Highly ionized state positively charged ions Free negatively charged electrons 99% of the matter in the universe
BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE (BEC) Predicted in 1924 by Albert Einstein, who built on the work of Styendra Bose Condensation occurs when individual atoms meld into a “superatom” behaving as a single entity at just a few hundred billionths of a degree above absolute zero
Chemical Initial state Final state Physical or System Chemical Change?
PHYSICAL Change Changes that alter the physical form of matter without changing its chemical identity. ALL changes of state are physical changes
CHEMICAL Change Occurswhen the chemical identity of a substance is destroyed and a new substance is formed. Chemical reactions
Indicators of Chemical change/reaction Color changes Odor changes Production of gas Production of solid or precipitate
Physical and Chemical Changes and Properties Chemical Physical Changes Old substances New form of old destroyed substance New substances No new substance formed formed Properties Properties defined Description by by types of senses chemical changes possible Measurable properties
ENDOTHERMIC Process The system absorbs heatSURROUNDINGS HEAT SYSTEM Melting of ice
EXOTHERMIC Process The system evolves heatSYSTEM HEAT SURROUNDINGS
Combustion Freezing of water Melting of ice Boiling of water Condensing steam
Has its own set of chemical and physical properties Cannot be separated into parts by physical means Has a definite, fixed composition that does not vary from one sample to another
Consists of two or more chemicals Properties depend on the substances on it Compositions can vary
Definedby its atomic number Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances Atomic Number - the number of protons in an unreacted atom Mass Number - the number of protons and neutrons together
Hydrogen H 63.0%Oxygen O 25.5%Carbon C 9.45%Nitrogen N 1.35%Calcium CaPhosphorus PChlorine ClSulfur S 0.7%Sodium NaPotassium KMagnesium Mg
a substance made of more than one type of atom Composed of 2 or more elements Atoms combined in fixed proportions Can be decomposed into two or more other substances by chemical change
Turnblue litmus to red React with many metals React with bases
An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. HCl • Pure substance, hydrogen chloride • Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid Anoxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.
Cause color changes in plant dyes. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Reactwith carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.
A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide
A salt, is defined as the product formed from the neutralization reaction of acids and bases. Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge)
Wala akong bosesKaya please, konting katahimikan at pag- itindi ang aking hiling Salamat, Ma’am Pie
1. Identify the physical state of the following: a) Helium in a toy balloon b) vitamin tablets in a bottle c) mercury in a thermometer
2. Identify the type of property in the following statements:a. Yellow-green chlorine gas attacks silvery sodium metal to form white crystals of sodium chloride.b. A magnet separates the mixture of black iron shavings and white sand.
3. State which type of change occurs in the following statements:a. Passing an electric current through molten magnesium chloride yields molten magnesium and gaseous chlorine.b. The iron in discarded automobiles forms reddish brown, crumbly rust.
c. Chopping a logd. Burning a loge. Toasting a slice of bread
4. What is the key difference between an element and a compound?5. List two differences between a compound and a mixture.6. Make a concept of the Classification of Matter.
HETEROGENEOUS Varies in composition and or properties from one part of the mixture to anotherHOMOGENEOUS Has the same/uniform composition and properties throughout
Kind of mixture Particle size Examples Characteristics
SUSPENSION >1000 nm Particles are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas Different parts separate over time
SOLUTION 0.2-2.0 nm A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase
Gas Liquid SolidGas Oxygen and The odor of a other gases in Water vapor in solid -- nitrogen (air) air (humidity) molecules of that solid being dissolved in the airLiquid Carbon dioxide Ethanol Sucrose (table in water (common sugar) in water; (carbonated alcohol) in sodium chloride water) water; various (table salt) in hydrocarbons in water each other (petroleum) *Solid Hydrogen Water in Steel, Brass, dissolved to activated other metal palladium charcoal alloys
COLLOID 2.0-1000 nm Consists of tiny particles that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas Stable heterogeneous mixtures Exhibits Tyndall effect
Decantation • separates liquids from solids that have settled Evaporation • Separates the solid (residue) from the liquid (filtrate) parts of the mixture