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  • 1. METALS
    Properties, Processes and Types & Uses.
  • 2. Introduction
    Among the 109 elements, 85 are classified as metallic, 7 as metalloids and 17 as nonmetallic.
    Metal Classification
    simple metals
    metallic alloys – purposeful mixture
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. Metallic Properties
    Hardness
    Brittleness
    Malleability
    Ductility
    Elasticity
    Toughness
    Density
    Fusibility
    Conduction
    Contraction and Expansion
    Strength
    Corrosiveness
  • 5. Introduction
    Crystallinity – degree of structural order of atoms in solids. Metals in gaseous and liquid state have no crystallinity.
  • 6. Introduction
    ALLOYS – melting together of two metals to form a homogenous liquid.
  • 7. Introduction
    Most of the industrially important alloys are based on 8 relatively cheap and abundant ones:
    IRON
    LEAD
    COPPER
    ZINC
    TIN
    NICKEL
    MAGNESIUM
    ALUMINUM
  • 8. Treatment of Metals
    HOT AND COLD WORKING – deformation of metals or alloys in the cold as by rolling, stamping, swaging or drawing results in an increase in hardness and tensile strength and a decrease in ductility
  • 9. Treatment of Metals
    HEAT TREATMENT– controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their mechanical and physical properties without changing the product shape
    Purpose:
    Hardening
    Softening
    Material Modification
  • 10. Treatment of Metals
    Hardening – increase in strength and wear
    Direct hardening
    Quench hardening
    Softening – reduce strength and hardness, restore ductility
    Annealing and recrystallization (50° C or 122°F)
    Normalizing (60°C or 140°F)
    Tempering (40°C or 104°F after quenching)
    Material modification– modify properties of materials
    Stress Relief
  • 11. COMMERCIAL METALS
    STEEL
    IRON
    TITANIUM ALLOYS
    SUPERALLOYS
    ALUMINUM ALLOYS
    INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS
  • 12. Ferrous Alloys - IRON
    Blast furnace
    Coke oven
    Limestone
    Iron ore
    Cast Iron
    Pig iron
  • 13. Ferrous Alloys - Iron
    Cast iron - is roughly, the pouring of melted iron grades to patterns which would produce fine metal forms. Ordinarily, it is produced with Carbon to Iron ratio of more than 2% up to 4.5%.
    Cast Steel - is ordinarily, much lower in carbon than iron running from 0.2% to 0.35%
  • 14. Ferrous Alloys - Steel
    STEEL - is primarily made from pig iron plus scrap melted into open-hearth furnace with flux and generally contains 0.05% to 2.0% Carbon.
    Plain Carbon Steels – iron and carbon steel
    Alloying Steels – with 5% non-carbon additions such as Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Si, Mo and V
    Stainless steel – more resistant to rusting due to Chromium addition (4%-30%)
    Tool steels – used for cutting, forming or shaping another material
  • 15. Superalloys
    SUPERALLOYS - have been developed for high temperature service.
    Includes iron, cobalt and nickel-based materials
    A major application is in turbine materials, jet engines (both disc and blades)
  • 16. Titanium Alloys
    TITANIUM - emerged as “wonder metal” in 1950
    Relies on high strength/weight ratio, good resistance to corrosion, combined low thermal conductivity and thermal expansion
    Attractive for aerospace applications in both engine and airframe
  • 17. Intermetallic Compounds
    are generally regarded as a class of materials between metals and ceramics
    Intrinsically strong with high elastic modulus
    Intermetallics containing Al or Si exhibit resistance to oxidation and corrosion
    Those made of light elements give rise to low density for weight-saving applications
    Greatest disadvantage is low ductility
  • 18. Intermetallic Compounds
    Examples:
    Nickel Aluminides
    Titanium Aluminides
    Iron Aluminide
    Nickel Silicate
    PdIn
    Zirconium Aluminide
  • 19. Aluminum Alloys
    ALUMINUM - has an attractive combination of properties such as low density, strong and easy to fabricate.
    Its two most important properties are density and thermal conductivity
    In engines, they are used as pistons, cylinder heads and sumps
    However, modulus of aluminum is only one third that of steel
    Super plastic forming is a cost-effective manufacturing process for producing both simple and complex shapes from aluminum alloy sheets