Beer and softdrinks


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Beer and softdrinks

  1. 1. Beverages<br />Beer and Soft drinks<br />
  2. 2. Beer is one of the world's oldest beverages<br /> 5,000 BC<br />As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, mainly sugar or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. <br />The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization.<br />The earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at GodinTepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, ca. 3400-3000 B.C.<br />History<br />
  3. 3. Yeast<br />Hops<br />Malt<br />Water <br />Beer Ingredients<br />
  4. 4. The yeast is use for fermentation.<br />The yeast species Saccharomycescerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols.<br />Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.<br />Yeast<br />
  5. 5. Hops are the female flower clusters.<br />Alpha acids have a mild antibiotic/bacteriostatic effect against Gram-positive bacteria, and favor the exclusive activity of brewing yeast in the fermentation of beer. Alpha acids are responsible for the bitter flavor in the beer.<br />Beta acids do not isomerize during the boil of wort, and have a negligible effect on beer taste. Instead they contribute to beer's bitter aroma, and high beta acid hop varieties are often added at the end of the wort boil for aroma. Beta acids may oxidize into compounds that can give beer off-flavors of rotten vegetables or cooked corn.<br />Hops<br />
  6. 6. Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".<br />Malting grains develops the enzymes required to modify the grain's starches into sugars, including monosaccharides such as glucose, and disaccharides, such as sucrose. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms which can be used by yeast.<br />Malt<br />
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  9. 9. Malting begins by soaking grain, usually barley, in water long enough to begin germination or sprouting.<br />The barley has been modified to malt by the maltster and has been crushed breaking the husks, but not ground into flour<br />Each beer has its own formulation with regards to the blend of different malts.<br />Malting & Milling<br />
  10. 10. This tank has a mixing paddle to ensure that the mix of water and malt is constantly agitated during mashing.<br />The malt is mixed with hot water to allow the starch to be converted into sugar by enzymes.<br />The temperature of the mixture is crucial, as the type of sugar converted is temperature dependent: some sugars are fermentable, while others are non-fermentable, giving richness and mouth feel to the finished beer.<br />Steam jackets on the outside of the tanks to heat the mash in stages.<br />This mashing process takes about two hour.<br />The sweet liquid, now called wort, can pass through the screens of the false bottom, while the grain stays behind. The wort is then pumped into the kettle.<br />This process takes about 1.5 hours<br />The spent grain is collected for cattle feed.<br />MASHING & LAUTERING<br />
  11. 11. Once all the wort is in the kettle, the liquid is boiled for 60-90 minutes. This ensures that the wort is sterile.<br />Boiling also evaporates some water, concentrating the wort and intensifying the colour somewhat.<br />Hops are added to the kettle at the start of boil for bitterness and at the end of boil for aroma and flavour<br />The wort is then recirculated through a whirlpool effect which ensures the residual hop product and proteins and enzymes are coagulated, and settle out of the liquid as a sludge called trub.  This trub is partially removed from the bottom of the kettle which ensures the bitter wort is nice and clear when transferred through to the next stage.<br />BOILING & WHILRPOOL<br />
  12. 12. COOLING THROUGH HEAT EXCHANGER<br />Once boiling is complete, the wort is cooled to around 20 C through a heat exchanger on its way to the fermenter.<br />This process takes about 1 hour.<br />By heat exchanging, we recover the energy used to boil the wort, cold water becomes hot water, and returned to the Hot Liquor Tank which is then used to brew more beer or for cleaning.<br />
  13. 13. Once all the wort is in the tank, the yeast is added.<br />The yeast will ferment the wort and turn it into beer.<br />Primary fermentation will take about 3 – 4 days to complete.<br />Fermentation temperatures will vary depending on beer styles, a lager is fermented below 16 C, ales are fermented above 20 C<br />At the end of fermentation, the finished beer is chilled to 10 C and then 4 C and kept in the tank for maturation, usually around three weeks.<br />Yeast is harvested from the cone section at the bottom of the fermenter, to be used to ferment another batch of beer. <br />FERMENTATION & MATURATION<br />
  14. 14. When the beer is required for packaging, beer is earth filtered into a Bright beer tank (BBT)<br />Filtering removes yeast, leaving the beer crystal clear.<br />Some beers are not filtered at all, and still contain yeast such as our Howling Gale Ale<br />The CO2 (carbon dioxide) is adjusted in the BBT and it is then ready to be packaged.<br />Beer is kept freezing cold.<br />FILTERING INTO A BRIGHT BEER TANK<br />
  15. 15. Beer is packaged into 330ml glass bottles.<br />If bottled, the beer is counter pressure filled (double pre-evacuation) to reduce oxidation, and capped on foam to ensure it is free of any nasty microbes and will remain stable in the bottle.<br />The bottling line runs at just below 2,000 bottles per hour.<br />Bottled are labelled and placed into six-packs and cartons.<br />Then wrapped in pallets stored ready for dispatch.<br />PACKAGING<br />
  16. 16. Beer are delivered to the bars and public place, hooked up to tap ready for dispense<br />Beer are also used for our beer festvals and promotions<br />DISTRIBUTION<br />
  17. 17. Soft Drinks<br />
  18. 18. Carbonated water<br />Carbon dioxide<br />suitable gas for soft drinks because it is inert, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive and easy to liquefy.<br />Sugar<br />Sweetness<br />enhancing the "mouth-feel“<br />balances flavors and acids<br />Raw Materials<br />
  19. 19. Sugar-free soft drinks<br />Saccharin<br />Aspartame or Nutra-Sweet<br />high-intensity sweeteners do not provide the desired mouth-feel and aftertaste of sugar, they often are combined with sugar and other sweeteners and flavors to improve the beverage<br />Raw Materials<br />
  20. 20. Acids<br />add a sharpness to the background taste and enhance the thirst-quenching experience by stimulating saliva flow.<br />citric acid (lemony flavor)<br />preserving the beverage<br />other additives <br />To enhance taste, mouth-feel, aroma, and appearance of the beverage.<br />Raw Materials<br />
  21. 21. Preservatives added to soft drinks<br />Anti-oxidants<br />ascorbic acid<br />Water<br />Coagulation<br />mixing floc into the water to absorb suspended particles.<br />Sand Filter<br />remove fine particles of Roc<br />Chlorine<br />To sterilize the water<br />Raw Materials<br />
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  23. 23. Clarifying the water<br />The quality of water is crucial to the success of a soft drink. Impurities, such as suspended particles, organic matter, and bacteria, may degrade taste and color. They are generally removed through the traditional process of a series of coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. Coagulation involves mixing a gelatinous precipitate, or floc (ferric sulphate or aluminum sulphate), into the water. The floc absorbs suspended particles, making them larger and more easily trapped by filters. During the clarification process, alkalinity must be adjusted with an addition of lime to reach the desired pH level.<br />Process<br />
  24. 24. Filtering, sterilizing, and dechlorinating the water<br />The clarified water is poured through a sand filter to remove fine particles of floc. The water passes through a layer of sand and courser beds of gravel to capture the particles.<br />Sterilization is necessary to destroy bacteria and organic compounds that might spoil the water's taste or color. The water is pumped into a storage tank and is dosed with a small amount of free chlorine. The chlorinated water remains in the storage tank for about two hours until the reaction is complete.<br />Process<br />
  25. 25. Mixing the ingredients<br />The dissolved sugar and flavor concentrates are pumped into the dosing station in a predetermined sequence according to their compatibility. The ingredients are conveyed into batch tanks where they are carefully mixed; too much agitation can cause unwanted aeration. The syrup may be sterilized while in the tanks, using ultraviolet radiation or flash pasteurization, which involves quickly heating and cooling the mixture. Fruit based syrups generally must be pasteurized.<br />Process<br />
  26. 26. The water and syrup are carefully combined by sophisticated machines, called proportioners, which regulate the flow rates and ratios of the liquids. The vessels are pressurized with carbon dioxide to prevent aeration of the mixture.<br />
  27. 27. Carbonating the beverage<br />Carbonation is generally added to the finished product, though it may be mixed into the water at an earlier stage. The temperature of the liquid must be carefully controlled since carbon dioxide solubility increases as the liquid temperature decreases. Many carbonators are equipped with their own cooling systems. The amount of carbon dioxide pressure used depends on the type of soft drink. For instance, fruit drinks require far less carbonation than mixer drinks, such as tonics, which are meant to be diluted with other liquids. The beverage is slightly over-pressured with carbon dioxide to facilitate the movement into storage tanks and ultimately to the filler machine.<br />Process<br />
  28. 28. Filling and packaging<br />The finished product is transferred into bottles or cans at extremely high flow rates. The containers are immediately sealed with pressure-resistant closures, either tinplate or steel crowns with corrugated edges, twist offs, or pull tabs.<br />Process<br />
  29. 29. Because soft drinks are generally cooled during the manufacturing process, they must be brought to room temperature before labeling to prevent condensation from ruining the labels. This is usually achieved by spraying the containers with warm water and drying them. Labels are then affixed to bottles to provide information about the brand, ingredients, shelf life, and safe use of the product. Most labels are made of paper though some are made of a plastic film. Cans are generally pre-printed with product information before the filling stage.<br />
  30. 30. Finally, containers are packed into cartons or trays which are then shipped in larger pallets or crates to distributors<br />