From biopiracy to the creation of shared valued

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What models can guide business for a fair sharing with the people having developed deep knowledge on biodiversity?

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  • From biopiracy to the creation of shared valued

    1. 1. Knowledge and Biodiversity from biopiracy to the creation of shared value Pierre Wi!iam Johnson, May 2012 http://www.pierrejohnson.eu
    2. 2. A threatened treasure Biodiversity is the diversity and variability of life forms. Variety of genes (individuals) Variety of species Variety of ecosystemsSpecies disappear at 1000 times their natural rate.1 amphibian out of 3, 1 mammal out of 4, 1 bird out of 870% of plant species are under threat of extinctionCauses : artificialisation, deforestation, intensive agriculture,mines, contamination.Of 80 0000 known edible plants, 3 cereals provide 60% ofproteins generated by plants. Tous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    3. 3. Human diversity and Biological diversity 6 909 languages in the world. More than 5 000 are spoken by less than 10 000 persons. 5 000 indigenous people in 70 coutries, 370 million people (1 personne out of 20) Cultural diversity is threatened, just as biodiversity, to which it is closely linked.All rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    4. 4. Traditional knowledge on biodiversity 30 000 species of medicinal plants are known; 1 medicine out of 2 originates from a plant. Knowledge closely linked to the land, in all its dimensions Example: 3 000 varieties of potatoe cultived under the Incas. Respect of ecosystems and preservation of biodiversity. Knowledge of indigenous people on adaptation to climate change.All rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    5. 5. The Convention on Biological Diversity The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) and its 3 objectives in article 1: 1. The conservation of biological diversity; 2. The sustainable use of its components; 3. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resourcesAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    6. 6. What basis for benefit sharingAccess and benefit sharing (art. 15) is challenged by the diversityof value systems. Particularly as regards to intellectual property,transmission of knowdge, research and development. universe - world PatentsAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    7. 7. What basis for benefit sharingAccess and benefit sharing (art. 15) is challenged by the diversityof value systems. Particularly as regards to intellectual property,transmission of knowdge, research and development. Community universe - world PatentsAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    8. 8. Biopiracy Definition: Illegal or illegitimate appropriation of elements of biodiversity and/or related knowledge. Causes/Motivations: Different concepts of knowledge and research Lack of acknowledgement of the contribution of the knowledge heritage transmitted from generation to generation Ignorance of the clauses of the Convention on Biological DiversityAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    9. 9. Illegitimate patentsPelargonium sidoides Plukenetia volubilis Examples of cases where illegitimate patents (Sacha Inchi) were successfully withdrawn (lack of novelty) US Cie Grace registered 90 patents on neem - a natural pesticide well-known and used in India Azadirachta indiça German Cie Schwabe registered 5 patents on Pelargonium Sinoides an anti-cough plant from Southern Africa in 2002. Patents were revoked at EPO in 2010. Greentech registered an extraction process for the seed Sacha Inchi in 2006. It withdrew it in 2009 under pressure of the Peruvian Commission against Biopiracy and Frrench Collective for an alternative to Biopiracy. All rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    10. 10. Improving practices involves: establishing a dialogue between companies and local communities, indigenous or just rural taking into account the CBD, prior informed consent and setting up benefit sharing agreements a process of learning towards a genuine collective intelligence, from the beginning to the destination of the supply chainAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    11. 11. Natura : a model company? Bem estar bem First Brasilian cosmetics company, founded in 1969 Often highlighted for its corporate responsibility 1 billion euros annual sales, 5 100 workers Access to genetic resources: 26 agreements with communities. 6 of those agreements for access to traditional knowledgeTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    12. 12. ABS according to NaturaM Reais Payment to producers 8 Image 6 Sponsors Access 4 Products 2 0(CBD) 2007 2008 2009 2010
    13. 13. Prior cases involving Natura Marché ver-o-peso (2001) : access to image or to traditional knowledge? Muru Muru (2007) : confusion, as 2 other companies involved, registering patents. Natura had nothing to do with the case. Conclusions :1. Sensivity of the image of a large national company like Natura.2. The company’s practice evolves with the legislation and pressure of the legal and political powers. It’s a learning process. All rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    14. 14. Warana: an ethical trade A plant which is an icon in Brasil, heritage of the Sateré Mawé people. Genetic bank of guarana / warana : 780 000 hectares, between rivers Andira and Marau 10 000 Sateré Mawé, 500 produce 5 to 10 tons a year of the «authentic stuff» European Fair Trade partners : Guayapi, CTM, Artisans du MondeAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    15. 15. Payment breakdown (2008) Sateré Mawé producers General Council of the Tribus Sateré Mawé tribes Technical extension Transportation and Transformation 9% Diverse (taxes) 18% 35% Guayapi Buys at 45 € / kg 10% 29%All rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    16. 16. Savoirs des Peuples (France - Andes) French ethical cosmetic start up «The powers of sacred plants» 1 Producers Develop production through fair trade Ethical and fair partnerships 3 2 Communities and their knowledge 2 1 Develop collective knowledge 3 Common Good No patents Promote public research Support indigenous organisationsAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    17. 17. Practical application 1 2 3 Common Producers People good Premium prices 4% of sales of AÏNY to Encourage people of Ecuador and publications (5% to 100% superior) Peru Investigation projects A reforestation project 1 leaflet on with universities in traditionnel France and Peru knowledgeAll rights reserved. Reproduction forbidden without agreement. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    18. 18. What about when: Communities are not so well organised fair trade There are knowledge shared between several communities There are knowledge that cross borders dthical biotrade If local communities add value to their products, through transformation respect of people (watch next slide for an example) convergence of values Our interpretation of the 3 circlesTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    19. 19. What about when: Communities are not so well organised Producers fair trade There are knowledge shared between several communities There are knowledge that cross borders dthical biotrade If local communities add value to their products, through transformation respect of people (watch next slide for an example) convergence of values Our interpretation of the 3 circlesTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    20. 20. What about when: Communities are not so well organised Producers fair trade There are knowledge shared between several communities Community There are knowledge that cross borders dthical biotrade If local communities add value to their products, through transformation respect of people (watch next slide for an example) convergence of values Our interpretation of the 3 circlesTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    21. 21. What about when: Communities are not so well organised Producers fair trade There are knowledge shared between several communities Community There are knowledge that cross borders dthical biotrade If local communities add value to their products, through transformation respect of people (watch next slide for an example) convergence of values Our interpretation of the 3 circlesTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    22. 22. What about when: Communities are not so well organised Producers fair trade There are knowledge shared between several communities Community There are knowledge that cross borders dthical biotrade If local communities add value to their Common good products, through transformation respect of people (watch next slide for an example) convergence of values Our interpretation of the 3 circlesTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    23. 23. Marula oil 2 strategies in Southern Africa Patent and importation of Cooperative and local non-transformed ingredient transformation 2600 women Sales under own brand 2 Sales of bulk oil 1.5 1 0.5 0 Maruline ® 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without the agreement of the author. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    24. 24. Labels: imperfect guides Research: Pierre Johnson For more information on certifications and Ethical biotrade Fair Trade their performance, write us at contact@pierrejohnson.eu Sustainable Forestry Organic agriculture Organic and ecological cosmeticsTous droits réservés. Reproduction interdite sans accord de l’auteur. Pierre Johnson 2012 http://pierrejohnson.eu
    25. 25. What will be your model of ethical biotrade?http://pierrejohnson.eu contact@pierrejohnson.eu

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