01   Well Planning
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01   Well Planning 01 Well Planning Document Transcript

  • Drilling Engineering Overview • Project Management • Well Planning • Contractor Management • Risk Assessment 1 Project Management • Operators are dependent upon various service providers for services that are critical to well delivery. • Drilling engineers must actively manage themselves and the resources at their disposal. • Effective drilling engineers are constantly and actively shifting their focus between “Engineering” activities and “Management” activities. 2
  • Project Management • “Engineering” activities include: – Details of the well design – Specification and assessment of work done by other team members – Operational procedures and planning – Short term scheduling of tasks – Time and cost prediction – Performance monitoring and reporting – Lessons learned 3 Project Management • “Management” activities include: – Understanding the full scope of work involved in the project – Leadership – communication vision and goals for the project, gain buy-in, progress reports – Long term scheduling of work phases based on duration and lead time – Setting priorities / Allocation of resources – Relationships among team members that enable them to work effectively 4
  • Geology Completion Well Planning Process Trajectory Wellbore Stability • Setting Priorities • Information Flow Drilling Fluids • Decision Support Casing • Optimization Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Bits Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 5 Geology Offset well data Electric Logs Mudlogs Completion Samples Cores Trajectory Test results Seismic data Wellbore Stability Drilling Fluids Geology Casing Cementing Targets: N-S/E-W Wellheads / BOP TVD Size / Shape / Orientation Directional Tendencies / Dip Angles / Faults BHA & Drill String Lithologies: Rock type / strength Bits Porosity / permeability Troublesome Formations Hole Cleaning Fracture and Pore Pressure Gradients & Hydraulics Temperature Expected Fluids Expected Flow Rates Rig Equipment 6
  • Geology Geology Lithologies: Completion Rock type / strength Porosity / permeability Trajectory Dip Angles / Faults Fracture and Pore Pressure Gradients Expected Fluids Wellbore Stability Expected Flow Rates Drilling Fluids Casing Completion Cementing Wellheads / BOP Production Casing/Tubing Size Completion Design BHA & Drill String Artificial Lift Requirements Stimulation Design Bits Length / Orientation in Reservoir Future Intervention Requirements Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 7 Geology Geology Targets: Completion Completion N-S/E-W Length / Orientation in Reservoir TVD Future Intervention Requirements Size / Shape Trajectory Orientation Troublesome Formations Wellbore Stability Directional Tendencies Drilling Fluids Trajectory Design Casing Cementing MD/TVD Wellheads / BOP Inclination Azimuth BHA & Drill String KOP Build Rates Bits Walk Rates Dogleg Severity N-S / E-W Displacements Hole Cleaning Horizontal Departure & Hydraulics Surveying Requirements Rig Equipment 8
  • Geology Completion Geology Length / Orientation in Reservoir Target Orientation Prod. Casing/Hole Size Completion Lithologies Pressure at Abandonment Rock type / strength Trajectory Fracture & Pore Pressure Gradients Trajectory Troublesome Formations / Stress Regime Wellbore Position Directional Tendencies KOP Wellbore Stability Inclination Azimuth Drilling Fluids Casing Wellbore Stability Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Mechanical Stability: MW Window Drilling Practices Tripping Practices Bits Chemical Stability: Inhibitive Fluid Req’ts. Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 9 Geology Completion Trajectory Non-damaging Inclination Completion Geology Lithologies Trajectory Rock type / strength Wellbore Stability Fracture & Pore Pressure Gradients MW Schedule Troublesome Formations Inhibitive Fluid Req’ts. Wellbore Stability Drilling Fluids Casing Drilling Fluids Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Mud Type Mud Properties Mud Weight Bits Rheology Filtration Hole Cleaning Inhibition & Hydraulics Solids Control Requirements Cuttings Handling / Disposal Rig Equipment 10
  • Geology Trajectory Wellbore Stability Completion Critical Angle MW Schedule Dogleg Severity Casing Seat Options Completion Trajectory Prod. Casing / Hole Size Completion Design Drilling Fluids Wellbore Stability Stimulation Design Mud Type Zonal Isolation Mud Properties Geology Mud Weight Drilling Fluids Pressure Profile Viscosity Unstable formations Friction Coefficient Casing Cementing Casing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Casing Sizes, Weights, Grades, Connections Bits Casing Setting Depths Casing –vs- Liner/Tieback Hole Cleaning Load Cases – Tension, Burst, Collapse, Buckling & Hydraulics Special Tools Running Procedures Rig Equipment 11 Geology Trajectory Inclination Completion Completion Dogleg Severity Wellbore Stability Hole Size Requirements MW Schedule Trajectory Completion Design Problem formations Stimulation Design Wellbore Stability Zonal Isolation Drilling Fluids Geology Mud Type Pressure Profile Mud Properties Drilling Fluids Temperature Mud Weight Aquifers Viscosity Casing Cementing Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Cement Job Designs Slurry type / additives Bits Slurry volumes Spacers / Washes Hole Cleaning Displacement & Hydraulics Conventional –vs- Inner string Tool Selection – Float Equipment, Centralizers, Stage tools, ECPs Rig Equipment FIT / LOT Plan 12
  • Geology Trajectory Completion Close proximity Drilling Fluids Completion requirements Mud Type Trajectory Hole Size Requirements Mud Additives Completion Design Stimulation Design Casing Wellbore Stability Geology Casing Sizes Pressure Profile No. of strings to surface Drilling Fluids Temperature Casing Cementing Wellheads / BOP Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Wellhead Size / Design / Pressure Rating BOP Size / Configuration / Working Pressure Rating Bits Testing Procedures / Frequency Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 13 Geology Trajectory Measured Depth Drilling Fluids Completion True Vertical Depth Mud Type KOP / Dogleg Severity Mud Properties Trajectory Inclination Mud Weight Azimuth Friction Coefficient Wellbore Stability Casing Geology Casing Sizes Lithology / strength Drilling Fluids Setting Depths Dip Angles / Faults Casing BHA & Drill String Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA Configuration / Directional Response BHA & Drill String Drill String: Lengths, Sizes, Weights, Grades, Connections Performance Properties: Tension, Torque, Buckling Bits Operating Procedures: Torque and Drag % Rotary Mode, Tortuosity Hole Cleaning Casing Wear Prediction / Mitigation Plan & Hydraulics Inspection Procedures / Frequency Rig Equipment 14
  • Geology Drilling Fluids Wellbore Stability Mud Type Mobile Formations Mud Properties Completion Trajectory Inhibition Casing Measured Depth Casing Sizes Trajectory Dogleg Severity Geology Cementing Lithology / strength Annular Clearance Req’ts Wellbore Stability Reactivity of clays Abrasiveness BHA & Drill String Drilling Fluids WOB and Torque Cap. Motor Torque Output Casing % Rotary Mode Cementing Bits Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Bit Size, Roller Cone / Fixed Cutter, Style, Features Operating Parameters: WOB, RPM Expected ROP, Footage, Bit Life, Cost / Foot Bits Eccentric or Bicenter Requirements Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 15 Geology Drilling Fluids Casing & Cementing Mud Type Casing Sizes Wellbore Stability Mud Properties Setting Depths Completion Unstable Formations Mud Weight Hole Enlargement Rheology BHA & Drill String Trajectory Pore Pressure / Frac Filtration Drill String: Gradient Window Lengths, Sizes, % Rotary Mode Wellbore Stability Trajectory Measured Depth Bits Drilling Fluids Surveying Req’ts Hole Sizes Inclination Bit Design Expected ROP Casing Hole Cleaning & Cementing Hydraulics Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Flow Rates Bits Standpipe Pressures Pump Horsepower Requirements Annular Velocities Hole Cleaning Equivalent Circulating Densities & Hydraulics Surge / Swab Bit Hydraulic Horsepower Rig Equipment Hole Cleaning Recommendations 16
  • Geology Cementing Wellheads / BOP Slurry Volumes Size / Configuration Casing Additive Types Pressure Rating Completion Casing Sizes Setting Depths BHA & Drill String Hookload Lengths, Sizes Trajectory Tension / Torque Loads Drilling Fluids RPM Wellbore Stability Mud Type Hole Cleaning Mud Properties & Hydraulics Solids Control Drilling Fluids Flow Rates Storage Volume Standpipe Pressures Cuttings Handling Pump HP Req’ts Casing Cementing Wellheads / BOP Rig Equipment BHA & Drill String Top Drive Torque / RPM Capability Bits Pump HP / Flow Rate / Pressure Capability Hookload Capacity Derrick Setback Space / Capacity Hole Cleaning Drilling Fluid Storage / Mixing / Solids Control & Hydraulics Bulk Dry / Liquid Storage Capacity Deck Space / Bed Space Rig Equipment 17 Working Backwards Geology from Completion Rig Capabilities Trajectory Top Drive Wellbore Stability Deck Space for Equipment Torque Output Storage for Fluids Drilling Fluids Bed Space for People Liquid Storage Dry Storage Casing Solids Control Cuttings Handling Cementing Deck Space for Tubulars Deck Space for Equipment Wellheads / BOP Hookload Capacity Dry Storage Liquid Storage BHA & Drill String for returns Size / Configuration Bits Pressure Rating Rig Pipe Inventory Racking Space Hole Cleaning Pump HP & Hydraulics Storage Space Flow Rate / SPM Rig Equipment Standpipe Pressure Limit 18
  • Example Geology of Completion Other Iterations Trajectory Wellbore Stability Drilling Fluids Casing Cementing Wellheads / BOP BHA & Drill String Bits Hole Cleaning & Hydraulics Rig Equipment 19 Hazard Control Process 20
  • Unocal Hazards Control Policy Each operating unit shall ensure that hazards control procedures are developed and implemented to effectively identify, evaluate and control hazards associated with all work at each stage, from conception through design; • Engineering, • Inspection, • Drilling, • 0perations, • Well servicing, • Maintenance and • Construction, • Cessation of operations. 21 Work Yes Mitigate Emergency? Emergency As Soon As Possible No D esign/Enginee ring Phase HA Screening Change or New Project Maintenance/Replacement-in-Kind Type of and Technique Work? Selection Yes Select HAR Perform HAR Technique and Hazard Analysis Required? HAR team Review Yes No Follow-up and Finalize Design Close-out HAR Actions Significant No Work Scope Change? Implementation Planning 22
  • Hazards Control Process Implementation Planning Implementation Phase Im plementation/C onstruction P hase Screening Yes Resolve Any Concerns? Concerns Yes (Note 1) No Start Work Variance from Work Note 1: Plan? "Resolving concerns will be by any of a number of methods such as peer discussion, project meeting or a formal hazard analysis. The method selected will be No at the discretion of the performing authority, suitably trained in application of the techniques. Complete Work 23 Hazard Analysis • Design Phase – Hazard Analysis Screening – Use Guidebooks - Tools and Techniques / When to use • Engineering Phase – Hazard Analysis Review – Finalize Work – • Implementation Phase – Significant Work Scope Change – Implementation Planning – Screening – Go / No Go – Deviation from work plan • Work Completion – reporting / audit / learning 24
  • Contract as Primary Risk Management Tool 25 Risk Management & Contracts • Unocal work is performed almost 100% by contractor personnel, working for a large number of Contractors. • Therefore Risk Management on the frontline of operations is co-managed by Contractors and Unocal. • The executed Contract is therefore a major Risk Management Tool. 26
  • Risk Management Objectives • Control losses and manage risks • Promote critical thinking and management of change • Provide a standard risk assessment methodology • Provide additional risk management tools • Provide risk management training • Comply with Unocal’s Risk Management Standard • Comply with Unocal’s OMS requirements for risk, engineering standards and management of change • Complement Unocal’s Hazards Control Policy 27 Key Contract Risk Management Elements • Indemnification • Applicable Law • Insurance • Billing • Accident Reporting • Term • Force Majeure • Termination • Warranties, including • Foreign Corrupt Practices patents and copyright Act • Confidentiality • Technical Exhibits • Audit • 28
  • Contractor Management Program 29 Key Aspects of the CMP • Company-wide application of best practices to select and manage contractors • A well defined “cradle to grave” contracting process • Each contract is “owned” by a Contract Manager • Contract teams are formally established • Technical specifications and Contractor selection are based on business objectives 30
  • Key Aspects of the CMP • Focus is on total long term value; not (only) on price • Planned and structured management of Contractor performance – continuous improvement • Risk Management / OMS • The program is a guideline that must reflect BU requirements 31 Managers’ Responsibilities • Integrate the CMP into every major project / program • Make appropriate resources (personnel) available • Delegate responsibility to contract teams: – Ensure the right people are selected as team members – Clarify the priority of the contracting effort and provide guidance – Participate in appropriate reviews and sanction key decisions – Track progress and address problem areas - ensure accountability • Be visibly committed to the CMP 32
  • The Procurement Team Contract Manager Management Procurement Specialist Attorney HES Representative HR Rep Engineers & Techs Accounting Rep Superintendents Tax Department Rep Worksite Supervisors Auditors Clerks & Secretaries Cross Functional Personnel 33 CMP Objectives • Apply Unocal’s values to all business dealings • Maximize the value for every procurement dollar • Manage risks (HES, operational, & commercial) • Timely delivery of quality goods and services • Meet requirements of policies and regulations • Integrate multiple Contractors in a single project 34
  • Contracting Priorities (Key Value Drivers) • Personnel • Service • Goods • Pricing 35 Drivers - Personnel • This is the single greatest factor in being the Clear Leader! • We need Contractor personnel who are: • technically excellent • highly motivated • driven by continuous improvement • team players • available to Unocal 36
  • Drivers - Goods • Have we developed detailed technical specifications? • Composition of materials • API specifications • Pressure and Temperature ratings • Do we understand Contractor’s QA / QC? 37 Drivers - Service • Quality of service is always determined by quality of personnel and overall management • Service is impacted directly by the way in which we manage the relationship from both sides 38
  • Drivers - Pricing • Every Contractor working for Unocal needs to make a fair and reasonable profit. • A key driver for all Contractors is to be paid on time! 39 Expectations • Establish high expectations and define them early - What do we consider success? • Ensure management (Unocal & Contractor) are committed to meeting the expectations • Expect continuous improvement 40
  • Contracting Activities • Form a Contract Team • Research the Business Environment – Internal and External • Develop Contract Strategy • Method of Selection & Commercial Structure – Bid / Bundle / Negotiation / Alliance / Turnkey / Performance – Global or local / Extensions / Exclusive personnel or equipment • Develop Specifications • Pre-Qualify Vendors • Revalidate the Strategy – Does original strategy still appear workable? • Contract Implementation – Reporting / Invoicing • Performance Management During the Contract Life 41 Research the Business Environment • Internal understanding: • Analysis of this type of service: Who spends how much with whom to accomplish what? • Forecasted activity level • Historical problems (quality, timeliness, incidents) • Opportunities to bundle services or consolidate with other departments / business units • External understanding: • What levels of competition and what range of quality & capabilities exist in the market? • What commercial structures are most efficient for the Contractors? 42
  • Performance Management During the Contract Life • Contract Manager is the focus point and is responsible for Contractor performance • Business Performance Reviews (BPR) are held to identify any issues and track action items created to address those issues • Contract Strategy Review (6 – 12 months from end of contract term) • Final Contract Review 43
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