Cycle 4: Seismic Clatter • Locating Petroleum• Wonder Why.....• Have you ever wondered about the technology that scientists use to locate oil and natural gas? How can you map something you cannot see? Next Slide Vocabulary Words
Seismic Clatter Activity One – Patterns• Every person in the world has a unique set of fingerprints. Even though everyone’s fingerprints are different, there are basic patterns that are always found. • How are these fingerprints different? Next Slide
Seismic Clatter Discovery Procedure• 1. Make a carbon pad by scratching on a sheet• of paper with a pencil.• 2. Rub your right thumb across the carbon pad.• 3. Lift two prints of your right thumb using• transparent tape. Next Slide
Seismic Clatter Discovery Procedure4. Place lifted thumb prints on opposite endsof an index card. Write your name below thethumb print on the right half of the card. name5. Give your completed card to your teacher. Next Slide
Seismic Clatter • Discovery Procedure: • Identify the matching thumb prints.• Discuss the similarities and differences in the students’ prints. • Identify student thumb prints which have whorls, arches or loops. Next Slide
Patterns from Underground• Scientists use sound waves to “see” inside the earth and to produce seismic maps. Thumper trucks or explosions are used to send powerful vibrations, or seismic waves, through the ground. Next Slide
Seismic MappingDifferent rock types reflect seismic waves differently.• Seismic mapping (seismic survey) is used to locate subsurface structures and possible sites for Next • petroleum location. Slide
Geological Features• Geologic features of particular interest to petroleum geologists are: 1. Anticline 2. Fault 3. Salt Dome 4. Stratigraphic traps (Pinchout and Unconformity)Click on the underlined words tolearn more about the geological feature. Next Slide
Anticline•Upwarping of rocks (anticlinal folds) areparticularly good at trapping crude oiland natural gas.
Anticline OILOil formed in the source rock migrates upward through thereservoir rock until it is stopped by the cap rock.
Fault•Movements in the Earth trapped the oiland natural gas in the reservoir rocksbetween layers of impermeable rock.
Salt Dome•Salt beds formed by the evaporation of seawater. High pressure exerted on salt beds deepin the Earth’s crust caused the salt to flow,often forming a dome.
Stratigraphic TrapGeologic featuresformed by a changein the reservoir rock.The sand bars arecovered by the mudfrom the floodplain.The mud eventuallyturned to shale andtrapped the oil.