Monitoring Remote Areas Using Wireless Mote Networks

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Wireless remote monitoring of VOC\'s by PID

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Monitoring Remote Areas Using Wireless Mote Networks

  1. 1. Monitoring Remote Areas Using Wireless Mote Networks Paper # 2350 – 7 J.N. Driscoll, PID Analyzers, 2 Washington Circle Dr., Sandwich, MA 02563 H. Gimenez, P. Hogan, W. Johnson, N. Perova, P. Perov, J. (Stinchfield) Fernandez Suffolk University, 41 Temple Street, Boston, MA, 02114 Presented At Pittsburgh Conference- Orlando, FL
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Development of wireless “Mote” networks for monitoring of remote locations or locations where wired systems cannot be implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Development of base station software to allow for uploading of Tmote data to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Development of external antenna systems to maximize range of the Tmotes while minimizing complexity of routing protocols and maintain low drain on the batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Development of gas sensor array (4-5 sensors simultaneously) & electronics to be used with the motes </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are RF Motes <ul><li>Radiofrequency wireless “motes” are low power, inexpensive devices that incorporate sensors, processing and communications in a small package. These devices were developed by the University of California at Berkeley in 1999 and have been expanded to include sensors for light, temperature, humidity, and other parameters. We have designed a low power toxic gas array for five sensors that can be easily interfaced to RF motes. </li></ul><ul><li>The RF motes can communicate using novel network topologies suitable for specific applications. The data is then relayed back to a base mote connected to a PC with a suitable database, which can be uploaded to the Internet. We describe inter-mote distance limitations, interface issues of the sensor board to the motes, solutions to long term power for the motes, communication protocols between motes, transfer of data from base mote to Mysql database, and creation of a dynamic website hosted on an Apache webserver. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Description of Remote Sensor <ul><li>Have used 10 position RF Modes </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition time- every 10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Have developed database & data collection program </li></ul><ul><li>Have developed low power battery operated 5 channel amp for sensors such as PID, IR (>3), CG, TC, RH, EC (> 30), wind speed… </li></ul><ul><li>Can check remote battery condition every 10 seconds </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key Features of the Tmote <ul><li>- 250kbps 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Chipcon Wireless Transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>- Interoperability with other IEEE 802.15.4 devices </li></ul><ul><li>- 8MHz Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller (10k RAM, 48k Flash) </li></ul><ul><li>- Integrated ADC, DAC, Supply Voltage Supervisor, and DMA Controller </li></ul><ul><li>- Integrated Humidity, Temperature, and Light Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>- TinyOS support: mesh networking and communication implementation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tmote Components (Top)
  7. 7. Tmote Components (Bottom)
  8. 8. Range Issues with Standard Tmote <ul><li>The short range of standard Tmote necessitates an improved antenna system </li></ul><ul><li>External antennas on the Tmote are feasible, but require board modifications </li></ul><ul><li>The measured range for the standard Tmote was about 20 meters </li></ul><ul><li>The solution... </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Parabolic Dish <ul><li>Allows for wide area coverage when used as a receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for perimeter reception of a deployment of motes </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents to need to modify the deployed motes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maximum Range Measurement <ul><li>The maximum range measured (90% efficiency based on packet loss) was 550 meters </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum (100% reception) range was 400 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Random packets were received at up to 1 km range </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cranberry Bog Project <ul><li>Cranberry crops are highly susceptible to temperature fluctuation and must be flooded over to protect them during cold spells </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this project is set up a mote network to monitor temperature gradients in a cranberry bog to assist in flood control </li></ul><ul><li>The motes must be deployed and left in place during the growing season to prevent damage to the delicate crop </li></ul><ul><li>The cranberry bog in questions is approximately 300 meters by 300 meters </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cranberry Bog Map
  13. 13. Mote Team discusses placement and range measurements
  14. 14. Cranberry Bog Range Summary <ul><li>The maximum range was 400 meters </li></ul><ul><li>The dish was able to receive motes along a line drawn from the edge of the dish to 200 meters in either direction </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of the entire bog was easily obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Full receive capabilities were maintained upon moving the dish inside (an additional 50 meters) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Looking out from Dish location. Farthest mote out was 350 meters and had perfect reception
  16. 16. Setup of the Data Collection System: Modified nesC and Java Programs for data collection system: Oscilloscope, Oscope.
  17. 17. Radio Transmission Facts
  18. 18. Calibration of Remote Gas Sensors Distance 100’
  19. 21. Spreadsheet Data Format Time Date Humidity Temp A TSR PAR Temp S Batt V H2S ppm CH4 % MoteID1 15:32:05 2/18/06 20.5 24.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 0.03 MoteID1 15:32:15 2/18/06 20.5 24.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 2.30 MoteID 1 15:32:25 2/18/06 20.5 24.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 2.48 MoteID 1 15:32:35 2/18/06 20.5 24.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 2.50 MoteID 1 15:32:45 2/18/06 20.5 24.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 0.31 MoteID1 15:32:55 2/18/06 20.5 23.4 1 1 24.4 2.97 0 0.06
  20. 22. packMICA2 Mote network XListen+ Mote-VIEW Client Tools w/XMesh Routing PostgreSQL Database Homeland Security Area Monitoring Mote with sensors
  21. 23. Sensors Available <ul><li>TECHNOLOGIES - GASES -PID (3), IR (3), TCD , UV, CG, EC (4 TYPES) > 30 SENSORS </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURE -VOC’s, CH 4 , CO 2 , N 2 O, H 2 , SO 2 , Hg, % LEL, NH 3 , AsH 3 , CO, Cl 2 , ClO 2 , ETO, F 2 , CH2O, Hydrazine, HBr, HCN, HCl, HF, H 2 S, I 2 , RSH, NO, NO 2 , O 2 , O 3 , Phosgene, PH 3 , SO 2 , SiH 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>RANGE - ppb to % depending on sensor </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURE- LIQUIDS -pH, T, CONDUCTIVITY, DISSOLVED O 2 , TURBIDITY </li></ul>
  22. 24. Summary <ul><li>The RF motes have a range > 100’ in a building (through walls) </li></ul><ul><li>To cover a wider area up to 400 meters, we used an antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Motes will talk to each other & can be used to relay info to PC </li></ul><ul><li>The RF modes can be used to monitor up to 10 parameters local T, RH, Battery V, sensor T, Calibration set & 5 gas or liquid sensors </li></ul><ul><li>We are also evaluating a new antenna design to improve the range & improved software to make the operation easier to operate </li></ul>
  23. 25. Suffolk Mote Team <ul><li>Students: Jack Hamm, Nick Hennigar, Niko Liakis, Brian Muccioli, Jim Speers </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni: Jennifer Stinchfield-Fernandes, Josel Fernandes, Natasha Perova </li></ul><ul><li>Physics Faculty: Walter Johnson, Igor Kreydin, Pol Perov, Yevginy Rodin </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Engineering faculty: Pat Hogan </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Engineering Faculty: Craig Christensen, Harold Giminez </li></ul>

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