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  1. 1. DISCOVER WITH F Series: Basic FLUID MECHANICS Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory– F1 Statics | Dynamics | Open/Closed channel flow | Rotodynamics | Hydr aulics NEW Statics Dynamics Hydraulics Rotodynamics© Armfield Ltd. 2010 OPEN/CLOSED CHANNEL FLOW NEW NEW NEW C7-MkII Pipe surge & water hammer apparatus C11-MkII Pipe networks accessory S16 Hydraulic flow demonstrator © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010(Shown with F1-10 Hydraulics bench) (Shown with F1-10 Hydraulics bench) (Shown with F1-10 Hydraulics bench) NEW NEW NEW NEWF1-29 Fluid statics & manometry apparatus F1-32 Francis turbine demonstration F1-30 Fluid properties apparatus F1-31 Pascals apparatus © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-10 and associated products The Armfield Hydraulics Bench and accessories have long been the benchmark used in Fluid Mechanics teaching laboratories. The comprehensive range of equipment covers all aspects of the teaching of Hydraulics in a safe, visual and easy to understand way, backed up by first class teaching materials. <E X T E N D E D > WARRANTY This range of equipment has now been extended and reinforced UCTS 2 -Y R W 2 years OD with an integrated range of Hydrostatics teaching accessories AR AN PR LD R TY ON AL L ARMFIE together with some new hydraulics products. Thus the complete curriculum can be covered with this attractive range of products. The latest version of this data sheet is available at: issue 1 www.armfield.co.uk/f1
  2. 2. Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics (Closed Conduit Flow) F1-15 Bernoulli’s theorem F1-16 Impact of a jetF1-11 Dead weight calibrator F1-17 Orifice and free jet flow F1-17A Orifice dischargeF1-12 Hydrostatic pressure F1-18 Energy losses in pipesF1-14 Metacentric height F1-20 Osborne-Reynolds demonstration NEWF1-29 Fluid statics & manometry apparatus NEW F1-21 Flow meter demonstrationF1-30 Fluid properties apparatus F1-22 Energy losses in bends NEWF1-31 Pascals apparatus F1-23 Free and fixed vortices F1-24 Hydraulic ram F1-28 Cavitation demonstration C6-MkII Fluid friction apparatus (shown with F1-10) NEW C7-MkII Pipe surge and water hammer apparatus (shown with F1-10) NEW C11-MkII Pipe networks accessory (shown with F1-10) NEW S16 Hydraulic flow demonstrator (shown with F1-10)
  3. 3. Open Channel Flow Rotodynamic Machines (Free Surface Flow) (Fluid Machinery)F1-13 Flow over weirs F1-25 Demonstration Pelton turbineF1-19 Flow channel F1-26 Series parallel pumpsC4-MkII Multi-purpose teaching flume(shown with F1-10) F1-27 Centrifugal pump characteristicsS16 Hydraulic flow demonstrator (shown with F1-10) NEW F1-32 Demonstration Francis turbine © Armfield Ltd. 2010 (also see the comprehensive range of computer controlled rotodynamic machines in the Armfield ‘Capture’ FM range. URL: www.armfield.co.uk/fm) Note: ‘F’ Coded products are aimed at an introduction to basic principles. ‘C’ and ‘S’ coded products provide a more thorough understanding of the topic covered.
  4. 4. 22 20 18 16 Head (metres of water) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Flow (litres S -1) F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench Service pump characteristics curve (indicative)The F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench Description TECHNICAL DETAILSThis unit is designed as a portable and self-contained Pump: centrifugal typeservice module for the range of accessories described later max. head 21m H2Oin this data sheet. max. flow 1.35 litres/secThe bench is constructed from lightweight corrosionresistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. Motor rating: 0.37kWThe bench top incorporates an open channel with side Sump tank capacity: 250 litreschannels to support the accessory on test. High flow volumetric tank: 40 litresVolumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen Low flow volumetric tank: 6 litresin preference to other methods of flow measurement for its Height of working surface: 1 metre above floor levelease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weightsfor students to handle). OVERALL DIMENSIONSThe volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodatelow or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence Height: 1.00mand a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous Width: 1.13mindication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in Depth: 0.73mthe supply for measurement of very small flow rates.A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONby a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the Volume 1.5m3measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the Gross weight 160kgbench for recycling. An overflow in the volumetric tankavoids flooding. Individual accessories on requestWater is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump SERVICES REQUIREDand a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow. Aneasy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the Electrical supply:bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories F1-10-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 10Awithout the need for hand tools. F1-10-B: 110/120V/1ph/60Hz @ 20AEach accessory is supplied as a complete piece of F1-10-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 10Aequipment needing no additional service items other than Water:the Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are Fill with clean water.immediately ready for use. No permanent connection required.
  5. 5. © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1–11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator F1-12 Hydrostatic PressureF1-11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator F1-12 Hydrostatic PressureThis calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designedcalibrating industrial pressure gauges. to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and allow comparison of the measured DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES magnitude and position of this force with simple theory.> Calibrating a Bourdon type pressure gauge DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES Description etermining the centre of pressure on both a submerged DThis dead weight pressure gauge calibrator consists or partially submerged plane surface and comparison withof a precision machined piston and cylinder assembly the theoretical positionmounted on levelling screws. DescriptionA Bourdon gauge is supplied for calibration. The weightssupplied are added to the upper end of the piston rod A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm whichwhich is rotated to minimise friction effects. pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostaticThe gauge is thus subject to known pressures which forces acting on the quadrant when immersed, only themay be compared with the gauge readings and an error force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a momentcurve drawn. about the knife edges. Technical Details The balance arm incorporates a hanger for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance.Pressure gauge: Bourdon tube This assembly is mounted on top of an acrylic tank which range 0 to 200 KN/m2 (KPa) may be levelled by adjusting screwed feet. CorrectArea of Piston: 244.8 x 10-6 m2 alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank.Mass of piston: 0.5kg An indicator attached to the side of the tank shows whenAncillary masses: 2x 0.5kg, 1.0kg and 2.5kg the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant. 120 Technical Details Calibrated pressure KN/m 2 100 Tank capacity: 5.5 litres 80 Distance between suspended mass and fulcrum: 275mm Cross-sectional area of quadrant (torroid): 7.5 x 10 -3m² 60 Total depth of completely immersed quadrant: 160mm 40 Height of fulcrum above quadrant: 100mm 20 0 FULLY SUBMERGED PLATE ONLY 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 200 Indicated pressure KN/m 3 r (mm) PARTIALLY SUBMERGED BELOW THIS POINT 0 0 MASS (g) 500 Graph plotting r against mass using F1-12 (indicative)
  6. 6. Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1–13 Flow over Weirs - vee notch weir F1–14 Metacentric HeightF1-13 Flow over Weirs F1-14 Metacentric HeightTwo weir plates of different shape are provided allowing This equipment allows a thorough investigation of thefamiliarisation and comparison with theory. factors affecting the stability of a floating body. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES emonstrating the characteristics of D etermining the centre of gravity of the pontoon D flow over a rectangular notch etermining the metacentric height and from this D emonstrating the characteristics D of flow over a vee notch the position of the metacentre for the pontoon etermining the coefficient of discharge D arying the metacentric height with angle of heel V Description DescriptionThe Flow over Weirs consists of five basic elements used in The position of the metacentre can be varied to produceconjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of stable and unstable equilibrium.the Hydraulics Bench. The equipment consists of a plastic rectangular floatingA quick release connector in the base of the channel is pontoon, the centre of gravity of which can be varied by anunscrewed and a delivery nozzle screwed in its place. adjustable weight which slides and can be clamped in anyA stilling baffle locates into slots in the walls of the channel. position on a vertical mast.The inlet nozzle and stilling baffle in combination promote A single plumb-bob is suspended from the mast whichsmooth flow conditions in the channel. indicates the angle of heel on a calibrated scale.A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on an instrument A weight with lateral adjustment allows the degree ofcarrier which is located on the side channels of the moulded heel to be varied and hence the stability of the pontoontop. The carrier may be moved along the channels to therequired measurement position. determined.The rectangular notch weir or (V) vee notch weir to be tested The equipment does not require a separate water tankis clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts. as it may be used on the Hydraulics Bench by filling theThe stainless steel weir plates incorporate captive studs to volumetric tank.aid assembly. TECHNICAL DETAILS TECHNICAL DETAILS Max. angle of heel: ±13ºOverall dimensions of weir plates: height 160mm Corresponding linear dimension: ±90mm width 230mm Pontoon dimensions: length 350mm thickness 4mm width 200mmDimensions of rectangular notch: height 82mm overall height 475mm width 30mm Angle of vee notch weir: 90° inclusiveHook point gauge range: 0 to 150mm Accuracy 0.1mmRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 (x10 -4 m 3/s) (x10 -3 m 3/s) 5.0 1.5 FLOW RATE FLOW RATE 0 0 0 H 5/2 (m 5/2) 0.001 0 H 3/2 (m 3/2) 0.03Typical results obtained using F1–13 vee notch weir (left) and rectangular weir
  7. 7. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1–15 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration F1-16 Impact of a JetF1-15 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration F1-16 Impact of a JetThis accessory demonstrates the application of Bernoulli’s This equipment allows the force developed by a jet of waterTheorem and circumstances where it does not apply. impinging upon a stationary object to be measured. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES Measurement CAPABILITIES Demonstrating Bernoulli’s Theorem and its limitations easuring the force exerted on different targets and M comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory irectly measuring the static and total head distribution D along a Venturi tube Description Determining the meter coefficient at various flow rates The apparatus consists of a cylindrical clear acrylic fabrication with provision for levelling. Water is fed through Description a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carriedThe test section consists of a classical Venturi machined in on a stem which extends through the cover. A weight carrierclear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement is mounted on the upper end of the stem.of the static pressure distribution along the converging The dead weight of the moving parts is counter-balancedand diverging duct, while a total head tube is provided to by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on thetraverse along the centre line of the test section. These target plate is measured by adding the weights supplied totappings are connected to a manometer bank incorporating the weight pan until the mark on the weight pan correspondsa manifold with air bleed valve. with the level gauge.Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand A total of four targets are provided.pump. The test section is arranged so that the characteristicsof flow through both a converging and diverging section Technical Detailscan be studied. Water is fed through a hose connector and Nozzle diameter: 8mmis controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the Distance between nozzle target plate: 20mmtest section. Diameter of target plate: 36mmThe Venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow Target plates: – 180º hemispherical targetmeasurement and the discharge coefficient can be – 120º target (cone)determined. – flat target Technical Details – 30º targetManometer range: 0 to 300mm Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10Number of manometer tubes: 8Throat diameter: 10.0mmUpstream diameter: 25.0mmUpstream taper: 14ºDownstream taper: 21ºRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  8. 8. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow F1-17a Orifice DischargeF1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow F1-17a Orifice DischargeThis equipment permits calibration of two orifices of The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis ofdiffering diameter and allows the trajectory of the jet to the flow through five different orifices over a range ofbe plotted. flow rates. Measurement CAPABILITIES Measurement CAPABILITIES stablishing the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice E etermining the contraction and velocity coefficients D inding experimentally the coefficient of F alculating the discharge coefficient C discharge for a small orifice with flow under Description constant head and flow under varying head omparing the measured trajectory of a jet with C The Orifice Discharge accessory consists of a cylindrical that predicted by simple theory of mechanics Clear acrylic tank which has an orifice fitted in the base. A traverse assembly is provided which enables a pitot tube Description to be positioned anywhere in the jet. Attached to this pitotIn the Orifice Free Jet Flow accessory a constant tube is a fine wire which can be traversed across the jet tohead tank is fed with water from the Hydraulics Bench. accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contractaThe orifice is installed at the base of this tank by means of a diameter and so determine the contraction coefficient.special wall fitting which provides a flush inside surface. The pitot head and the total head across the orifice are shown on manometer tubes adjacent to the tank.The head is maintained at a constant value by an adjustableoverflow and is indicated by a level scale. A series of adjustable In addition to the sharp edged orifice, four additional orificesprobes allow the path followed by the jet to be ascertained. with different profiled are supplied. All orifices have a common bore of 13mm for direct comparison of performance.Adjustable feet permit levelling. TECHNICAL DETAILS TECHNICAL DETAILS Standard orifice: sharp-edged 13mm diameterOrifice diameters: 3.0mm and 6.0mm Max. head: 365mmJet trajectory probes: 8 Traverse mechanism: lead screw with adjusting nutMax. constant head: 410mm calibrated 0.1mm per divisionRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  9. 9. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-18 Energy Losses F1-19 Flow Channel in PipesF1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes F1-19 Flow ChannelThis equipment allows the pressure drop of water passing The Flow Channel introduces students to thethrough a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured characteristics of flow in an open channel at anin detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified. elementary level. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATION VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES nvestigating the variation of friction head along a I emonstrating basic phenomena associated with open D circular pipe with the mean flow velocity in the pipe channel flow nvestigating the effects of laminar and turbulent I isualisation of flow patterns over or around immersed V flow regimes objects Description DescriptionThe Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe, The channel consists of a clear acrylic working sectionorientated vertically on the side of the equipment, which of large depth to width ratio incorporating undershot andmay be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or, overshot weirs at the inlet and discharge ends respectively.alternatively, from the integral constant head tank. Water is fed to the streamlined channel entry via a stilling tank to reduce turbulence. Water discharging from theThese sources provide high or low flow rates which may be channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the Hydraulicscontrolled by a valve at the discharge end of the test pipe. Bench and returned to the sump for recirculation. A dyeHead loss between two tapping points in the test pipe is injection system incorporated at the inlet to the channelmeasured using two manometers, a water over mercury permits flow visualisation in conjunction with a graticule onmanometer for large pressure differentials and a pressurised the rear face of the channel.water manometer for small pressure differentials. Models supplied with the channel include broad andExcess water discharging from the constant head tank sharp crested weirs, large and small diameter cylindersis returned to the sump tank of the Hydraulics Bench. and symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils which, inAdjustable feet permit levelling. conjunction with the inlet and discharge weirs, permitMercury not supplied. a varied range of open channel and flow visualisation demonstrations.A Digital Pressure Meter: H12-8 is available as analternative to Mercury manometers - ask for data sheet Adjustable feet permit levellingH Series: Hydraulic Measurement Instruments or view Technical Detailsonline: www.armfield.co.uk/h12-8 Dye injection needles: 5 Technical Details Dye reservoir capacity: 0.45 litresDiameter of test pipe: 3.0mm Width of channel: 15mmLength of test pipe: 760mm Length of channel: 615mmDistance between pressure tapping points: 500mm Depth of channel: 150mmRange of mercury manometer: 500mm Models: – broad crested weirRange of water manometer: 500mm – narrow crested weirMeasuring cylinder capacity: 1000ml – symmetrical aerofoilRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 – asymmetrical aerofoil – small cylinder – large cylinder Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  10. 10. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 (x10 -4 m 3/s) 7.0 Flow Rate © Armfield Ltd. 2010 0 / (m 1 2 ) 0 / H12 0.7 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 (x10 -4 m 3/s) 7.0 F1-20 Osborne Reynolds’ F1-21 Flow Meter Typical results obtained Flow Rate Demonstration Demonstration using F1–21 orifice plateF1-20 Osborne Reynolds’ Demonstration F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration 0 / (m 1 2 ) 0 / H12 0.7This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments This accessory is designed to introduce students to threeconducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning basic types of flow meter.the nature of laminar and turbulent flow. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES irectly comparing flow measurement using a Venturi D eproducing the classic experiments conducted by R meter, variable area meter and orifice plate Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition alibrating each flow meter using the volumetric measuring C bserving the laminar, transitional, turbulent flow and O tank of the bench velocity profile omparing pressure drops across each device C Description DescriptionThe equipment operates in a vertical mode. A header tankcontaining stilling media provides a constant head of water The equipment consists of a Venturi meter, variable areathrough a bellmouth entry to the flow visualisation pipe. Flow meter and orifice plate, installed in a series configurationthrough this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the to permit direct comparison. A flow control valve permitsdischarge end. The flow rate of water through the pipe can be variation of the flow rate through the circuit.measured using the volumetric tank (or measuring cylinder) Pressure tappings are incorporated so that the head lossof the Hydraulics Bench. Velocity of the water can therefore characteristics of each flow meter may be measured. Thesebe determined to allow calculation of Reynolds’ number. tappings are connected to an eight tube manometer bankThe equipment uses a similar dye injection technique to that incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve.of Reynolds’ original apparatus to enable observation of flow Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a handconditions. pump. The circuit and manometer are attached to a support framework which stands on the working top of the TECHNICAL DETAILS Hydraulics Bench. The bench is used as the source of waterTest pipe diameter: 10.0mm (precision bore glass) supply and for calibrating volumetrically each flow meter.Length of test pipe: 700mm TECHNICAL DETAILSDye reservoir capacity: 0.45 litresRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 Manometer range: 0 to 400mm Number of manometer tubes: 8 Orifice plate diameter: 20mm Variable area meter: 2 to 20 litres/min Venturi dimensions: – Throat diameter 15mm – Upstream pipe diameter 31.75mm – Upstream taper 21º inclusive – Downstream taper 14º inclusive Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  11. 11. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends F1-23 Free and Forced VorticesF1-22 Energy Losses in Bends F1-23 Free and Forced VorticesThis accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden This equipment is designed to produce and measurecontraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control the characteristics of free and forced vortices.valve to be demonstrated. MEASUREMENT VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATION MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES nderstanding the difference between free and forced U easuring the losses in the devices related to flowrate M vortices and calculating loss coefficients related to velocity head etermining the surface profile of a forced vortex D Comparing the pressure drop across each device etermining the surface profile and total head distribution D Description of a free vortexThe equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework isualisation of secondary flow in a free vortex Vwhich supports the test pipework and instrumentation. Thefollowing typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: Descriptionmitre bend, 90º elbow, swept bends (large and small The apparatus comprises a clear acrylic cylinder on a plinthradius), sudden contraction and sudden enlargement. designed to produce and measure free and forced vortices.All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure The free vortex is generated by water discharging throughtappings. These tappings are connected to a bank of an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder andtwelve water manometer tubes, mounted on the framework. the resulting profile is measured using a combined caliperPressurisation of the manometers is facilititated by a hand and depth scale. The forced vortex is induced by a paddlepump. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate. in the base of the cylinder which is rotated by jets of water.A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and The profile of the forced vortex is determined using a seriesdownstream pressure tappings which are connected to a of depth gauges.differential gauge on the edge of the framework. Velocity at any point in the free or forced vortices mayThe unit stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench be measured using the appropriate Pitot tube supplied.which is also used as the source of water supply. Dye crystals (not supplied ) may be used to demonstrate secondary flow at the base of the free vortex. Technical Details Technical DetailsPipe diameter: 19.48mm Tank diameter: 245mmDifferential pressure gauge: 0 to 3bar Height to overflow point: 180mmEnlargement diameter: 26.2mm Orifice diameters: 8, 16 and 24mmContraction diameter: 19.48mm Forced vortex measuring probesFittings: – 45º mitre Distance from centre: 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110mm – elbow Pitot tubes having measuring point (nose) at: 15, 25 and 30mm radius – short bend Inlet tubes: 9 and 12.5mm diameter – large bend Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 – enlargement – contractionManometer range: 0 to 440mmNumber of manometer tubes: 12Differential manometers: 6Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  12. 12. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-24 Hydraulic Ram F1-25 Demonstration Pelton TurbineF1-24 Hydraulic Ram F1-25 Demonstration Pelton TurbineIf flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe, The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple lowa phenomena known as water hammer occurs, wherein cost introduction to turbine performance.a pressure wave travels along the pipe. This principle isused in the hydraulic ram to pump water. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES etermining the operating characteristics, i.e. power, D efficiency and torque, of a Pelton turbine at various speeds stablishing flow/pressure characteristics and determining E efficiency of the hydraulic ram Description Description This accessory comprises a miniature Pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frameThe Hydraulic Ram comprises an acrylic base incorporating which locates on the Hydraulics Bench top channel.pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a Mechanical output from the turbine is absorbed using astand which is fed by the Hydraulics Bench. An air vessel simple friction dynamometer.above the valve chamber smooths cyclic fluctuations from Pressure at the spear valve is indicated on a remote gauge.the ram delivery. A non-contacting tachometer (not supplied) may be used toThe weights supplied may be applied to the pulse valve determine the speed of the Pelton wheel.to change the closing pressure and hence the operating Basic principles of the Pelton turbine may be demonstratedcharacteristics. and, with appropriate measurements, power produced and TECHNICAL DETAILS efficiency may be determined.Supply head: 300 - 700mm variable TECHNICAL DETAILSDelivery head: 750 - 1500mm variable Speed range: 0 to 2000 r.p.m.Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 Brake power: 10 Watts Pressure gauge range: 0 to 25m H2O Force balance range: 0 to 20N + 0.2N Number of Pelton buckets: 16 Diameter of Pelton wheel: 123mm Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  13. 13. Requires F1-10 Requires F1-10© Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps F1-27 Centrifugal Pump CharacteristicsF1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps F1-27 Centrifugal Pump CharacteristicsThe introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic This accessory offers similar features to those describedBench system allows the study of two pump performance, for the item F1-26 but with enhanced capabilities providedboth in series and parallel operation. by the inclusion of a variable speed pump with inverter drive rather than a fixed speed pump. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIESDetermining the head/flow rate characteristics of: A single centrifugal pump at a single speed Determining the relationship between head, discharge, speed, power and efficiency for a centrifugal pump wo similar pumps operating in a parallel T at various speeds configuration at the same speed Determining the head/flow rate characteristics wo similar pumps operating in a series T of two similar pumps operating in either parallel configuration at the same speed or series configuration at the same speed Description DescriptionThis accessory comprises a fixed speed pump assembly This accessory comprises a variable speed pump assemblyand independent discharge manifold interconnected by and independent discharge manifold interconnectedflexible tubing with quick release connectors. This auxiliary by flexible tubing with quick release connectors.pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunctionHydraulics Bench. with the basic Hydraulics Bench.The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth whichstands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump. stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump, Technical Details with which it is intended to be used. The pump speed is varied by an inverter drive. The motorPump: centrifugal type speed, output voltage and motor current can be monitored max. head 21m H2O on the inverter display. A compound pressure gauge is max. flow 1.35 litres/sec mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gaugeMotor rating: 0.36kW is mounted directly on the pump outlet.Pressure gauge range: 0 to 60m H2O An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressureCompound gauge range: –10 to + 32m H2O gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipeSee Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details with diffuser.for primary pump characteristics. Technical Details SERVICES REQUIRED Pump: centrifugal typeElectrical supply: max. head 21.0m H2OF1-26-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 10A max. flow rate 1.35 l/secF1-26-B: 110/120V/1ph/60Hz @ 20A Motor: 0.36kWF1-26-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 10A Speed controller: Frequency inverter Speed range: 0 to 1500 rpmRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 Pressure gauge: 0 to 60 m H2O Compound gauge: -10 to 32m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics. SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: F1-27-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 10A F1-27-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 10A Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10
  14. 14. Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-28 Cavitation Demonstration F1-29 NEWF1-28 Cavitation Demonstration F1-29 FLUID STATICS AND MANOMETRYThis accessory demonstrates visually, audibly and This apparatus provides an introduction to the behaviournumerically the phenomenon of cavitation and its of liquids under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest)association with the vapour pressure of a liquid. and the application of these principles to pressure measurement using manometers. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES bservation of the phenomenon of cavitation in a O liquid (by reducing the liquid to its vapour pressure) emonstrating the behaviour of liquids at rest (Hydrostatics) D omparison of theoretical and actual pressure at C howing that the free surface of a liquid is horizontal and S cavitation conditions independent of cross section bservation of air-release due to dissolved gasses O Measuring liquid level using a scale and the effect of parallax in a liquid easuring small changes in liquid level using a micro- M emonstration of reducing cavitation by increasing the D manometer static pressure in a liquid easuring changes in liquid level using a Vernier hook M and point gauge Description sing a single piezometer / manometer UThis accessory consists of a circular Venturi-shaped test tube to measure headsection manufactured from clear acrylic to allow visualisationinside the section. As the flow of water increases the Using manometer tubes to measure differential pressurepressure at the throat falls in accordance with the Bernoulli sing an inclined manometer to measure small pressure Uequation until a limit is reached corresponding to the vapour differencespressure of the liquid. At this low pressure small bubbles of sing a ‘U’ tube manometer to measure pressure Uvapour form then collapse violently as the pressure rises differences in a gas (air over liquid)again downstream - a process called cavitation. sing an inverted pressurized ‘U’ tube manometer UBourdon gauges indicate the pressure upstream of to measure pressure differences in a liquidthe contraction, inside the throat and downstream of theexpansion in the test section. Flow control valves upstream and sing liquids with different densities to change the Udownstream of the test section allow the flow and pressure to sensitivity of a ‘U’ tube manometerbe adjusted allowing cavitation to be clearly demonstrated. emonstrating the effect of trapped air on the accuracy D TECHNICAL DETAILS of a manometer emonstrating the effect of flowing liquid (friction in a DUpstream pressure gauge: 63mm diameter, fluid created by motion) Range 0 to 1 BarThroat vacuum gauge: 100mm diameter, Description Range -1 to 0 BarDownstream pressure gauge: 63mm diameter, The Armfield F1-29 is designed to demonstrate the Range 0 -1 Bar properties of Newtonian fluids and their behaviour under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest). This allows studentsRequires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10 to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles and techniques, before studying fluids in motion. These include the use of fluids in manometers to measure pressure and pressure differences in gases and liquids.
  15. 15. © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-29Some simple exercises are included to show how the TECHNICAL DETAILSbehaviour of a fluid changes when flow is involved and therelevance of concepts such as frictional losses. Overall dimensions: The apparatus is constructed from PVC and clear acrylic Height: 1250 mm (maximum to top of level gauge)and consists of a vertical reservoir containing water that Width: 425 mmis connected to a series of vertical manometer tubes. Depth: 150 mmThese tubes can be used individually or in combinationfor the different demonstrations of hydrostatic principles Max depth inside reservoir: 574 mmand manometry. One tube includes changes in cross Inside diameter of reservoir: 100 mm section to demonstrate that the level of a free surface is Scale length of manometer tubes: 460 mm not affected by the size or the shape of the tube. The right Manometer tubes incorporated: hand manometer tube is separate from the other tubes and 1x ‘U’ tubeincorporates a pivot and indexing mechanism at the base 2x Vertical parallel tubes that allows this tube to be inclined at fixed angles of 5°, 30°,60° and 90° (vertical). 1x Vertical tube with varying cross section Vertical tube with pivot allowing 1xThe reservoir incorporates a hook and point gauge with operation at three different inclinationsVernier scale, mounted through the lid, that allows largechanges in level to be measured with better precision than Does not require Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10a simple scale. A vertical transparent piezometer tubethrough the lid of the reservoir allows the static head abovethe water in the reservoir to be observed when the air spaceabove the water is not open to atmosphere.Connections at the top of the reservoir and each of themanometer tubes allows a syringe to be connected usingflexible tubing that allows the static pressure of the air tobe varied positively or negatively as required for the variousdemonstrations. The syringe and flexible tubing for fillingthe equipment etc. are stored at the rear of the apparatuswhen not in use for convenience.A small flow can be induced through the interconnectingpipework between the various manometer tubes to providea simple but clear demonstration of the effect of frictioncreated by the motion of the fluid. This is useful to thestudent before performing demonstrations using moreadvanced Fluid Dynamics accessories.The equipment is designed to demonstrate the basicprinciples of hydrostatics and manometry using water forsafety and convenience. The use of a safe, soluble fooddye in the water makes observation of the level changesclearer without affecting the operation of the apparatus.Alternative liquids, with different densities, can be used inthe ‘U’ tube manometer if required to extend the range ofthe demonstrations.
  16. 16. © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-30 NEWF1-30 FLUID PROPERTIESThis apparatus provides an introduction to the TECHNICAL DETAILSfundamental properties of liquids that affecttheir behaviour in practical applications. Overall dimensions: MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Height: 503 mm Width: 600 mm easuring fluid density and relative density (specific M Depth: 160 mm gravity) of a liquid using a universal hydrometer Measuring fluid viscosity using a falling sphere viscometer The following components are included: 2x Hydrometer jars (clipped to stand) easuring fluid density and relative density (specific M gravity) of a liquid using a pycnometer (density bottle) 1x Universal hydrometer (in protective housing) 2x Falling sphere viscometer tubes (clipped to stand) bserving the effect of capillary elevation between O 1x Plastic storage box containing steel spheres flat plates 1x Spirit filled glass thermometer (in protective housing) easuring the effect of capillary elevation inside M 1x Direct reading aneroid barometer (fixed to stand) capillary tubes 1x Parallel plate capillary apparatus erifying Archimedes principle using a brass bucket V 1x Capillary tube apparatus with 6 tubes of varying size cylinder with a lever balance 1x Archimedes apparatus comprising displacement easuring atmospheric pressure using an aneroid barometer M vessel, machined bucket matching cylinder Description 1x 50 ml density bottle 1x 250 ml plastic measuring cylinderA clear understanding about the physical properties of 1x 600 ml glass beakerfluids is essential before studying the behaviour of fluids in 1x ual scale lever balance, adapted for use with Dstatic or dynamic applications. Archimedes apparatusThis apparatus introduces students to the following Does not require Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10properties of fluids: Density and relative density (specific gravity) Viscosity Capillarity – capillary elevation between flat plates and in circular tubes Buoyancy (Archimedes principle) Atmospheric pressureThe apparatus consists of a collection of components thatdemonstrate individual fluid properties. The componentsare stored on a common support frame manufacturedfrom PVC with circular spirit level and adjustable feet forlevelling. The apparatus is designed to stand on a suitablebench top where some of the components can be operatedindependent from the support frame.A freestanding dual scale lever balance is also supplied tosupport several of the demonstrations.
  17. 17. © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-31 NEWF1-31 PASCAL’S APPARATUSThe Pascal’s apparatus provides a simple TECHNICAL DETAILSdemonstration that the pressure in anincompressible fluid varies with depth and does Overall dimensions: not depend on the shape of the container. Height: 500 mm MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Width: 300 mm Depth: 156 mm emonstrating that the pressure in a liquid contained in D a vessel varies with depth is not affected by the shape Parallel vessel: 26 mm inside diameter of the vessel by comparing three different vessels Conical vessel: 26 mm to 101 mm inside diameter at top Tapered vessel 26 mm to 9 mm inside diameter at top Description Diameter at diaphragm: 56 mmThis apparatus, designed to demonstrate Pascal’s principle, Maximum depth of water: 228 mm (to top of vessels)consists of a machined body incorporating a horizontal Does not require Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10flexible diaphragm to which one of three alternative glassvessels can be fitted. The diameter at the base of eachvessel is common but the shape of each vessel varies; oneparallel sided, one conical and one tapering inwards.The diaphragm, located at the base of the vessel, conveysthe force from the water inside the vessel to a lever armwith a sliding counterweight. A spirit level indicates whenthe lever arm is horizontal and therefore balancing theforce / pressure at the base of the vessel. The force onthe diaphragm depends on the depth of water above thediaphragm and the area of the diaphragm that is constantfor all three vessels.A height adjustable pointer allows each of the vessels to be filledto the same depth so that the force / pressure can be shown tobe common for all three vessels, independent of shape.
  18. 18. Requires F1-10 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 © Armfield Ltd. 2010 F1-32 Turbine detail NEWF1-32 FRANCIS TURBINEThis demonstration turbine provides a simple low cost TECHNICAL DETAILSintroduction to the Francis inward flow reaction turbineshowing its construction, operation and performance. Overall dimensions: MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Height: 750 mm Width: 340 mm excluding connections etermining the operating characteristics, i.e. D Depth: 340 mm power, efficiency and torque, of a Francis Turbine at various speeds and guide vane openings Speed range: 0 to 1000 RPM Diameter of Francis runner: 60 mm Description Number of blades on runner: 12A tapering, spiral shaped volute conveys water to the runner Number of guide vanes: 6, adjustable from fully via a ring of guide vanes that are adjustable in angle to vary theflow through the turbine. Water enters the runner tangentially open to fully closedat the periphery, flows radially inwards through the blades Range of spring balances: 0 to 10 N x 0.1 Ntowards the hub then exits axially via a draft tube. Range of Bourdon gauge: 0 to 2 barPower generated by the turbine is absorbed by a Prony Requires Hydraulics Bench Service unit F1-10friction brake consisting of a pair of spring balances attachedto a brake belt that is wrapped around a pulley wheel drivenby the runner. The load on the turbine is varied by tensioningboth spring balances which increases the friction on the pulleywheel. Brake force is determined from the difference in thereadings on the two spring balances and the torque calculatedfrom the product of this force and the pulley radius.The head of water entering the turbine is indicated on aBourdon gauge and the speed of rotation is measured using anon-contacting tachometer (not supplied).The volute of the Francis turbine incorporates a transparentfront cover for clear visualisation of the runner and guide vanesand is designed to complement the F1-25 Pelton turbine.