Let us have a quick look into the Philippine Petrochemical Industry. The Petrochem Industry is composed of the UPSTREAM, with Plastic being a by-product of Oil. It is NOT CONVERTED FROM OIL contrary to some rumors. It is derived from distilling crude oil from the ground or by gas extraction, and is later processed using the through the NAPHTA CRACKER or FLUID CATALYTIC CONVERTER methods. It is important to note that only 2.4% (some say its 4%) of the oil extracted goes to feedstock for Petrochemical resins used for ALL types of PLASTICS. Packaging applications account for a very small part of the 2.4%.
We then have the MIDSTREAM industry or the resin manufacturers, represented by APMP who converts the MONOMERS or feedstock into POLYMERS for plastic processors through a reaction process. Both the Upstream and Midstream industry are capital intensive.
Let us have a quick look into the Downstream Plastic Industry whom we represent as the Philippine Plastics Industry Association. We convert the plastic raw materials or resins into finished products and packaging products for everyday use.
The Downstream Industry is Labor intensive, directly employing over 100,000 employees. Indirect employees together with the allied industries that support us could reach up to 500,000 laborers, much larger than the 1,000 employees of the Midstream Industry. We are SMEs, totaling more than 1000 companies. Our products cater to both consumer and industrial use, and the resin is our major component , ranging from 40% to 70% of our total cost structure . We supply to all industries and other industries depend on us.
RP Plastics Industry Profile Figures from the National Statistics Office (NSO) showed two consecutive years of decline in plastic raw material consumption for 2008 and 2009 by -5% and -9% respectively. A major contributor to this decline is the court injunction which brought back the ASEAN tariff rate on plastic resins from 5% to 10% as well as the lingering effects of the global recession which severely affected the downstream plastics industry.
Finished Goods Import-Export Government figures showed finished plastic goods importation registered a 5% growth in2009 from 300,000 MT in 2008 to 315,000 MT in 2009. Exports of finished plastic goods however grew at a measly 0.5% to 112,000 MT in 2009.
Thank you very much and I now pass you over to the next speaker to tackle PLASTIC no. 1 or PET.
Plastic is identified by internationally recognized SPI codes, and in the Philippines, the same codes are being applied under the Bureau of Product Standards of the Department of Trade and Industry. These codes are meant to identify different types of plastics and is helpful in recycling. The succeeding speakers will tackle and explain the each individual type.
Organized a committee composed of Government and Sub-sectors to create a “common voice”
This chart shows total energy consumption of plastics in EU vs the alternatives if plastics was replaced (grey bars) The coloured bars show energy consumption or credit by life-cycle phase. The results show that energy consumption and GHG emissions would increase if plastic products were to be substituted to a theoretical maximum by other materials, using mix of competing materials as available on the market. Expressed the other way round, plastic products, having substituted competing materials, are saving energy and are reducing GHG emissions. Life-cycle energy consumption of plastic products (investigated case studies; 63 % of total market covered) and their potential substitutes, split into life-cycle phases production, use and waste management. Positive values stand for energy consumption, negative values indicate energy credits for prevented food losses, saved primary production (by recycling) and saved production of electricity and heat (by energy recovery).
The results show that the total life-cycle energy needed to produce, use and recover plastic products in The EU27+2 is 4.900 Mill GJ/a and the total life-cycle GHG emissions are 240 Mt/a. Furthermore the results show that substitution of plastic products by other materials up to a maximum would need 1.400 – 3.200 Mill GJ/a more energy (or about 46 %) than needed in the total life-cycle of all plastic products today (the range of additional energy needed reflects the uncertainty of the overall result of ±40 %). In the same way, substitution of plastic products up to a maximum would cause 74 – 165 Mt or about 50 % more GHG emissions than the total life-cycle of all plastic products today In other words, the plastic products on the market today have enabled savings of energy to an extent of 2.300 Mill GJ/a, equivalent to 50 Mill tonnes of crude oil carried by 194 very large crude oil tankers. The GHG emissions saved (120 Mt/a) are equivalent to the total CO2 emissions of Belgium (120 Mt in 2000) and are also equivalent to 38 % of the EU15 Kyoto target regarding the reduction of GHG emissions.  Note that these figures also include energy consumption and GHG emissions in the use phase of products, e.g. mass related fuel demand of automotive parts. Only very few plastic products consume more energy than their possible substitutes made of different materials. Most plastic products need less energy to be produced, and additionally many plastic products save significant amounts of energy during the use phase (especially all automotive parts, insulation used in the sectors building and E&E, and packaging products). Generally the use phase is an important part of the total life-cycle: On average 30 % of the total life-cycle energy demand of plastic products and 27 % of the total life-cycle energy demand of other materials are linked to the use phase. If products without effects in the use phase are excluded, then the use phase covers on average 40 % of the total life-cycle energy of plastics and of alternative materials.  For savings of energy and GHG emissions by plastic insulation used in the building sector see part 2 of this study (not included in part 1 as other materials will normally enable similar savings).
While clearly the impact of all materials and services need to be addressed in the reduction of the consumer’s carbon footprint, the role of plastics does not deserve any negative discrimination ! 很明显，在减少消费碳排放量方面应对所有材料和服务的影响进行阐述，塑料制品所起到的作用不应受到任何消极歧视。
Recycling and proper waste management of plastics r cl denr
Recycling & Proper Waste Management of PLASTICS Making Business work for the Environment philippine plastics industry association 122 A. del mundo st. (W) grace park, caloocan city 330-4423 to 24
All plastics are derived from distilling crude oil from the ground or gas extraction Feedstock for petrochemicals 2.4% - 4% for all types of plastics, packaging is only a small part of this figure OIL REFINERIES The Philippine Plastics Industry NAPHTHA CRACKER or Gas Cracker UPSTREAM Gas/Naphtha Cracker Plant
NAPHTHA CRACKER or Gas Cracker OIL REFINERIES Converts MONOMERS or FEEDSTOCK to POLYMERS - Both are highly capital intensive industries amounting to US$ 1.0 B MIDSTREAM Resin Manufacturers The Philippine Plastics Industry Assn of Petrochemical Mfrs. of the Phils. UPSTREAM Gas/Naphtha Cracker Plant POLYMER PLANT
NAPHTHA CRACKER or Gas Cracker OIL REFINERIES POLYMER PLANT MIDSTREAM Resin Manufacturers PACKAGING TRANSPORT ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS FIBER & TEXTILES HOUSEWARE CONSTRUCTION PLASTIC PROCESSORS DOWNSTREAM Plastic Manufacturers The Philippine Plastics Industry Assn of Petrochemical Mfrs. of the Phils. Philippine Plastics Industry Assn. MEDICAL RECYCLING UPSTREAM Gas/Naphtha Cracker Plant
<ul><li>LABOR INTENSIVE - Over 500,000 in direct labor and indirect workers </li></ul><ul><li>SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES </li></ul><ul><li>Transforms plastic resins into various plastic products for consumer and industrial use </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic industry - key input sector for all other industries & key client to allied industries </li></ul>Industry Profile
RP Plastics Industry Profile Sources: National Statistics Office Sources: National Statistics Office
Plastics Industry Profile Sources: National Statistics Office
R E S I N I D E N T I F I C A T I O N C O D E S Bottles, plastic lumber applications. Three and five gallon reusable water bottles, some citrus juice and catsup bottles. Dependent on resin or combination of resins Other . Use of this code indicates that the package in question is made with a resin other than the six listed above, or is made of more than one resin listed above, and used in a multi-layer combination. Thermometers, light switch plates, thermal insulation, egg cartons, vents, desk trays, rulers, license plate frames, foam packing, foam plates, cups, utensils Compact disc jackets, food service applications, grocery store meat trays, egg cartons, aspirin bottles, cups, plates, cutlery. Versatility, insulation, clarity, easily formed Polystyrene (PS). Polystyrene is a versatile plastic that can be rigid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. It has a relatively low melting point. Typical applications include protective packaging, containers, lids, cups, bottles and trays. Automobile battery cases, signal lights, battery cables, brooms, brushes, ice scrapers, oil funnels, bicycle racks, rakes, bins, pallets, sheeting, trays. Catsup bottles, yogurt containers and margarine tubs, medicine bottles Strength, toughness, resistance to heat, chemicals, grease and oil, versatile, barrier to moisture. Polypropylene (PP). Polypropylene has good chemical resistance, is strong, and has a high melting point making it good for hot-fill liquids. PP is found in flexible and rigid packaging to fibers and large molded parts for automotive and consumer products. Shipping envelopes, garbage can liners, floor tile, furniture, film and sheet, compost bins, paneling, trash cans, landscape timber, lumber Dry cleaning, bread and frozen food bags, squeezable bottles, e.g. honey, mustard. Ease of processing, strength, toughness, flexibility, ease of sealing, barrier to moisture. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE).Used predominately in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. LDPE is also used to manufacture some flexible lids and bottles and it is used in wire and cable applications Packaging, loose-leaf binders, decking, paneling, gutters, mud flaps, film and sheet, floor tiles and mats, resilient flooring, cassette trays, electrical boxes, cables, traffic cones, garden hose, mobile home skirting. Clear food and non-food packaging, medical tubing, wire and cable insulation, film and sheet, construction products such as pipes, fittings, siding, floor tiles, carpet backing and window frames.. Versatility, clarity, ease of blending, strength, toughness, resistance to grease, oil and chemicals. Vinyl (Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC): In addition to its stable physical properties, PVC has excellent chemical resistance, good weatherability, flow characteristics and stable electrical properties. The diverse slate of vinyl products can be broadly divided into rigid and flexible materials. Bottles and packaging sheet are major rigid markets, but it is also widely used in the construction market for such applications as pipes and fittings, siding, carpet backing and windows. Flexible vinyl is used in wire and cable insulation, film and sheet, floor coverings synthetic leather products, coatings, blood bags, medical tubing and many other applications. Liquid laundry detergent, shampoo, conditioner and motor oil bottles; pipe, buckets, crates, flower pots, garden edging, film and sheet, recycling bins, benches, dog houses, plastic lumber, floor tiles, picnic tables, fencing. Milk, water, juice, cosmetic, shampoo, dish and laundry detergent bottles; yogurt and margarine tubs; cereal box liners; grocery, trash and retail bags. Stiffness, strength, toughness, resistance to chemicals and moisture, permeability to gas, ease of processing, and ease of forming. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE is used to make bottles for milk, juice, water and laundry products. Unpigmented bottles are translucent, have good barrier properties and stiffness, and are well suited to packaging products with a short shelf life such as milk. Because HDPE has good chemical resistance, it is used for packaging many household and industrial chemicals such as detergents and bleach. Pigmented HDPE bottles have better stress crack resistance than unpigmented HDPE bottles. Fiber, tote bags, clothing, film and sheet, food and beverage containers, carpet, strapping, fleece wear, luggage and bottles. Plastic soft drink, water, sports drink, beer, mouthwash, catsup and salad dressing bottles. Peanut butter, pickle, jelly and jam jars. Ovenable film and ovenable prepared food trays. Clarity, strength, toughness, barrier to gas and moisture, resistance to heat Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, PETE). PET is clear, tough, and has good gas and moisture barrier properties. Commonly used in soft drink bottles and many injection molded consumer product containers. Other applications include strapping and both food and non-food containers. Cleaned, recycled PET flakes and pellets are in great demand for spinning fiber for carpet yarns, producing fiberfill and geo-textiles. Nickname: Polyester. Products Applications Recycled Packaging Properties Descriptions Codes
PET – Polyethylene Terephthalate used for many bottles application because they are inexpensive, lightweight and shatter-resistant. (examples: Mineral/Drinking Water Bottles, cosmetic bottles)
PE/PP Rigids Polyethylene & Polypropylene “Hard” - used in rigid applications such as tables & chairs, PE pipes, bottles & closures, pallets, crates, drums and other hard plastics.
PE or PP Films and Bags Polyethylene & Polypropylene “Flexibles” – products which are used in flexible applications such as bags, liners, and other single or mono-component soft plastics.
PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride used for pipes and fittings, Tarpulins, Medical apps., etc.
General Purpose GPPS use d in general applications. PS Polystyrene Foam PS – Foam Polystyrene used in food service packaging. Official name is “Styrofoam” is a trade name of DOW Chemical. EPS – Expanded Polystyrene used as cushioning materials for fresh produce, electronic or appliance industries, etc. High Impact HIPS used for disposable cups, trays pitchers, Refrigerator liners, etc.
Packaging Institute of the Philippines Polystyrene Packaging Council of the Philippines Flexible Manufacturers Assn of the Phils. Soap and Detergent Association the Phils. Ad hoc Flexible Group PNOC-Petrochemical Development Corp. Assn. of Petrochemical Manufacturers of the Phils. Philippine Plastics Industry Association PET Manufacturers Assn. of the Philippines PET Recycling Development Assn. Metro Plastic Recycling Association Inc. Industry Convergence to address Environmental Issues Multisectoral Committee on the Environment
Working hand in hand to Establish Recycling Guidelines for Plastics developed by Japan Int’l. Coop, Agency Dept. of Environment & Natural Resources Nat’l/ Solid Waste Mgmt. Commission Dept. of Science & Technology - ITDI SAGIP Environment
May nag re-recycle o nag re-resikulo ba ng mga Plastik Bags?
LDPE Bags for sugar and rice PP Bags for T-shirts, pants etc. Meron po! Segregation Facility Mapulang Lupa, Valenzuela City HDPE Grocery bags & sando bags HDPE Garbage bags
<ul><li>INDUSTRY PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>300 companies – predominantly Small and Medium Enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Total no. of employees – 176,922 direct employees in 2006 (down from 244,000 in 2004) </li></ul>Plastic Bag RECYCLING in the Philippines Undergoes MECHANICAL RECYCLING for Re-USE HDPE Grocery “sando” bags HDPE Garbage bags LDPE Bags for sugar & rice PP Bags for T-shirts, pants etc. Bailed for Storage or Export
Training on Recycling Guidelines for Plastics bags and Foam PS Japan Int’l. Coop, Agency Dept. of Environment & Natural Resources Nat’l/ Solid Waste Mgmt. Commission Dept. of Science & Technology - ITDI SAGIP Environment
Result of Dispatch & Collection Quezon City Caloocan City *from Oct 07 to mid-Jan 08 Brgy. 82-85 Cluster Brgy. 126 -131 Cluster Brgy. Greater Fairview Brgy. Greater Lagro Brgy. Holy Spirit Brgy. New Era Miriam College Claret School of Q.C. Date 1,557.8 Total Waste Diverted* Net Wt. (kg) LGU 497.3 1,055.5
Conclusion <ul><li>Zero to 1.5 M.T. waste diversion of post-consumer plastic bags and Foam PS in the pilot areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued collection in Quezon City pilot areas </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion in Caloocan covering 188 barangays. Target of 50% by mid-2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Miriam College and Claret School of Quezon City are segregating plastic bags and Foam PS (Miriam only) </li></ul><ul><li>Education is a factor in the success of the project. Schools major contributors. </li></ul>
PELLETIZING SORTING PROCESSING Trash Bags, among others Mechanical Recycling for PLASTICS Above: RECYCLED or PELLETIZED PLASTIC
Mixing Asphalt with waste plastic bags Aggregates Asphalt concrete with waste plastic bags
RESULTS OBTAINED <ul><li>Specific gravity increased with modified asphalt content </li></ul><ul><li>High stability at 6.0% modified asphalt content </li></ul><ul><li>Flow increased with modified asphalt content </li></ul><ul><li>Air voids decreased as modified asphalt content increases </li></ul>
Other Alternatives <ul><li>Fuel for Cement Kiln </li></ul>
Other Alternatives <ul><li>Hollow block and Cement Fillers </li></ul>
Other Alternatives <ul><li>Laminated “Zesto” Bags for Export to Europe </li></ul>
Other Alternatives <ul><li>Plastic Waste to Fuel </li></ul>
Other Alternatives <ul><li>Plastic Waste to Energy </li></ul>
ISSUES & CONCERNS <ul><li>Lack of Education & Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Poor implementation of existing laws (e.g. anti-littering, segregation, MRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Political Will </li></ul><ul><li>Low valued recyclables </li></ul><ul><li>TO BAN or NOT TO BAN? </li></ul>
Recommended Recycling Practices: Plastics Recyclables Residuals ONLY Residuals X X Export Households “ RECYCLABLE” Dealers Manufacturers Eco-Aides Materials Recovery Facility / Waste Market Recyclers Store/Outlet Garbage Truck Landfills Alternatives
PROPOSED MEASURES <ul><li>Focus on Resource Recovery through RECYCLING in line with RA9003 </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Solid Waste in Curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector Initiative for IEC </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Gov’t. – Private – NGO partnership for concrete programs </li></ul>
Oxo/Photo/Bio degradable Plastics PE & PP with Biomate additives (Oxo-Biodegrable Plastics) Step 1 Oxidation Degradation (Production of low molecular mass oxidation products) Step 2 Bio-Degradation (Bio-assimilation of low molecular mass oxidation products) Sun Light Heat and Oxygen (The Natural Environment) Natural Soil and Composting Environment
Information on the impact of plastics on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions Production Use End of life Energy CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 Energy Energy Raw materials Products Packaging Housing Transportation <ul><li>Improved production efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Production emissions reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved product design with plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter, more efficient products with plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved food by plastic packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced land-fill </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling operations </li></ul><ul><li>Energy reclamation </li></ul>Recycle / Energy conversion
Energy consumption of plastic products and their potential substitutes <ul><li>+ : Energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>: Energy credits (prevented food losses / saved primary production / saved production of electricity & heat) </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of plastic products with alternative materials </li></ul><ul><li>split into life-cycle phases </li></ul>
Effect of Substitution of Plastics on Mass, Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions 39 Mill t/a 144 Mill t/a Alternative materials x 3,7 Total mass for same funct. Units Subst. Plastics 46,4 Mill. t incl. not substitutable plastic products 4.940 Mill GJ/a 7.230 Mill GJ/a +46% Alternative materials (incl. not subst. plastics) Energy consumption in total life-cycle All plasticproducts 240 Mill t/a 360 Mill t/a +50% GHG emissions in total life-cycle Alternative materials (incl. not subst. plastics) All plasticproducts
Relevance of plastic products in total consumer „carbon footprint“ <ul><li>The average consumer carbon footprint for the EU27+2 is approx. 14 tonnes CO2-equivalents per capita </li></ul>170 kg per capita result from plastics consumption. This equals 1,3% of the total consumer carbon footprint.
<ul><li>Glass is 100% recyclable. No waste byproducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass recycling extends furnace life and reduces energy costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Cullet - Broken glass from softdrinks, beer, liquor, pharmaceutical bottles and packers jars (food, condiments, chemicals, etc.). </li></ul>GLASS Industry
<ul><ul><li>Flint or clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Coke, gin, catsup bottles, beer, pharma and packers jars </li></ul></ul></ul>Cullet Classification <ul><ul><li>Amber or brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Beer and pharma bottles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Sprite, Cosmos Sparkle, Cali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flint with blue prints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Royal Tru-Orange, Pepsi </li></ul></ul>
Specific Guidelines to improve recycling activities <ul><li>Glass containers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washed & Cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear Contents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Banlawan” or Rinsed with running water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove caps and labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorted according to color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flint or clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amber or brown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerald or green </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flint with blue prints </li></ul></ul></ul>
The PAPER Industry <ul><li>The pulp and paper industry sector in the Philippines consists of 46 mills with a combined production of 1,120,000 tons of pulp, paper and board per year (2002). </li></ul>
Why Recycle Paper? <ul><li>Every ton of paper recycled saves almost 17 trees. </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippines has the second lowest paper recovery rate in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>17% of our waste is paper </li></ul><ul><li>60% Energy Savings / 90% less air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling paper also means that there is a substitute available for virgin paper. </li></ul>Recycling Practices: Paper Packaging The Philippines has the second lowest paper recovery rate in the region. PHILIPPINES
THE PAPER RECYCLING PROCESS CUSTOMER PULPING DE-INKING FORMING PRESSING DRYING CALENDERING WRAPPING PRINTING SHIPPING WINDING REELING WASTE PAPER CLEANING/ SCREENING
Non-usable Paper Plastic coated or laminated papers, usually book covers PAPER TOWEL Wet-strength or unrepulpable papers Carbon papers
Requirements: Old Newspapers (ONP) Also includes all newsprint papers such as magazines (MOD,Womens,Kislap) Not yellowish or sunburned Atras BUKAS Bayan sa RW Print date should not be more than 6 months old upon delivery June 6, 2002 Not heavily printed or heavily colored (ex. Komiks)
White Papers Printed bond papers,notebooks, computer forms,books,etc... Requirements: Not yellowish or sunburned Notebook springs should be removed Glossy or coated papers should be separated if quantity is big Not heavily printed or heavily colored
Old Corrugated Cartons (OCC) Requirements: Brown carton boxes Should be baled or tied Brown on both sides. White or colored cartons such as Zesto and Coke boxes are classified as mixed waste. Coke Zesto Zesto
Mixed Waste Gray chipboard, carbonless papers, colored and heavily printed papers, colored OCC, envelopes, folders, newspapers more than 6 months old, mimeo test papers, komiks, and other repulpable papers not falling in the other 3 categories.