feedback, based on:  Model answers  keyword matching • white list (+ score) – and – if – if then • black list (0 or – score) • negations (and range) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  14. 14. Supported open: frontend (legal case & input zone) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  15. 15. Supported open: back office – white list & black list EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  16. 16. Supported open: semi-automatic correction EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  17. 17. Supported open: adapt score and select feedback EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  18. 18. Use of supported open in two steps: – Step 1 : testing as highlight and feedback tool (support), used by teacher -> manual check and eventual optimization of black and white list – Step 2 : learning Use results of step 1 as exercise with automatic correction and extensive feedback (without human intervention) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  19. 19. 1.4. New half-closed exercise type: Select text• Half-closed (possible answers are not given)• Indicate keyword(s) in a sentence/ paragraph/ textmark• Indicate the “range” for the selection (“range” as such does not influence the score)• feedback EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  20. 20. select text: learning activity EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  21. 21. select text: feedback EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  22. 22. 2. Adaptivity: construction of the learning environment• Automobile industry (e.g. adaptive lighting, adaptive windscreen wipers, adaptive cruise control, etc.) Time and place, weather conditions, traffic, etc. = external/ contextual factors• adaptive marketing User profiles = internal factors EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  23. 23. Adaptive learning (cf. Brusilovsky)(a) Adaptivity: to what? - difficulty level of the tasks - learner profile (prior knowledge, motivation, cognitive load, interests & preferences) - context (time and place, device, etc.)(b) What to adapt? - adaptive form representation (form in which content is presented to the learner, e.g. dynamically generated hypermedia pages) - adaptive content representation (e.g. with or without learner support) - adaptive curriculum sequencing (e.g. selection of items in function of difficulty level, learner profile, etc.)(c) How to implement adaptivity? - full program control (via reasoning component ‘if.. then…’ rules) - full learner control - shared control EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  24. 24. Proficiency level: A1 – C2 Motivation: 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, … chance of good answer Creation and selection Interests: themes of learning objects Database Backoffice anytime, anywhereE-screeningprior FRONTENDknowledge(motivation, Adaptive Learninginterests) Environment tracking & logging data etc. Reasoner Adaptive selection EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  25. 25. Demo Maribel Camtasia EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  26. 26. 3. Mobile learning: deviceDefinition?  Mobility of: – technology: Handheld devices: Smartphone, cell phone, MP3 players, tablet PC’s, etc. – learning: anywhere & anytime  freedom – learner : “learner on the go” EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  27. 27. Mobile learning• Trends & topics in literature: – Adaptation of learning activities to • technology (cf. limitations of mobile devices) • location  contextualized learning – “rethinking” of some pedagogical aspects leads to new learning experiences: • Informal learning: mobile learning situation vs. formal classroom context • Personalized learning: learner = at the centre • Collaborative learning: emphasis on social interaction EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  28. 28. Mobile assisted language learning (MALL)• 2 types of MALL applications (based on Kukulska-Hulme & Shield 2008): – Content-related approach: applications based on delivering content – Design-related approach: applications specifically designed for mobile context• The potential of language learning has already been proven in a number of studies Examples of mobile language learning  vocabulary  grammar  pronunciation  listening (multimedia) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  29. 29. Content-delivery: vocabulary• Thornton & Houser (2005): – Learners receive vocabulary via e-mail on their Smartphones  Results of study: higher learning effect than study of vocabulary on paper  BUT: learners studying on Smartphone were prodded more often to study (via e- mails)• Kennedy & Levy (2008): – Learners receive SMS with Italian vocabulary (every week)  Content delivery is still a teacher-led approach (vs. learner who controls the learning process) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  30. 30. Design-based: Grammar• Tense ITS (Cui & Bull 2005): exercises on verb conjugation, adapted to learners’ location and context EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  31. 31. Design-based: Pronunciation• Uther et al. (2005): exercises for Japanese learners of English. E.g. difficult sounds /r/ en /l/: EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  32. 32. Design-based: ListeningFrom www.franel.eu to franel.mobi EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  33. 33. www.franel.euEFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  34. 34. Demo: film franel.mobi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wS579FeJB1g EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  35. 35. Challenges• More empirical research studies on the effectiveness of mobile applications.• Towards a pedagogy of mobile learning?• Design of learning activities, based on empirical research and a sound theoretical framework.• Adaptation of learning materials to technological limitations while still providing rich input.• Explore the use of social interaction and collaborative learning in a mobile learning environment. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  36. 36. MAPLE• Mobile Adaptive Language Learning Experience• Mobile and adaptive learning environment for French• Content: – Listening comprehension – Reading comprehension – Vocabulary – Spoken interaction• Based on authentic text and video material EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  37. 37. 4. Serious gaming: type of learning environmentAdded value?A. Situated, authentic content/input (multimedia)B. Authentic language learning tasksC. Dynamic assessment (integrated, tiered feedback) (e.g. Purushotma, Thorne, & Wheatley, 2008)D. Social aspects: cooperation and negotiation with native speakers in highly motivating gaming environment (e.g. Thorne, 2008)E. Higher retention of vocabulary (e.g. Neville et al, 2009) EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  38. 38. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  39. 39. Serious games: how to recognize one?Elements of game (Prensky, 2001) Result (Prensky, 2001) Serious game?1. Fun enjoyment, pleasure, motivation2. Play intense involvement, absorbing3. Rules structure procedural/basic knowledge4. Goals & objectives motivation learning /learner goals5. Interactive doing6. Adaptive flow7. Outcomes & feedback learning assessment8. Win states ego gratification9. Conflict/competition/challenge adrenaline 1-1, 1-other, 1-computer10. Problem solving creativity11. Interaction social groups 1-tutor, 1-other, 1-teacher12. Representation & story emotion context EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  40. 40. Situated Avatar-Based Immersive Learning (SAIL) language as “resource”, as instrument to achieve certain goals Mostly task-based, which requires a task-oriented instructional designMini-games Competition Adaptivity (levels) Time constraints etc. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  41. 41. LLINGO• Language Learning in an Interactive Game Environment Immersive language learning environment Avatar-based Task-based Role-playing game Recast as feedback User-generated dialog system EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  42. 42. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  43. 43. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet DesmetE-Brain. The @rt of InnovationEFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain; The @rt of innovation
  44. 44. MinigamesEFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  45. 45. Mobile minigames EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  46. 46. 5. Social software: contact is kingTechnology Content Contact EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  47. 47. Livemocha.com EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  48. 48. Geochallenge EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  49. 49. Wordchallenge EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  50. 50. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  51. 51. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  52. 52. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  53. 53. 6. Level of integration in the curriculumNeed for Integrated Language Learning Environments (ILLE)6.1. infrastructure: c- and e-environment are not in tune no e possible in c-environment (cf. traditional classroom) no c possible in e-environment (cf. PC room)6.2. domains: e-learning: dominance of knowledge components (lexicon, grammar, etc.) c-learning: also skills (reading, listening, writing, speaking)6.3. content: Limited interaction between c- and e-content6.4. coaching: e-learning often used for remedying and differentiation -> not a central component of the didactical process limited interaction between c-coach and e-coach EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  54. 54. 6.1. Infrastructure: multimedia language lab K.U.Leuven Kulak  30 networked Pc’s (learners): 5 trapezial tables with 6 computers each (eye contact with central console is possible + possibilities to communicate around the table)  Central console (coach): 2 Pc’s (one for the supervision of the lab and one to select equipment) + data projector connected to second PC  Central communication area Equipment: CD, DVD, television channels, document reader, 2 cameras (fix & mobile camera), tape recorder EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  55. 55. EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  56. 56. 4 layers of a language lab 1) PC class with extra features (placing, extra equipment, etc.) 2) Operating system for communication between central console and tables (forward documents, take over learner PC’s, monitor learners, etc.) 3) Control system for learning content  often LMS LMS offers particular advantages: - learners start applications from the LMS (central console ↓) - teachers focus exclusively on their role as coach - learners do not all have to work on the same materials (autonomy↑) - learners can continue their work outside the classroom sessions 4) Specific applications - existing applications - proper developments with authoring system6.2. Domains: no exclusive e- or c-domains EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  57. 57. 6.3. Content: optimal tuning of e- and c-contentAt least 2 strategies: a) c-content as central part of the learning materials -> optimal tuning of e-content to c-content cf. electronic manuals (CD-rom and web) cf. use of authoring systems (Hot Potatoes, Edumatic, etc.) b) e-content as central part of the learning materials -> optimal tuning of c-content to e-content cf. use complete language learning environments (learning platform, authoring system, etc.) cf. develop communicative language tasks for e-environment Right now a) especially for schools, b) for vocational training EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  58. 58. Blended learningMedical Frenchwww.blcc.be EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  59. 59. Deliverable 1 : e-learning modules – 62 hours e-learning Generic modules Specific modules Le patient et les examens Gynécologie/IVG/Maternité/Néonat alogie Situations délicates Orthopédie L’anamnèse Oncologie L’hospitalisation Radiologie Les complications Radiothérapie Le patient et les détails pratiques de Urologie son hospitalisation Médecine nucléaire EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  60. 60. Deliverable 2: learning materials for c-learning 8x 3 hours •For each e-learning module: • Communicative activities • Communicative drill exercices •50 role plays EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  61. 61. 6.4. CoachingBasic principles:• E-environment should allow for e-coaching for the learner: intelligent feedback partly learner-controlled environment, etc. for the coach: reports based on tracking & logging data• C-coach continues where e-environment left off determined problems, level of activity, etc. And stimulates more intense use of the e-environment via regular mails at intervals via assignment of additional tasks in the e-environment ideally e-coach = c-coach EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  62. 62. 7. The digital world: the new normal 1994 2006 EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  63. 63. Digital (learning) is the new normal a must trivial mainstreamIt’s not about technology. It’s about usage & added value! EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  64. 64. Some Key rules:Zero Tolerance for Digital FailureGood Enough Beats Perfect (cf. MP3, Skype, Netbooks, etc.)Abandon Absolute Control EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet (Hinssen 201: 119) E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation
  65. 65. Contact• Prof. Dr. Piet Desmet Piet.Desmet@kuleuven-kortrijk.be http://wwwling.arts.kuleuven.ac.be/franling_e/pdesmet/• ITEC www.kuleuven-kortrijk.be/itec EFODL – 01.03.2011 – Piet Desmet E-Brain. The @rt of Innovation

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