METALS<br />Properties, Processes and Types & Uses.<br />
Introduction<br />Among the 109 elements, 85 are classified as metallic, 7 as metalloids and 17 as nonmetallic. <br />Meta...
Introduction<br />
Metallic Properties<br />Hardness<br />Brittleness<br />Malleability<br />Ductility<br />Elasticity<br />Toughness<br />De...
Introduction<br />Crystallinity – degree of structural order of atoms in solids. Metals in gaseous and liquid state have n...
Introduction<br />ALLOYS – melting together of two metals to form a homogenous liquid.<br />
Introduction<br />	Most of the industrially important alloys are  based on 8 relatively cheap and abundant ones:<br />IRON...
Treatment of Metals<br />HOT AND COLD WORKING – deformation of metals or alloys in the cold as by rolling, stamping, swagi...
Treatment of Metals<br />HEAT TREATMENT– controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their mechanical and physical p...
Treatment of Metals<br />Hardening – increase in strength and wear<br />Direct hardening<br />Quench hardening<br />Soften...
COMMERCIAL METALS<br />STEEL<br />IRON<br />TITANIUM ALLOYS<br />SUPERALLOYS<br />ALUMINUM ALLOYS<br />INTERMETALLIC COMPO...
Ferrous Alloys - IRON<br />Blast furnace<br />Coke oven<br />Limestone<br />Iron ore<br />Cast Iron<br />Pig iron<br />
Ferrous Alloys - Iron<br />Cast iron - is roughly, the pouring of melted iron grades to patterns which would produce fine ...
Ferrous Alloys - Steel<br />	STEEL - is primarily made from pig iron plus scrap melted into open-hearth furnace with flux ...
Superalloys<br />SUPERALLOYS - have been developed for high temperature service.<br />Includes iron, cobalt and nickel-bas...
Titanium Alloys<br />TITANIUM - emerged as “wonder metal” in 1950<br />Relies on high strength/weight ratio, good resistan...
Intermetallic Compounds<br />are generally regarded as a class of materials between metals and ceramics<br />Intrinsically...
Intermetallic Compounds<br />Examples:<br />Nickel Aluminides<br />Titanium Aluminides<br />Iron Aluminide<br />Nickel Sil...
Aluminum Alloys<br />ALUMINUM - has an attractive combination of properties such as low density, strong and easy to fabric...
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Metals

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Metals

  1. 1. METALS<br />Properties, Processes and Types & Uses.<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Among the 109 elements, 85 are classified as metallic, 7 as metalloids and 17 as nonmetallic. <br />Metal Classification<br />simple metals<br />metallic alloys – purposeful mixture<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />
  4. 4. Metallic Properties<br />Hardness<br />Brittleness<br />Malleability<br />Ductility<br />Elasticity<br />Toughness<br />Density<br />Fusibility<br />Conduction<br />Contraction and Expansion<br />Strength<br />Corrosiveness<br />
  5. 5. Introduction<br />Crystallinity – degree of structural order of atoms in solids. Metals in gaseous and liquid state have no crystallinity. <br />
  6. 6. Introduction<br />ALLOYS – melting together of two metals to form a homogenous liquid.<br />
  7. 7. Introduction<br /> Most of the industrially important alloys are based on 8 relatively cheap and abundant ones:<br />IRON<br />LEAD<br />COPPER<br />ZINC<br />TIN<br />NICKEL<br />MAGNESIUM<br />ALUMINUM<br />
  8. 8. Treatment of Metals<br />HOT AND COLD WORKING – deformation of metals or alloys in the cold as by rolling, stamping, swaging or drawing results in an increase in hardness and tensile strength and a decrease in ductility<br />
  9. 9. Treatment of Metals<br />HEAT TREATMENT– controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their mechanical and physical properties without changing the product shape <br /> Purpose:<br />Hardening <br />Softening<br />Material Modification <br />
  10. 10. Treatment of Metals<br />Hardening – increase in strength and wear<br />Direct hardening<br />Quench hardening<br />Softening – reduce strength and hardness, restore ductility<br />Annealing and recrystallization (50° C or 122°F)<br />Normalizing (60°C or 140°F)<br />Tempering (40°C or 104°F after quenching)<br />Material modification– modify properties of materials<br />Stress Relief<br />
  11. 11. COMMERCIAL METALS<br />STEEL<br />IRON<br />TITANIUM ALLOYS<br />SUPERALLOYS<br />ALUMINUM ALLOYS<br />INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS<br />
  12. 12. Ferrous Alloys - IRON<br />Blast furnace<br />Coke oven<br />Limestone<br />Iron ore<br />Cast Iron<br />Pig iron<br />
  13. 13. Ferrous Alloys - Iron<br />Cast iron - is roughly, the pouring of melted iron grades to patterns which would produce fine metal forms. Ordinarily, it is produced with Carbon to Iron ratio of more than 2% up to 4.5%. <br />Cast Steel - is ordinarily, much lower in carbon than iron running from 0.2% to 0.35%<br />
  14. 14. Ferrous Alloys - Steel<br /> STEEL - is primarily made from pig iron plus scrap melted into open-hearth furnace with flux and generally contains 0.05% to 2.0% Carbon.<br />Plain Carbon Steels – iron and carbon steel<br />Alloying Steels – with 5% non-carbon additions such as Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Si, Mo and V<br />Stainless steel – more resistant to rusting due to Chromium addition (4%-30%)<br />Tool steels – used for cutting, forming or shaping another material<br />
  15. 15. Superalloys<br />SUPERALLOYS - have been developed for high temperature service.<br />Includes iron, cobalt and nickel-based materials<br />A major application is in turbine materials, jet engines (both disc and blades)<br />
  16. 16. Titanium Alloys<br />TITANIUM - emerged as “wonder metal” in 1950<br />Relies on high strength/weight ratio, good resistance to corrosion, combined low thermal conductivity and thermal expansion<br />Attractive for aerospace applications in both engine and airframe<br />
  17. 17. Intermetallic Compounds<br />are generally regarded as a class of materials between metals and ceramics<br />Intrinsically strong with high elastic modulus<br />Intermetallics containing Al or Si exhibit resistance to oxidation and corrosion<br />Those made of light elements give rise to low density for weight-saving applications<br />Greatest disadvantage is low ductility <br />
  18. 18. Intermetallic Compounds<br />Examples:<br />Nickel Aluminides<br />Titanium Aluminides<br />Iron Aluminide<br />Nickel Silicate<br />PdIn<br />Zirconium Aluminide<br />
  19. 19. Aluminum Alloys<br />ALUMINUM - has an attractive combination of properties such as low density, strong and easy to fabricate.<br />Its two most important properties are density and thermal conductivity<br />In engines, they are used as pistons, cylinder heads and sumps <br />However, modulus of aluminum is only one third that of steel<br />Super plastic forming is a cost-effective manufacturing process for producing both simple and complex shapes from aluminum alloy sheets <br />

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