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  • 1. Completions Completions • What is a Completion? “Preparing the drilled wellbore to produce hydrocarbon reliably and at optimum rates.” • Topics: – Selection Criteria for Completion Styles – Completion Equipment – Potential problems 2
  • 2. Introduction • Why do we install completions? • Isolation • Formation control • How does a well flow? • Natural Pressure • Artificial Lift • How does the completion effect well design? • Casing sizes • Wellbore placement 3 Completion Options Completion Applications Advantages Disadvantages Style Open Hole Stable lithologies Lower initial cost; Max. Minimal inflow/outflow such as carbonates reservoir exposure; control; P&A may be Simple; Potentially least more difficult; More reservoir damage; Able difficult stimulations. to change/extend hole Uncemented Less stable Cost is still low; Allows No inflow/outflow liner (Slotted lithologies exposed better access to wellbore control; Some loss of or pre- such as sloughing by controlling collapsed productivity likely; Liner perforated) shales or formation may collapse due to unconsolidated slotting/holes; Limited sands logging data; Unlikely that completion can be changed; Complete P&A unlikely 4
  • 3. Completion Options Completion Applications Advantages Disadvantages Style Liner with ECPs Less stable lithology Cost is higher Unstable & and some blank exposed such as depending on number permeable formations pipe sloughing shales or of ECPs; may make poor ECP unconsolidated Improved seats / poor isolation; sands inflow/outflow control Some productivity w/sliding sleeves; loss likely; Allows better access Completion cannot be to wellbore by changed; Complete controlling collapsed P&A difficult formation Open Hole Less stable lithology Consistent access to Minimal inflow/outflow Gravel Pack or exposed such as wellbore; Control of control; High cost; FracPack sloughing shales or sand production while P&A likely to be unconsolidated maintaining high difficult sands permeability flow path 5 Completion Options Completion Applications Advantages Disadvantages Style Cased Hole (liner Good Maximum High cost; Max. cemented and inflow/outflow inflow/outflow control; productivity loss perforated) control required Consistent access to wellbore; Improved P&A ‘Intelligent’ Good Maximum flexibility; Very high cost; Completions inflow/outflow cheapest (often rigless) possible reliability control and intervention issues monitoring required, including remote control / monitoring 6
  • 4. Completion Types Introduction • Completion design is driven by reservoir characteristics. • Permeability • Porosity • Saturations • Pressures • Formation Strength • Data collection and quality early in project life is critical to long term success. 7 Completion Types Open Hole • High permeability (Kh≥10md for oil, ≥1md for gas) • Stable formation • No bottom edge or water drives • No fracture planned 8
  • 5. Completion Types Cased Natural • High permeability (Kh≥10md for oil, ≥1md for gas) • Possibility of spalling, but no sand movement • Bottom or edge water control needed • No fracture planned • Laminations not frequent 9 Completion Types Cased Hole Gravel Pack • High permeability (Kh≥10md for oil, ≥1md for gas) • Laminations not frequent (h ≤ 2 ft) • Limited bottom edge water control needed • Sand Control Needed 10
  • 6. Completion Types Cased Hole Frac Pack • No limits on permeability • Multiple fracs possible • Bottom edge or water not penetrated by frac 11 Completion Types Multi-lateral • Surface / reservoir access limited • Thick layered pay zones • Multiple well types needed • Compartmentalized reservoirs • Wellbores placed for water control • Limited re-entry potential • No pressure isolation needed 12
  • 7. Completion Equipment Tree’s • An arrangement of valves to provide primary control of a producing well. • Simple to complex. Swab Valve Choke Wing Valve Block Master Valve 13 Completion Equipment Chokes • Holds backpressure on a flowing well. • Optimizes gas lift of liquids and controls bottom hole pressure. • Variable or fixed openings called “Beans”. From Cameron 14
  • 8. Completion Equipment Subsurface Safety Valves • Automatically halts production in the event surface equipment fails or is damaged. • Valve set in tubing string ≈ 100 below mud line • Control provided by small hydraulic line on outside of tubing. • Interrupted pressure closes the valve. 15 The Calm Before the Storm Gulf of Mexico Near the Mouth of the Mississippi River 28 Well 8-Pile Platform in 440 ft of Water 16
  • 9. Ivan the Terrible Enters the Picture 17 After Ivan 18
  • 10. After Ivan 19 Completion Equipment Production Packers • Casing protection from fluids or pressures. • Zonal isolation. • Subsurface pressure and fluid control. • Artificial lift support equipment. • Retrievable or permanent. 20
  • 11. Completion Equipment Packer Considerations • Seal Application • Pressure • Temperature • Fluid Reaction • Forces • Slips to resist motion upward, downward, or both? • Temperature. • Piston effect. • Ballooning. • Buckling. 21 Completion Equipment Sand Control Screens • A perforated section of pipe wrapped with “wire” to create a specific opening size to restrict the flow of formation solids. • Can be used alone or with gravel or frac packs. 22
  • 12. Completion Equipment Perforation Charges • Shaped charges. • Majority of perforating work. • The focused pressure wave with the mass of the perforating liner punch the hole in the casing, cement and formation. • Velocities near 20,000 ft/sec. • Bullet guns. • Hardened steel shot from short barrel to penetrate casing and formation • Abrasive methods. • Sand and water slurry pumped at high pressures aimed at the casing wall. 23 Completion Equipment Brine Fluids • Control the well pressures by adjusting density – limited by same parameters as drilling mud. • Adjust density by changing salt / salt combinations. • Avoid damage to well after completion, stimulation, or repair. Formation “friendly”. • Confirm compatibility with produced fluids. • Clean up and disposal requirements at the surface. • HSE issues with brine handling 24
  • 13. Completion Equipment Brine Fluids 25 Interventions and Workovers Wireline Operations • Liquid and fill diagnosis • Gauge running and retrieval • Gas lift valve replacement • Sleeve shifting • Plug and packer setting • Bailer runs 26
  • 14. Interventions and Workovers Wireline Operations • Advantages • Speed • Cost • Footprint • Disadvantages • Low strength • Lack of rotation • Lack of circulation 27 Interventions and Workovers Coiled Tubing • Continuous string of steel tubing wound on large diameter spool • No connections = continuous circulation • One of the largest technological advances of last 30 years. • Multiple sizes as small as 1 inch diameter 28
  • 15. Interventions and Workovers Coiled Tubing Operations • Initiating or controlling flow • Jetting out sand or fill in tubing • Stimulation operations • Logging • Conveying perforating systems • High angle and horizontal well capable 29
  • 16. Notes: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
  • 17. Notes: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
  • 18. Notes: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________