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A Method To Support The Alignment Of Business

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A Method To Support The Alignment Of Business

A Method To Support The Alignment Of Business

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  • 1. A Method to Support the Alignment of Business Models and Goal Models A master thesis submitted for the degree of Master in Computer Science, University of Namur, departement of computer science Belgium, Namur, the 25th of June 2008, Pierre HALLEUX and Ludovic MATHIEU {pHalleux,lMathieu}@info.fundp.ac.be Pierre HALLEUX
  • 2. I. Introduction Context Products cycles shorter, growing competition, complex environement,… One solution to deal with these problems : models Figure 1.1: Overview of the problematic (adapted from [17])
  • 3. I. Introduction (2/3) Purpos e Address one part of the alignment problem between the goals of an organization and the IT-resources A relevant problem … In the literature goal and business models are studied separately A method to cope with changes relies on a templates and rules based approach [4] Scop i * instead of BMM e e³value instead of Figure 1.2: Overview goal model to business model REA
  • 4. I. Introduction (3/3) Thesis Goals ~ Presentation Inline ~ Thesis Structure Background, Introduce an existing method (and frameworks) Chapter 2, Analyze the method presented in [4] : by highlighting the (non-)syntactical issues Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach, Chapter 3, Propose improvements and extensions on templates and rules to correct these issues Goal Test the new method on a case study s Case study, Compare the different results with the previous method changes ➔ a real improvement ? Chapter 4, ➔ more efficiency ? Conclusion Chapter 5, Benefits of the Improved A Method to Support the Alignment Method Purpose of Business Models and Goal Models Future Work
  • 5. Thesis Goals ~ Presentation Inline ~ Thesis Structure Background, Introduce an existing method (and frameworks) Chapter 2, Analyze the method presented in [4] : by highlighting the (non-)syntactical issues Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach, Chapter 3, Propose improvements and extensions on templates and rules to correct these issues Goal Test the new method on a case study s Case study, Compare the different results with the previous method changes ➔ a real improvement ? Chapter 4, ➔ more efficiency ? Conclusion Chapter 5, Benefits of the Improved A Method to Support the Alignment Method Purpose of Business Models and Goal Models Future Work
  • 6. II. Background A Templates and Rules Approach for Goal and Value Models Alignment (1/3) Align business model with the associated goal model Templates and rules based approach « Template » : Relates to a means situated in the goal model Compulsory part (what the template aims to do): < Event, Resource, Agent > Optional part (consequences of the template): [optional part] e.g. Template 1
  • 7. II. Background (2/3) A Templates and Rules Approach for Goal and Value Models Alignment (2/3) « Transformation rule » template is removing (adding) elements from (into) the value model according to the expressed template. has two parts : Primary action is associated to the compulsory part draws on the model what the current template aims to do. Secondary action is associated to the optional part represents the choices and obligations linked to the optional part e.g., Transformation rule associated to template 1: Primary action: Add one exchange event for the resource from the principal agent to an existing or new agent in an existing or new duality. Secondary action: a. Connect the new exchange event to a new conversion event, or b. Connect the new exchange event to an existing conversion event, or c. Add a new exchange event from the principal agent to a new or existing agent from whom the resource is procured; and d. Add a new exchange event for receiving a resource from agent to the principal agent as a compensation for the resource offered by the principal agent.
  • 8. II. Background (3/3) A Templates and Rules Approach for Goal and Value Models Alignment (3/3) Figure 2.1: How [4] aligns goal model with business model
  • 9. Thesis Goals ~ Presentation Inline ~ Thesis Structure Background, Introduce an existing method (and frameworks) Chapter 2, Analyze the method presented in [4] : by highlighting the (non-)syntactical issues Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach, Chapter 3, Propose improvements and extensions on templates and rules to correct these issues Goal Test the new method on a case study s Case study, Compare the different results with the previous method changes ➔ a real improvement ? Chapter 4, ➔ more efficiency ? Conclusion Chapter 5, Benefits of the Improved A Method to Support the Alignment Method Purpose of Business Models and Goal Models Future Work
  • 10. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (1/13) The Templates > Syntactical Issues Not very well formed templates and ambiguous syntax : Formulation of the logical operators (« AND », « | ») (use AND , XOR ) Normal rules of the logic (useless AND at the beginning of the templates removed) Formulation of the compulsory part < Event, Resource, Direction, Agent > (from, to, in) Formulation of the optional part (only one pair of square brakets « [… ] ») Implicit calls of templates (use compulsory part names instead of synonyms) The Templates > Non Syntactical Issues Name of event in the compulsory part (introduced in a more formal way stop start) Change of ontology (REA • e3value terms) Scheduling between the templates (scheduling conditions for the templates) Ambiguous Name for “agent” and “resource” (specialize the terms by using the role played) Unnecessary event in template 9 (remove the financial compensation from the template 9)
  • 11. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (2/13) The Templates > Backus-Naur-Form Grammar for the Templates by generalization from the solutions proposed it solves the issues in the templates of [4]
  • 12. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (3/13) The Templates > Graphical Representation e.g. What happens if the organization wants to start offering a resource to an agent ? ➔ template 1 Figure 3.1: Graphical notation for template 1
  • 13. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (4/13) The Templates > Graphical Representation > Global Network Templates can call other templates ➔ relevant to draw a global network Figure 3.2: Global network e.g. for template 4, if the organization wants to stop procuring resource from agent (T4), then it needs to stop offering the resource (T2) or to start producing the resource in a value activity (T5)
  • 14. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (5/13) The Templates > Instantiation Organizatio customer provider n i p resource resource j l ➔ Possible confusions among the resources. To be more specic and able to distinguish the different variables: subscripts added e.g. customer1, customer2, provider1, provider2, …
  • 15. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (6/13) The Templates > Link between the Goal Model and the Templates How to link the elements situated into the i* goal model with the set of templates ? Figure 3.3: Generic to-be goal model
  • 16. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (7/13) The Templates > Link between the Goal Model and the Templates 2 Figure 3.4: through the goal model to the templates with a substitution tree
  • 17. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (8/13) The Templates > Improved List of 10 Templates Original template 1 from [4]: Original template 1 Improved template 1:
  • 18. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (9/13) The Rules > Issues in the Rules Lack of Information for Transformation Rules have to remove some unecessary elements in the business model In [4] every rule is not always doing that correctly (e.g. template 4) ➔ add the necessary information Figure 3.5: Consequences of lack of information for transformation in the rule 4 Missing Rules for Templates 5 to 8 ➔ add these rules
  • 19. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (10/13) The Rules > Issues in the Rules > Avoid Redundant Changes on the Model (1/2) a) Restricting Conditions for the Choice of the Optional Part T5 (Start producing resourcej in value activityk) has to call T1 to offer the resourcej which is produced (as stated in its optional part) Possible redundant change: T1 can call T5 to produce the resourcej to be offered. T1 Figure 3.6: when a template is called from another template ➔ Solution : restrict the choice in the precursors when called from another template
  • 20. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (11/13) The Rules > Issues in the Rules > Avoid Redundant Changes on the Model (2/2) b) Restrictions within the Rules illustration of the issue with T2 and T4 e.g. Figure 3.7: overview of the links between T2 and T4 ➔ Solution : introduction of a Prev(Ti) in the rules
  • 21. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (12/13) The Rules > Improved Transformation Rules e.g.,
  • 22. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (13/13) The Improved Method > Summary Figure 3.9: How the improved method aligns goal model with the business model
  • 23. Thesis Goals ~ Presentation Inline ~ Thesis Structure Background, Introduce an existing method (and frameworks) Chapter 2, Analyze the method presented in [4] : by highlighting the (non-)syntactical issues Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach, Chapter 3, Propose improvements and extensions on templates and rules to correct these issues Goal Test the new method on a case study s Case study, Compare the different results with the previous method changes ➔ a real improvement ? Chapter 4, ➔ more efficiency ? Conclusion Chapter 5, Benefits of the Improved A Method to Support the Alignment Method Purpose of Business Models and Goal Models Future Work
  • 24. IV. Case Study (1/7) Case Presentation > As-Is Goal Model Figure 4.1: as-is goal model
  • 25. Case Presentation > As-Is Business Model Figure 4.2: as-is business model with e3alue
  • 26. Improved Method Application > To-Be Goal Model IV. Case study Figure 4.3: to-be goal model
  • 27. IV. Case Study (4/7) Improved Method Application > Substitution Tree Figure 4.4: improved method chain of templates
  • 28. Improved Method Application > Aligned To-Be Business Model Case study IV. Figure 4.5: aligned to-be business model
  • 29. Comparison of both Methods (1/2) IV. Case study Figure 4.6: explicit results of the method of [4]
  • 30. Comparison of both Methods (2/2) Previous Method : To-Be BM (1) Implicit new v. act. (buy content,…) Many redundant names for v.activities (2) & (4) Implicit renaming for v.object (3) V. object not present in the rules (5) Implicit different flows for $ (6) Implicit extension of value exchange Figure 4.7: highlighted issues in the previous method
  • 31. Thesis Goals ~ Presentation Inline ~ Thesis Structure Background, Introduce an existing method (and frameworks) Chapter 2, Analyze the method presented in [4] : by highlighting the (non-)syntactical issues Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach, Chapter 3, Propose improvements and extensions on templates and rules to correct these issues Goal Test the new method on a case study s Case study, Compare the different results with the previous method changes ➔ a real improvement ? Chapter 4, ➔ more efficiency ? Conclusion Chapter 5, Benefits of the Improved A Method to Support the Alignment Method Purpose of Business Models and Goal Models Future Work
  • 32. V. Conclusion (1/2) Benefits of the Improved Method Templates easier to read and more understandable Reduce mistakes, avoid ambiguities, clearer templates Better transformation rules List of rules completed, higher level of details in the BM More formal and less heuristic method BNF grammar, explicit calls, substitutions, instantiation More advanced presentation of the method Graphical representation First step of the method clarified All these improvements Better alignment between the goal and business models Less time to produce an aligned business model Better methodological support
  • 33. V. Conclusion (1/2) Future Work Add new templates (to match with more goal models) With BNF and scheduling conditions Templates are highly context-dependent Fill in the optional part (see Sect. 3.2.3) (Dis)advantages to increase the level of details? e.g. notion of port, sub-value activity, or possibility to distinguish the interfaces in the rules Level of formalism Tools Textual template ➔ graphical representation (to add new templates) With BNF grammar and UML graphical notation Produce the to-be business model With as-is models, to-be business model, and a library of templates and associated rules in inputs.
  • 34. Thank you for your attention.
  • 35. III. Detailled Analysis and Improvement of the Approach (5/14) The Templates > Specialization Templates will be associated to means situated into the i* goal model ➔ the templates must be clear and understandable (to choose a right one) Unfortunately, only abstract notions in [4] (e.g. “agent ”, “resource ”, …. ) The goal modeler will more likely look for the notion of “customer”, “provider”,etc. ➔ “agent ” • “customer”, “outsourcer” or “provider” ➔ “resource ” • “compensation” when necessary Easier to distinguish the roles and select the templates (e.g. template 1)
  • 36. e3value vs c3value
  • 37. How Introduce More Formalism? May be use Interface Description Language (e.g.: Darwin) Process Modelisation (e.g FSP) (Source : V. Englebert, Advanced distributed System Course)
  • 38. Prolog ?