2. Topic Outline
• Specific Gravity
• Structure of Solids
• Young’s Modulus
• Bulk Modulus
Density is a property of every substance which
is mass per unit volume.
4. Weight Density
Weight Density is the weight of the substance
per unit volume.
5. Densities of various substance at atmospheric
pressure and room temperature
7. Specific Gravity
Specific gravity of a substance is its density
relative to that of water and is a pure number.
Specific gravity is also called relative density.
Stress is the magnitude of force applied in a
body divided by the area over it is exerted.
1. Tensile stress
2. Compressive stress
3. Shear stress
9. Hooke’s Law
Hooke’s Law states that the amount of deformation
experienced by a body under stress is proportional to
the magnitude of the force applied to it.
10. Elastic Limit and Ultimate Strength
11. Properties of Materials
Ductility is the property of metals which can
be deformed beyond the elastic limit.
Malleability is the property of metals which
has a large plastic range in compression
Ductility is the property of metals that has a
large plastic range in tension.
12. Four Methods of Shaping Metals
13. Structures of Solids
Crystalline is the structure of solids in which
atoms are arranged in regular pattern.
Stress is defined as the ratio of applied force
Strain is equal to the ratio between the
change in length and the original length.
16. Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Elasticity is defined as the ratio
between the stress and the strain.
17. Young’s Modulus
For tensile or compressive stresses, the modulus of elasticity
is called Young’s Modulus.
Young’s modulus depends on the composition of the material.
18. Typical Elastic Modulus of Common
20. Typical Elastic Limits and Ultimate
Shear stresses change the shape of an object on which they
act but not on its volume.
Angle of shear is the measure of the relative distortion of the
block caused by the shear stress.
24. Shear Modulus
Shear Modulus or sometimes referred to as Modulus
of Rigidity is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain.
The higher the value of shear modulus, the more
rigid the material.
26. Bulk Modulus
Bulk Modulus is the ratio of volume stress over the
volume strain. Bulk modulus applies to uniform