Identifying Similarities and DifferencesThis strategy focuses on the mentalprocesses that students can use torestructure and understand information.Classroom activities that ask students toidentify similarities and differencesinclude comparison tasks, classifyingtasks, and the use of metaphors andanalogies. These strategies result inunderstanding content at a deeper level.
Summarizing and Note TakingSummarizing is restating the essence of text or an experience in as fewwords as possible in a new, yet concise form. Summarizing and notetaking requires the ability to synthesize information. Students must beable to analyze information and organize it in a way that captures themain ideas and supporting details that is stated in their own words.Students can summarize information in different ways, including deletinginformation that isnt important to the overall meaning of the text,substituting some information, and keeping some information. Asstudents practice these strategies, it enhances their ability to understandspecific content for learning.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing RecognitionSummarizing is restating the essence of text or an experience in as fewwords as possible in a new, yet concise form. Summarizing and notetaking requires the ability to synthesize information. Students must beable to analyze information and organize it in a way that captures themain ideas and supporting details that is stated in their own words.Students can summarize information in different ways, including deletinginformation that isnt important to the overall meaning of the text,substituting some information, and keeping some information. Asstudents practice these strategies, it enhances their ability to understandspecific content for learning.
Homework and PracticeHomework and practice both provideopportunities for students practice, review, andapply knowledge. It also enhances a studentsability to reach a level of expected proficiencyfor a skill or concept. Research referenced inMarzano, Pickering, and Pollocks bookindicated students need to practice a skill 24times to reach 80% competency, with the firstfour practices yielding the greatest effect.
Nonlinguistic RepresentationsThis strategy can enhance a students ability torepresent and elaborate on knowledge using mentalimages. When students elaborate on knowledge, theyare able to understand it in greater depth and be moresuccessful at recalling it. Nonlinguistic representationscan include graphic representations, mental pictures,physical models, drawings, and kinesthetic activities.New knowledge is usually presented in a linguisticform. When students are also able to use imagery, theeffects on achievement can be significant.
Cooperative LearningWhen students are provided with opportunitiesto interact with each other in a variety of waystheir learning is enhanced. These activitiessupport the ideas that there should be a varietyof criteria to group students; that there should beformal, informal and base groups and that thesize of learning groups should be continuallymonitored.
Setting Objectives and Providing FeedbackSetting objectives establishes a direction for learning.Once students understand the parameters of anobjective, they should brainstorm to determine whatthey know and what they want to learn. Specific, timely,and regular feedback to students enhances theirlearning. Also, feedback should include an explanationof why an item is correct or incorrect and be criterionreferenced. In other words, students should understandwhere they stand relative to a specific target ofknowledge or skill.
Generating and Testing HypothesesThe strategy of generating and testing hypothesesincludes several processes including systemsanalysis, invention, experimental inquiry, decisionmaking, and problem solving. Students should beasked "what if?" as they plan and conduct simpleinvestigations (e.g., formulate a testable question,make systematic observations, and develop logicalconclusions).
Cues, Questions, and Advanced OrganizersGiving students a preview of what they are about tolearn or experience helps them activate priorknowledge. This strategy gives students the opportunityto connect what they already know to what they needto know. Questions should focus on what is central andmost important. Advance organizers are most useful forinformation that is not easily presented in a well-organized manner. For example, creating an advanceorganizer for a field trip can provide students withinformation about what they are about to see and do.
MARZANO’S TENI.S.D.= ID SIM & DIFF =Identifying Similarities and DifferencesN.R.= NO WORD SYMBOLS = Nonlinguistic RepresentationsS& N.T. = SUM & NOTESSummarizing and Note TakingS.O. & P.F. = SET OB& FEEDBACK = Setting Objectives and Providing FeedbackR.E. & P.R. = RECOGNIZE AND REPEAT = Reinforcing Effort and Providing RecognitionG & T.H. = TRY & TEST GUESS = Generating and Testing HypothesesH & P = HOMEWORK = Homework and PracticeC.Q. & A.O. = CLUES/PROBLEMS/WONDERINGS CHARTS =Cues, Questions, and AdvancedOrganizersC & L = GROUP WORK = Cooperative Learning
SUMMARIZESTUDENTS SHOULD USE:VENN DIAGRAMS, FOLDABLES, USE SYMBOLISM/PICTURESSET GOALS & GIVE FEEDBACK& PRACTICE/HWENCOURAGE WORK AND SUCCESSESASK QUESTIONS/CLUES/GRAPHIC ORGANIZERSGIVE OPPORTUNITIES TO WORK TOGETHER TO TRY IDEAS OUT
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