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  1. 1. Earth’s Water Budget
  2. 2. • 97%  saltwater• 3%  freshwater• 2.59%  ice caps, glaciers, deep groundwater• 0.41% surface freshwater, accessible groundwater, soil moisture
  3. 3. WHY is it ESSENTIAL to LIFE?
  4. 4. PROPERTIES of WATERWATER has HYDROGEN BONDS• Responsible for other special characteristics of water 
  5. 5. Water boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C at sea level• Water exist as a liquid in a wide range of temperature
  6. 6. High Heat Capacity• Specific heat capacity of 4.184 j/g-C• Helps protect living organisms from the shock of abrupt temperature changes• Moderates earth’s climate• Makes water as an excellent coolant
  7. 7. High Heat of Vaporization• It takes a lot of heat to evaporate liquid water• Makes evaporation of water an effective cooling process
  8. 8. Water is Polar• Liquid water can dissolve a variety of compounds – Carry nutrients – Flush waste products – Serve as an all-purpose cleanser – Help remove and dilute the water-soluble wastes of civilization
  9. 9. Water is Transparent• Water is clear and allows light to pass through.Importance?Density• Liquid = 1g/mlImportance?
  10. 10. Short Quiz What property of water is responsible for the following: Explain.1. Ice floats on water.2. Water remains a liquid in most climates on earth.3. Water is an excellent solvent.4. Animals rid their bodies of excess heat through evaporation of sweat.
  12. 12. Surface Water• Rivers, lakes, seas, reservoirs• Gets replenished through? precipitation and run-off
  13. 13. Ground Water• The water that works its way below the ground through voids of permeable rocks aquifers aquitards – impermeable rocks
  14. 14. SPRING• Ground water that comes out from fissure or cracks in aquifers solid impermeable base, and naturally surface out the ground.
  15. 15. Ground water is a major source of fresh water in the country. How can we extract it?
  16. 16. Depletion of Ground water, possible?= land subsidence or sinking area
  17. 17. Sea Water• Contains high concentration of dissolved solids than freshwater.• Salinity = 35 ppt• ESTUARY – Region where freshwater mixes with seawater
  18. 18. 1. Discuss the Earth’s water budget. a. Which part gets the largest percentage? The least? b. What are the effects of this distribution on the different ecosystems?2. Make a diagram of the ground water system. Label its parts. a. Differentiate aquifer and aquitard. b. What are the effects of groundwater depletion?
  19. 19. HW• Research on El Nino – La Nina Phenomena (1 whole pad paper/bond paper)• Bring the following: (Friday) – Sand – Clay – Gravel/pebble – 3 20ml colored liquid – Timer
  20. 20. Water and Atmospheric ConditionsAtmosphere : An important component of the Hydrologic Cycle?HOW?
  21. 21. Water plays a major role in climate, or daily weather changes.HOW?
  22. 22. Humidity in AIRHUMIDITY• Measure of the atmospheric water vapor content.• Relative Humidity (RH) – one way of expressing humidity
  23. 23. Check-up• Why do we feel sticky and warmer during summer days when the air is humid?• When is the best time of the day to water the plants? Why?
  24. 24. El Niño - La NiñaEl Niño (ENSO) La Niña Frequent and strongerWarmer surface along the typhoons; rainy seasons incoasts southeast Asia Colder and longer winterSharp decline in fish harvest season in the northern hemisphereLong dry season resulting to Flooding in coastal regions andcritical water levels in floodplainsreservoirsDrying up of farmlands , Serious economicresulting to poor crop harvest consequences
  25. 25. QUIZ #31. What are the consequences of a major event of ENSO?2.What should be done in the following situations:a. It is high noon. The plants in the flowerbox look “thirsty” for water.b. It is winter in Canada. Inside a room, friends huddle before the fireplace. RH is very low. Their skin is also becoming dry.c. A rich farmer wants to venture into a piggery business along a river. Downstream, people use the river for irrigation.
  27. 27. War in the Middle East
  28. 28. Seawater Intrusion• Contamination of freshwater with saltwater
  29. 29. Land Subsidence• Depression of the land above an area where massive extraction of water leaves voids underground
  30. 30. Water Scarcity• Occurs in places surrounded by seas• Seawater cannot be used for drinking and other purposes• desalination
  32. 32. Dissolved Oxygen(DO)• Amount of diatomic oxygen dissolved in water• Comes from air which mixes with water• High DO = ?• Warm water has lower DO than cold water. Why?• Water movement increases DO, presence of pollutants decreases DO
  33. 33. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)• The amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms in the water to survive• High BOD =?
  34. 34. Total Suspended Solids(TSS)• Indicates turbidity• High TSS = ?
  35. 35. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)• A measure of the mount of dissolved contaminants in water• High TDS = ?
  36. 36. Coliform Bacteria• Microorganisms which come from the animal dung or human feces• Presence of coliform bacteria = ?• For drinking water coliform count = 0• Swimming pool = <100
  38. 38. • A condition in which water becomes unfit for its intended use.• Uses of water ?
  39. 39. Pollutants• Human and animal wastes• Organic wastes• Industrial wastes – Organic chemicals – Heavy metals – Nitrates – Grease and oil – Radioactive chemicals
  40. 40. LEAD• Neurotoxin• Can cause hyperacidity and low attention span• Linked to low IQ and poor performance• High concentration in areas using lead in water pipes
  41. 41. Mercury• Neurotoxin• Caused the Minamata disease (Minamata Bay, Kyushu Japan)
  42. 42. Methylmercury
  43. 43. Oil• Oil spill – most common problem in the industrialized world• Prevents the entry of oxygen• Coats the gills of fish• Coats the feathers of birds
  44. 44. Nitrates and phosphates• used in fertilizers• Found in detergents• Eutrophication• algal bloom• Massive fish kills
  45. 45. Acids• Due to acid rain and acidic waste water from industries• Dissolves and reacts with nutrients necessary for algal growth
  46. 46. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)• Stable compound that persists or stays in the environment for a long time• “dirty dozen”• Very toxic to humans and animals
  47. 47. Dead Rivers• “one which is not suitable for any beneficial purpose”• “physically lost”• Biologically dead river – which could no longer support important aquatic species• Tullahan River, Pasig River,
  48. 48. Thermal Pollution• Happens when hot waste water is released in rivers or lakes
  49. 49. Mine Spills• Spills from mine tailings• High concentration of mercury and cyanide• Boac in Marinduque• Mt. Diwalwal in Campostela Valley• Rapu-rapu, Albay
  50. 50. Quiz #3• A group of students was assigned to investigate on the fish kill that happened in a certain lake. What parameters are they going to test. Explain your answer.