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Physical internet manifesto 1.9 2011 04-21 english bm

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  • 1. Physical Internet ManifestoTransforming the way physical objectsare handled, moved, stored, realized, supplied and used,aiming towards global efficiency and sustainability
    π
    Benoit Montreuil
    Canada Research Chair in Enterprise EngineeringCIRRELT, Interuniversity Research Centeron Enterprise Networks, Logistics & Transportation
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada
    Version 1.9: 2011-04-21
    www.PhysicalInternetInitiative.org
  • 2. AcknowledgementsThe Physical Internet Manifesto has greatly benefited fromthe contribution of esteemed colleagues
    America
    • CIRRELT Research Center:
    TeodorCrainic- UQAM
    Michel Gendreau- Université de Montréal
    Olivier Labarthe, Mustapha Lounès & Jacques Renaud- Université Laval
    • CICMHE, College-Industry Council for Material Handling Education:
    Russ Meller– University of Arkansas
    Kevin Gue & Jeff Smith – Auburn University
    Kimberley Ellis – Virginia Tech
    Leon McGinnis – Georgia Tech
    Mike Ogle – MHIA
    Europe
    RémyGlardon– EPFL
    Éric Ballot, FrédéricFontane– Mines ParisTech
    Rene De Koster– Erasmus University
    DetlefSpee– Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistic
  • 3. Macroscopic Positioning
    CLAIMThe way physical objects aremoved, handled, stored, realized, supplied and used throughout the worldisneither efficient nor sustainableeconomically, environmentally and socially
    GOALEnabling the global efficiency and sustainabilityof physical object movement, handling, storage, realization, supply and usage
    VISIONEvolving towards a worldwide Physical Internet
  • 4. Supporting the claim
    CLAIMThe way Physical objects aremoved, handled, stored, realized, supplied and used throughout the worldisneither efficient nor sustainableeconomically, environmentally and socially
  • 5. Inefficiency and unsustainability symptoms Leading Us Toward Hitting the Wall Real Hard
    We are shipping air and packaging
    Empty travel is the norm rather than the exception
    Truckers have become the modern cowboys
    Products mostly sit idle, stored where unneeded,yet so often unavailable fast where needed
    Production and storage facilities are poorly used
    So many products are never sold, never used
    Products do not reach those who need them the most
    Products unnecessarily move, crisscrossing the world
    Fast & reliable intermodal transport is still a dream or a joke
    Getting products in and out of cities is a nightmare
    Networks are neither secure nor robust
    Smart automation & technology are hard to justify
    Innovation is strangled
  • 6. We are shipping air and packagingInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 1
    Trucks and containers are often half empty at departure,with a large chunk of the non-emptinessbeing filled by packaging
    Overall, most goods travel by road. In the UK, 65% of all freight is moved by road, or about 160 billion tonnekilometres out of 240 billion tonnekilometres.
    In the USA, for example, there are 40,000 public carriers and 600,000 private fleets. With so many operators competition is likely to be more intense and pricing more flexible. [1]
    Transportation costs are the single largest contributor to total logistics costs, with trucking being the most significant subcomponent.
    Trucking costs account for roughly 50% of total logistics expenditures and 80% of the transportation component.
    Trucking revenues in 2005 increased by $74 billion over 2004,but carrier expenses rose faster than rates, eroding some of the gain.
    Fuel ranks as a top priority at trucking firms as substantially higher fuel prices have cut margins. The U.S. trucking industry consumes more than 650 million gallons of diesel per week, making it the second largest expense after labor.
    The trucking industry spent $87.7 billion for diesel in 2005,a big jump over the $65.9 billion spent in 2004. [2]
    References:1]: “Transport in Logistics”, Chap. 12 in An Introduction to Supply Chain Management, Ed. By Donald Waters [Palgrave Macmillan] (2003)
    [2]: Wilson R. A., “Economic Impact of Logistics”, Chap. 2 in Logistics Engineering Handbook , 2008
  • 7. Empty travel is the norm rather than the exceptionInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 2
    Vehicles and containers often return empty,or travel extra routes to find return shipments
    Vehicles leaving loaded get emptier and emptieras their route unfolds from delivery point to delivery point
    Statistical evidence that around 30 per cent of truck-kilometres are run empty,illustrating huge inefficiency in road haulage and enormous potential for increasing back loading.
    In Britain, the proportion of truck-kilometres travelled empty felt from 33 per cent in 1980 to 27 per cent in 2004, yielding significant economic and environmental benefits. [1]
    Other things being equal, if the empty running percentage had remained at its 1980 level, road haulage costs in 2004 would have been £1.2 billion higher and an extra 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide would have been emitted by trucks (McKinnon, 2005).
    Reference: [1]: McKinnon A., “Road transport optimization” Chap. 17 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management (2007), Ed. by Donald Water
  • 8. Truckers have become the modern cowboysInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 3
    So many are nearly always on the road,so often away from home for long durations
    Their family life, their social lifeand their personal health are precarious
    The shift workers with the lowest mean hours of daily sleep are truck drivers, at 3.5 hours/24 hours
    Fatigue and sleep deprivation are important safety issues for long-haul truck drivers
    A National Transportation Safety Board study examinedthe effects of duty shifts and sleep patterns on drivers of heavy trucks involved in single-vehicle accidentsand found that 62 of 107 accidents (58%) reported by drivers were deemed to be "fatigue-related“[1]
    The American Trucking Association (ATA) has estimated thatthe driver shortage will grow to 111,000 by 2014 [2]
    References: [1]: “Consequences of Insomnia, Sleepiness, and Fatigue: Health and Social Consequences of Shift Work “, http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/513572_2
    [2] : Wilson R.A. “Economic Impact of Logistics”, in Chap. 2 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
  • 9. Products mostly sit idle, stored where unneeded, yet so often unavailable fast where needed Inefficiency and unsustainability symptom 4
    Manufacturers, distributors, retailers and usersare all storing products, often in vast quantitiesthrough their networks of warehouses and distribution centers,yet service levels and response times to local usersare constraining and unreliable
    Stocks are increasingly maintained at a higher levelin response to longer and sometimes unpredictable delivery times, as well as changes in distribution patterns.In 2005, the average investment in all business inventories was $1.74 trillion,which surpassed 2004’s record high by $101 billion.
    Reference: Wilson R.A. “Economic Impact of Logistics”, in Chap. 2 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
  • 10. Production and storage facilities are poorly usedInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 5
    Most businesses invest in storage and/or production facilitieswhich are lowly used most of the times, or yet badly used,dealing with products which would better be dealt elsewhere,forcing a lot of unnecessary travel
    When the production function is considered to be a part of the supply chain, there is obviously much that can be done to improve environmental and social performance at this stage [1]
    The transport and storage of goods are at the centre of any logistics activity, and these are areas where a company should concentrate its efforts to reduce its environmental impacts [2]
    [1]: McIntyre K., “Delivering sustainability through supply chain management”, Chap.15 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management, (2007)
    [2]: Cooper J., Browne M. and Peters M., “European Logistics: Markets, management and strategy”, Blackwell, London (1991)
    Chopra & Meindl, “Facility Decisions and Distribution Network “, 2009_E4.5
  • 11. So many products are never sold, never usedInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 6
    A significant portion of consumer products that are madenever reach the right market on time, ending up unsold and unusedwhile there would have been required elsewhere
    Rusting new cars in disused airfields
  • 12. Products do not reach those who need them the mostInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 7
    This is specially true in less developed countries and disaster-crisis zones
    Countries most affected by high prices are those: which import large quantities of food, whose populations spend a large part of their income on food, where inflation is already high, where there is already food insecurity and which have large urban populations.
    References: “World Food Programme (WFP)”, http://www.wfp.org/node/7904
    “Problems in developing logistics centres for ports in the Escap region”; Chap5, http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2194/pub_2194_ch5.pdf
  • 13. Products unnecessarily move, crisscrossing the worldInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 8
    Products commonly travel thousands of miles-kilometerswhich could have been avoided (1) by routing them smartlyand/or(2) making or assembling themmuch nearer to their point of use
    Reference: “Virtual Warehousing”, Jeroen van den Berg Consulting, 2001
  • 14. Fast & reliable intermodal transport is still a dream or a jokeInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 9
    Even though there are some great intermodal examples,in general synchronization is so poor, interfaces so badly designed,that intermodal routes are mostly time & cost inefficient and risky
    Reference: Crainic, T.G. and Kim, K.H., “Intermodal Transportation, Chap8 in Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science”, C. Barnhart and G. Laporte (Eds.), 2007
  • 15. Getting products in, through and out of citiesis a nightmareInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 10
    Most cities are not designed and equippedfor easing freight transportation, handling and storage,making the feeding of businesses and users in cities a nightmare
    References: « Transport des marchandises en ville »,www.transports-marchandises-en-ville.org
    “Problems in developing logistics centres for ports in the Escap region”, Chap5, http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2194/pub_2194_ch5.pdf
  • 16. Networks are neithersecurenorrobustInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 11
    There is extreme concentration of operations in a limited numberof centralized production and distribution facilities,with travel along a narrow set of high-traffic routes
    This makesthe logistic networksand supply chainsof so many businesses,unsecure in face of robberyand terrorism acts,and not robust in face ofnatural disastersand demand crises
    References: Chopra & Meindl, “Facility Decisions and Distribution Network” - 2009_E4.5
    “Terrorism - Supply Chain Effects”, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/CSI/Terrorism.pdf
    “The New Supply Chain Challenge - Risk Management in a Global Economy”, FM Global, 2006 , http://www.fmglobal.com/assets/pdf/P0667.pdf
    Peck H., “Supply chain vulnerability, risk and resilience”, Chap.15 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management, (2007)
    “Managing Supply Chain Risk”, Video produced by CFO Research Services, http://www.fmglobal.com/VideoPlayer.aspx?url=/assets/videos/CFO_SupplyChain.wm
    “Security, Risk Perception and Cost-Benefit Analysis”, Joint Transport Research Centre OCDE Summary & Conclusions – Discussion Paper #2009-6, March 2008
  • 17. Smart automation & technology are hard to justifyInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 12
    Vehicles, handling systems and operational facilitieshave to deal with so many types of materials, shapes and unit loads,with each player independently and locally deciding on his piece of the puzzle
    This makes it very hard to justifysmart connective technologies (e.g. RFID & GPS),systemic handling and transport automation,as well as smart collaborative piloting software
    References: Montreuil B., Facilities Location and Layout Design Chapter 9. in Logistics Engineering Handbook (2008)
    Hakimi D., Leclerc P-A., Montreuil B., Ruiz A., « Integrating RFID and Connective Technologies in Retail Stores », RFID in Operations and Supply Chain Management - Research and Applications, Erich Schmidt Verlag, 148-171, 2007.Spada Sal,“Material Handling Control System Software Extends Supply Chain Visibility “nov.15, 2001
    http://www.arcweb.com/ARCReports2001/Material%20Handling%20Control%20System%20Software%20Extends%20Supply%20Chain%20Visibility.pdf
    Sunderesh S. H., Material Handling System – Chapter-11 in Logistics Engineering Handbook (2008)
    McKinnon A., Road transport optimization – Chap. 17 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management - eBook (2007) Fifth Edition, Edited by Donald Waters
    Decker C. et al.“Cost-Benefit Model for Smart Items in the Supply Chain” (2008)
    Myerson J.M. “RFID in the Supply Chain - A Guide to Selection and Implementation” - IT Consultant Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA - Auerbach Publications 2007
  • 18. Innovation is strangledInefficiency and unsustainability symptom 13
    Innovation is bottlenecked,notably by lack of generic standards and protocols,transparency, modularity and systemic open infrastructure
    This makes breakthrough innovation so tough,justifying a focus on marginal epsilon innovation
    References: “RFID Tags: Advantages and Limitations”, http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/rfid/walmart/tag-advantages.php
    “RFID hype is blurring limitations, study claims “, http://www.usingrfid.com/news/read.asp?lc=d59745mx97zf
    “RFID_Internet of Things in 2020 - Roadmap for the future”, Infso D.4Networked Enterprise & RFID Infso G.2Micro & Nanosystems, 2008
  • 19. Inefficiency and unsustainability symptoms Leading Us Toward Hitting the Wall Real Hard
    We are shipping air and packaging
    Empty travel is the norm rather than the exception
    Truckers have become the modern cowboys
    Products mostly sit idle, stored where unneeded,yet so often unavailable fast where needed
    Production and storage facilities are poorly used
    So many products are never sold, never used
    Products do not reach those who need them the most
    Products unnecessarily move, crisscrossing the world
    Fast & reliable intermodal transport is still a dream or a joke
    Getting products in and out of cities is a nightmare
    Networks are neither secure nor robust
    Smart automation & technology are hard to justify
    Innovation is strangled
  • 20. Mapping unsustainability symptoms to environmental, environmental and societal facets
  • 21. Readdressing the Goal
    GOALEnabling the global efficiency and sustainabilityof the transport, handling, storage, realization, supply and usage of physical objects across the world
  • 22. Expliciting the Overall Goal
    Economic goalUnlock highly significant gainsin global logistic, production, transportationand business productivity
    Environmental goalReduce by an order of magnitudeglobal energy consumption, pollutionand greenhouse gas emission associated with logistic, production and transportation
    Societal goalIncrease the quality of life of boththe logistic, production and transportation workersand the overall population by making much more accessible across the world the objects and functionality they value
    References: Dablanc L., “Urban Goods Movement and Air Quality Policy and Regulation Issues in European Cities”, Journal of Environmental Law Advance Access, 2008
    McIntyre K., “Delivering sustainability through supply chain management”, Chap.15 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management, 2007
    Esty D. C. and Winston A.S. “Green to Gold “; 2006
  • 23. Restating the Overall Goal
    Enabling the global efficiency and sustainabilityof bringing to users from around the worldthe physical objects they need and value,through a triple synergistic gainin terms of economy, environment and society
    “In a prosperous society,you really have tow assets:people – their capacity and skills –and the ecosystem around them.Both need to be carefully tended.”Mats Lederhausen,executive’s veteran at McDonald’s.
    “We are not environmentalist.We are not Scientists But if we don’t do anything,we will be out of business.”Unilever supply chain managerthe world’s largest purchasers of fish.
    Reference: Sustainable Supply Chain Logistics Guide (SCL)- Business Tool (2009) http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/sustainablesclguidefinal-june23.pdf
  • 24. The Inspiration for the VisionJune 2006: The Spark
    A great front page one-liner
    Interesting yet mainstream supply chain articles
    Nothing like what I perceiveda Physical Internet should be
    I rapidly got passionate about the question What should or could be a full blown Physical Internet?
    What would be its key features?
    What capabilities would it offerthat are not achievable today?
    Another question surfaced rapidly:Why would we need a Physical Internet?
  • 25. The Digital InternetBuilding Upon and Expanding Beyondthe Information Highway Metaphor
    When the digital world was looking for a wayto conceptualize how it should transform itself,it relied on a physically inspired metaphor:Building the information highway
    References “BCNET's Optical Regional Advanced Network Upgrade Completed”, http://www.bc.net/news_events_publications/newsletters/Dec_2007/ROADM_Completion.htm
    “What the Telecom Industry May Look Like in 10 Years”, http://kennethmarzin.wordpress.com/2008/01/24/what-the-telecom-industry-may-look-like-in-10-years/
  • 26. The Digital InternetBuilding Upon and Expanding Beyondthe Information Highway Metaphor
    Well, they have achieved their goal and went farther,reshaping completely the waydigital computing and communication are now performed
    They have invented the Internet,leading the way to the World-Wide Web
    They have enabled the building ofan open distributed networked infrastructurethat is currently revolutionizingso many facets of our societal and economic reality
    References: « Internet 2, le Web de demain », /http://www.futura-sciences.com/fr/doc/t/telecoms/d/Internet-2-le-web-de-demain_582/c3/221/p1
    http://www.20minutes.fr/article/353755/Economie-Surendettement-Christine-Lagarde-ne-veut-pas-interdire-le-credit-revolving.php
    « rE-veille: réflexions sur l’aventure Internet », http://reveille.wordpress.com/
  • 27. The Essence of the Digital Internet
    The Digital Internet is aboutthe interconnection between networksin a way transparent for the user,so allowing the transmission offormatted data packetsin a standard waypermitting them to transit throughheterogeneous equipmentrespecting the TCP/IP protocol
    References: Kurose J., Ross K. and Wesley A. “Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, 3rd edition., July 2004.
    Parziale L., Britt D.T., Davis C., Forrester J., Liu W., Matthews C. and Rosselot N. “TCP-IP Tutorial and Technical Overview”, 2006. http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/gg243376.pdf
    “Interconnection of access networks, MANs and WANs “, http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.exfo.com/
  • 28. Toward a Physical InternetDigital Internet as a Metaphor for the Physical World
    Even though there are fundamental differencesbetween the physical world and the digital world,the Physical Internet initiative aims to exploit the Internet metaphorso as to propose a vision fora sustainable and progressively deployablebreakthrough solutionto global problemsassociated with the waywe move, handle, store, realize, supply and usephysical objects all around the world
  • 29. The PhysicalInternet
    An open global logistics systemleveraginginterconnectedsupplynetworksthrougha standard set ofcollaborative protocols, modular containers and smart interfacesfor increasedefficiency and sustainability
    Working definition for the Physical Internet,jointly developed by Benoit Montreuil, Eric Ballot and Russ Meller, version as of 2011-03-23
  • 30. Exposing Key Featuresof the Physical Internet Vision
    VISION
    Evolving towards a worldwide Physical Internet
  • 31. Key Featuresof the Physical Internet Vision
    Encapsulate merchandises in world-standardsmart green modular containers
    Aim toward universal interconnectivity
    Evolve from material to container handling & storage systems
    Exploit smart networked containers embedding smart objects
    Evolve from point-to-point hub-and-spoke transportto distributed multi-segment intermodal transport
    Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Activate and exploit an open global supply web
    Design products fitting containers with minimal space waste
    Minimize Physical moves and storages by digitally transmitting knowledge and materializing products as locally as possible
    Deploy capability certifications and open performance monitoring
    Prioritize webbed reliability and resilience of networks
    Stimulate business model innovation
    Enable open infrastructural innovation
  • 32. Digital Internet:From information to packets
    • The Digital Internet does not transmit information,it transmits packets embedding information
    • 33. Information packets are designed for ease of use in Internet
    • 34. The information within a packetis encapsulated and is not dealtwith explicitly by Internet
    • 35. The packet header containsall information required foridentifying the packet androuting it correctly to destination
    • 36. A packet is constructed fora specific transmission and it isdismantled once it has reachedits destination
    Image: http://www.softlist.net/program/sniff_-_o_-_matic-image.html
  • 37. Digital Internet:From information to packets
    • The Digital Internet is based on a protocolstructuring data packets independently from equipment
    • 38. In this way, data packets can be processedby different systems and through various networks
    Modems, copper wires,fiber optic wires, routers, etc.
    Local area networks,wide area networks, etc.
    Intranet, Extranet, Internet,Virtual Private Network, etc.
    References: Kurose J., Ross K. and Wesley A. “Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, 3rd edition., July 2004.
    Parziale L., Britt D.T., Davis C., Forrester J., Liu W., Matthews C. and Rosselot N. “TCP-IP Tutorial and Technical Overview”, 2006. http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/gg243376.pdf
  • 39. Physical Internet1. Encapsulate merchandises inworld-standard smart green modular containers
    -containers are key elements enabling the interoperability necessary for the adequate functioning of the Physical Internet
    • Merchandise is unitized as content of a -container andis not dealt with explicitly by the Physical Internet
    • 40. From the cargo container sizes down to tiny sizes
    • 41. Conceived to be easily flowed through varioustransport, handling and storage modes and means
    • 42. Conceived to be easy to handle, store, transport, seal, snap, interlock, load, unload, construct, dismantle, panel, compose and decompose
    • 43. Smart tag enabled, with sensors if necessary, to allow their proper identification, routing and maintaining
    • 44. Environment friendly materials with minimal off-service footprint
    • 45. Minimizing packaging materials requirements by enabling of the fixture-based protection and stabilization of their embedded products;
    • 46. Various usage-adapted structural grades
    • 47. Conditioning capabilities (e.g. temperature) as necessary
    • 48. Sealable for security purposes
  • -Containers: Modularized and standardized worldwidein terms of dimensions, functions and fixtures
    -containers
    Y
    X
    Z
    Illustrativemodulardimensions
    0,12 m
    0,24 m
    0,36 m
    0,48 m
    0,6 m
    1,2 m
    2,4 m
    3,6 m
    4,8 m
    6 m
    12 m
    B. Montreuil, B. Gilbert
  • 49. -ContainersEasy to handle, store, transport, seal, snap, interlock, load, unload, construct, dismantle, panel, compose and decompose
  • 50. Physical Internet2. Aim toward universal interconnectivity
    High-performance logistic centers, systems and moversexploiting world standard protocols,making it fast, cheap, easy and reliableto interconnect -containers through modes and routes,with an overarching aim toward universal interconnectivity
    References: Crainic, T.G. and Kim, K.H., Intermodal Transportation, Chapt. 8, Transportation, Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, C. Barnhart and G. Laporte (Eds.), North-Holland,, 467–537, 2007
    Goetschalckx M. “Distribution System Design”. Chap. 13 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
  • 51. Digital Internet:Hubs and Routers
    • Routing allows to insure Internet performancethrough a very efficient orientation of the packetstowards the nodes of the network
    • 52. Routing exploits the ease of storing & transmitting information
    • 53. A router's job is extremely simple:
    It moves packets to the next machine in the right direction as quickly as possible.
    • Because all routers do is move packets, they are able to process millions of packets a minute
    Each router maintains a routing table, a set of rules that tell the router which next machine to forward packets to,based on the final destination of a packet
    References: Zuckerman E. & McLaughlin A., “Introduction to Internet Architecture and Institutions” : August, 2003
    Perlman R, “Interconnections - Bridges, Routers, Switches, and Internetworking Protocols”; (2nd Edition) 1999
  • 54. Physical Internet2. Universal Interconnectivity
    • The Physical Internet nodes are concurrently routing and accumulation sites within the networks, as well as gateways interfacing with the entities out of the Physical Internet
    • 55. As currently conceived, the activities of sorting, storage and handling physical objects are brakes to interconnection
    Be it in train sorting yards or in crossdocking platforms
    • However there exist exceptions:
    Such as some of the recently implemented container ports
    • There is a need to generalize unloading, orientation, storage and loading operations, widely applying them to -containers in a smart automated and/or human-assisted way
    • 56. The objective is to make load breaking almost negligible temporally and economically
    • 57. Intermodal less-than-truckload transport nearly at the same price, speed & reliability as single-mode full truckload
    References: Crainic, T.G. and Kim, K.H., Intermodal Transportation, Chap. 8, Transportation, Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, C. Barnhart and G. Laporte (Eds.), North-Holland, 467–537, 2007
    Chopra & Meindl, Facility Decisions and Distribution Network - 2009_E4.5
  • 58. Physical Internet3. Evolve from material to -container handling & storage systems
    -container handling and storage systems,with innovative technologies and processesexploiting the characteristics of -containersto enable their fast, cheap, easy and reliableinput, storage, composing, decomposing,monitoring, protection and outputthrough smart, sustainable and seamlessautomation and human handling
  • 59. Physical Internet3. Evolve from material to -container handling & storage systems
    Reference: Montreuil, B., R.D. Meller, E. Ballot (2010) Towards a physical internet: the impact on logistics facilities and material handling systems design and innovation,International Material Handling Research Colloquium (IMHRC 2010), Milwaukee, États-Unis, 2010/06/21-24
  • 60. Physical Internet3. Evolve from material to -container handling & storage systems
    • -container handling and storage systems:
    Enable fast and reliable input and output performance
    Have seamless interfacing with vehicles and systemsmoving products in and out, as well as client software systems for tracking and interfacing with the containers
    Monitor and protect the integrity of -containers
    Secure the containers to the desired level
    Provide an open live documentation of their specified performance and capabilities and of their demonstrated performance and capabilities, updated through ongoing operations
    • This applies in currently-labeled distribution centers, crossdocking centers, train stations, multimodal hubs, seaports, airports, and so on
  • Physical Internet4. Exploit smart networked containers embedding smart objects
    Exploiting as best as possiblethe capabilities of smart -containersconnected to the Digital Internet and the World Wide Web,and of their embedded smart objects,for improving performance as perceived by the clientsand overall performance of the Physical Internet
  • 61. Physical Internet and the Internet of Things
    • The Internet of Things is about enabling ubiquitous connection with physical objects equipped with smart connective technology, making the objects ever smarter and enabling distributed self-control of objects through networks
    It exploits technologies such as Internet, Web, RFID and GPS
    • The Physical Internet is to exploit as best as possible the Internet of Thingsto enable the ubiquitous connectivityof its -containers and -systems
    Image: http://www.globetracker.biz/GlobeTracker/News.asp
    References: Johnson M. E., “Ubiquitous Communication: Tracking Technologies within the Supply Chain”, Chap.20 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
    Scott D. M., “Electronic Connectivity and Soft ware” Chap.20 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
    “Building a Smarter Container”, RFID Journal, http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/655/1/1/
  • 62. Physical Internet5. Evolve from point-to-point hub-and-spoke transport to distributed multi-segment intermodal transport
    Distributed multi-segment travelof -containers through the Physical Internet,with distinct carriers and/or modestaking charge of inter-node segments,with transit nodes enabling synchronized
    transfer of -containers and/or carriers between segments,and with web software platformenabling an open marketof transport requesters and transport providers
  • 63. Digital InternetDistributed multi-segment transmission
    • In the Digital Internet, the packets that constitute an overall transmission, such as an e-mail, do not travel directly from source node A to destination node B
    • 64. The packets travel through a series of routers and cables (copper or optical), dynamically moved from origin to destination in as best a way as possible provided the routing algorithms and the congestion through the networks
    An email from Québec to Lausanne may go through tens of routers across the world, from New York to Beijing
    • Packets forming a message are not restricted to travel together
    Each may end up traveling its distinct route
    The overall message is reconstituted upon packet arrival at final destination
    References: Zuckerman E. & McLaughlin A., “Introduction to Internet Architecture and Institutions” : August, 2003
    Kurose J., Ross K. and Wesley A. “Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet”, 3rd edition., July 2004.
  • 65. Physical Internet5. Evolve from point-to-point hub-and-spoke transport to distributed multi-segment intermodal transport
    • Currently, if a trailer fully loaded with containers is requested to be transportedfrom Québec to Los Angeles,there is high probability that:
    A driver and a truck will be assigned to the multi-day trip,
    The driver sleeping in his truck and driving to destination,
    Then moving to some as nearby as possible location to pick up a trailer returningtoward as near as possible of Québec,to avoid empty travel
    References: Powell W. B. “Real-Time Dispatching for Truckload Motor Carriers“, Chapter 15 in Logistics Engineering Handbook, 2008
    McKinnon A., “Road transport optimization “,Chap. 17 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management - eBook (2007) Fifth Ed. Edited by Donald Waters
  • 66. A typical cowboy haul from Québec to Los Angeles
    One-way Distance travelled : 5030 km
    Drivers: 1, Trucks: 1, Trailer: 1
    One-way driving time: 48 hours
    Return driving time: 48 hours
    One-way trip time: 120 hours
    Return trip time: 120+ hours
    Driving time for driver: 96 hours
    Trip time for driver: 240+ hours
  • 67. Physical Internet5. Evolve from point-to-point hub-and-spoke transport to distributed multi-segment intermodal transport
    • In the Physical Internet, such a point-to-point experience would be exceptional. Most probably:
    A first driver and truck would be assigned to transport it to a transit point 3 to 6 hours away
    The trailer would be deposited to a slot in the transit point
    The first would then pick up another trailer required toward Québec
    Another driver and truck would rapidly afterward pick up the trailer and move it another segment forward, or yet the containers could be transferred to other trailers, trucks, trains, ships or planes as pertinent given the opportunities
    Repeating the process all the way to Los Angeles
    The shipper or its representative would have a priori arranged transportation on each segment and sojourn at each transit point, in his best interest in terms of price, timing and risk; or yet the routing decisions would be dynamic and/or distributed
    Reference: “Warehousing And Cross-Docking”, http://www.3pd.com/Services/JobSiteWarehousing.aspx
  • 68. Multi-segment travel from Quebec to Los Angeles
    Truck-Driver 1
    Truck-Driver 2
    Québec
    Truck-Driver 3
    20
    Montréal
    Truck-Driver 4
    Alexandria Bay, US border
    20-401
    Truck-Driver 5
    81
    Syracuse
    Truck-Driver 6
    90
    Buffalo
    Truck-Driver 7
    90
    Cleveland
    Truck-Driver 8
    71
    Columbus
    Truck-Driver 9
    70
    Indianapolis
    Truck-Driver 10
    70
    Truck-Driver 11
    St-Louis
    44
    Truck-Driver 12
    Springfield
    Current
    Proposed
    44
    Truck-Driver 13
    Tulsa
    44
    Distance travelledone-way: 5030 km 5030 km
    Drivers: 1 17
    Trucks: 1 17
    Trailer: 1 1
    One-waydriving time (h): 48 51+
    Return driving time (h): 48+ 51+
    Total time at transit points (h): 0 9
    Total trailer trip time fromQuebec to LA (h): 120 60+
    Total trailer trip time from LA to Quebec (h): 120+ 60+
    Total trailer round trip time (h): 240+ 120+
    Averagedriving time per driver (h): 96+ 6
    Average trip time per driver (h): 240+ 6,5
    Truck-Driver 14
    Oklahoma City
    40
    Truck-Driver 15
    Amarillo
    40
    Albuquerque
    Truck-Driver 16
    40
    Truck-Driver 17
    Flagstaff
    40
    Needles
    40
    Barstow
    15-10
    Los Angeles
  • 69. -Transit sitesallowingdistributedmulti-segment transportthrough the Physical Internet
    Reference: Montreuil, B., R.D. Meller, E. Ballot (2010) Towards a physical internet: the impact on logistics facilities and material handling systems design and innovation,International Material Handling Research Colloquium (IMHRC 2010), Milwaukee, États-Unis, 2010/06/21-24
  • 70. Road-Water-Hubdesigned for enablingdistributed multi-segment intermodal transportof -containers throughthe Physical Internet
    Reference: Montreuil, B., R.D. Meller, E. Ballot (2010) Towards a physical internet: the impact on logistics facilities and material handling systems design and innovation,International Material Handling Research Colloquium (IMHRC 2010), Milwaukee, États-Unis, 2010/06/21-24
  • 71. Road-Rail Hub designed for enablingmulti-segment intermodal transport of -containersthroughthe Physical Internet
    Reference: B. Montreuil, E. Ballot, C. Montreuil et D. Hakimi (2010), OpenFret Project Report, InnoFret Program, France
  • 72. PhysicalInternet6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Intra-CenterInter-Processor Network
  • 73. PhysicalInternet6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Intra-FacilityInter-Center Network
  • 74. PhysicalInternet6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Intra-Site Inter-Facility Network
  • 75. PhysicalInternet6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Intra-City Inter-Site Network
    -transits & -hubs
    Toward-enabledsustainablecity logistics
  • 76. Physical Internet 6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Intra-StateInter-City Network
    -transits & -hubs
    Québec, Canada
    North eastern states,
    U.S.A.
  • 77. PhysicalInternet6. Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
  • 78. Physical Internet7. Activate and exploit an Open Global Supply Web
    An open web of product realization centers,distribution centers, warehouses,hubs and transit centersenabling producers, distributors and retailersto dynamically deploy their-container-embedded productsin multiple geographically dispersed centers,producing, moving and storing themfor fast, efficient and reliable response deliveryto distributed stochastic demandfor their products, services and/or solutions
    EnablingPhysical Equivalents ofIntranets, Virtual Private Networks,Cloud Computing and Cloud Storage
    References: Montreuil B., Labarthe, O., Hakimi, D., Larcher, A., & Audet, M. Supply Web Mapper. Proceedings of Industrial Engineering and Systems Management, Conference, IESM, , Conference Montréal, Canada, May 13-15, 2009 Hakimi D., B. Montreuil, O. Labarthe, “Supply Web: Concept and Technology”, 7th Annual International Symposium on Supply Chain Management, Conference Toronto, Canada, October 28-30, 2009Montreuil, B.,
    Hakimi, D. , B. Montreuil, O. Labarthe, ”Supply Web Agent-Based Simulation Platform” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Systems, Logistics and Supply Chain Creating value through green supply chains, ILS 2010 – Casablanca (Morocco), April 14-16<.
  • 79. Physical Internet7. Activate and exploit an Open Global Supply Web
    • As products and materials are moved and stored in modular secured containers, it allows:
    Warehouses and DCs to accept handling and storing containers from a wide variety of clients, embedding an indeterminate and non-pertinent number of distinct products, as long as they respect their throughput, security, conditioning and dimensioning capability specifications
    Significant improvement in capacity utilizationand facility profitability
    Significant reduction in asset requirements and significant improvement in logistic costs and delivery service performance
    References: “Virtual warehousing”, Jeroen van den Berg Consulting , 2001
    Chopra & Meindl, “Facility Decisions and Distribution Network “, 2009_E4.5
  • 80. 1
    3
    Factories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 16
    Meanlead time: 1,75
    Max lead time: 3
    2
    4
    Independentprivatesupply networks
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    Mean lead time: 1,73
    Max lead time: 3
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    Mean lead time: 1,78
    Max lead time: 3
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    Mean lead time: 1,75
    Max lead time: 3
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    Mean lead time: 1,73
    Max lead time: 3
    Sharedsupply webwithjointlyimplementedDCs
    Sharedsupply webwithindependentlyimplementedDCs
    1
    1
    3
    3
    Factories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group dedicatedDCs: 16
    Mean lead time: 1,08
    Max lead time: 3
    Factories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group dedicatedDCs: 3
    Mean lead time: 1,48
    Max lead time: 3
    2
    2
    4
    4
    Factories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group dedicatedDCs: 0
    Open DCsused: 60+
    Mean lead time: 0
    Max lead time: 0
    1
    3
    Open supply webwith a highdensity of open DCsavailable to manyother clients
    2
    4
    * Lead times induced by transport from DC to client region
    Contrasting Independent Supply Networks, an Open Supply Web and a Global Open Supply Webin terms of number of distribution centers and of DC-to-client lead time
  • 81. FromPrivateSupply Networksto Open SupplyWebs
    Insuring one-day delivery by each company in its served markets
    47 facilities
    30 facilities
    A sharedsupply networks among 5 companiesserving clients across Canada and the U.S.A.
    under a one-daydelivery service policy,with 25 DC and 5 factories
    The privatesupply networks of 5 companiesserving clients across Canada and the U.S.A.
    under a one-daydelivery service policy,with42 DC and 5 factories
    Reference: Montreuil and Sohrabi, From Private Supply Networks to Open Supply Webs, IERC 2010
  • 82. Physical Internet8. Design products fitting containerswith minimal space waste
    Products designed and engineeredto minimize the load they generate on the Physical Internet,with dimensions adapted to standard container dimensions,with maximal volumetric and functional densitywhile containerized
    Reference: Seliger G., “Sustainability in Manufacturing - Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles” (Ed. by GüntherSeliger, SringerVerlag, 2007
  • 83. Physical Internet8. Design products fitting containerswith minimal space waste
    • Product dimensions adapted to the standard container dimensions
    So that the packaged product fits in a small footprint container
    • In order to avoid moving and storing air, products should be designed and engineered so as to have maximal volumetric density while being in Physical Internet containers, extendable to their usage dimensions when necessary
    • 84. Products should be designed so that only key components and modules have to travel extensively through the Physical Internet:
    Easy to be completed near point of use using locally available objects
    • Products having to move through the Physical Internet should be as functionally dense as possible when in the containers
    Functional density of an object can be expressed as the ratio of its useful functionality over the product of its weight and volume
  • 85. Physical Internet9. Minimize Physical moves and storagesby digitally transmitting knowledgeand materializing products as locally as possible
    In general,it is much easier and much less expensiveto move and store digital objectscomposed of information bitsrather than physical objects composed of matter
    References: Waters D., “Trends in the supply chain”, Chap. 1 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management , 2007) Fifth Ed., Ed. by Donald Waters
    Duncan R., “Internet traders can increase profitability by reshaping their supply chains” Chap. 19 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management , 2007 5th Ed. by D. Waters
  • 86. Physical Internet9. Minimize physical moves and storagesby digitally transmitting knowledgeand materializing products as locally as possible
    Exploiting extensivelythe knowledge-based dematerialization of productsand their materialization in physical objects at point of useAs it will gain maturity,the Physical Internet is expected to be connected toever more open distributed flexible production centers capable of locally realizing (make, assemble, finish) for clientsa wide variety of productsfrom digitally transmitted specifications,local physical objects and, if needed,critical physical objects brought in from faraway sources
  • 87. Physical Internet9. Minimize Physical moves and storagesby digitally transmitting knowledgeand materializing products as locally as possible
    Third-party production is to take an ever growing shareof the overall production market,internal production ever more limitedto highly sensitive core objects
    Product realization knowledge should be protected,and authenticity of the materialized productsshould be legally acknowledged
  • 88. 1
    3
    Factories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 16
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,75
    F2D max: 9 mean: 3,92
    2
    4
    Independentprivatesupply networks
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,73
    F2D max: 8 mean: 4,11
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,78
    F2D max: 7 mean: 3,00
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,75
    F2D max: 7 mean: 3,69
    Factory: 1
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 4
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,73F2D max: 9 mean: 4,88
    Sharedsupply webwithjointlyimplementedDCs
    Sharedsupply webwithindependentlyimplementedDCs
    1
    1
    3
    3
    Firmdedicatedfactories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group sharedDCs: 16
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,08
    F2D max: 9 mean: 4,36
    Firmdedicatedfactories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group sharedDCs: 3
    D2C max: 3 mean: 1,48
    F2D max: 10 mean: 4,39
    2
    2
    4
    4
    Open supply webwith a highdensity of open DCsavailable to manyother clients
    Firmdedicatedfactories: 4
    FirmdedicatedDCs: 0
    Group sharedDCs: 0
    Open DCsused: 60+
    D2C max: 0 mean: 0,00
    F2D max: 12 mean: 4,75
    1
    3
    2
    Inter-region transport induced lead times
    F2D: Factoryto DC lead time
    D2C: DC to client region lead time
    4
    Contrasting Supply Networks, an Open Supply Web and a Global Open Supply Web in terms of factory-to-DC lead times with no shared or open production centers
  • 89. Shared supply webwith shared factoriesand jointly implemented shared DCs
    Shared supply webwith shared factoriesand independently implemented shared DCs
    Firm dedicated factories: 0
    Group shared factories: 4
    Firm dedicated DCs: 0
    Group shared DCs: 3
    Mean DC-to-region lead time: 1,48
    Max DC-to-region lead time: 3
    Mean factory-to-DC lead time: 0,83
    Max factory-to-DC lead time: 3
    Firm dedicated factories: 0
    Group shared factories: 4
    Firm dedicated DCs: 0
    Group shared DCs: 16
    Mean DC-to-region lead time: 1,08
    Max DC-to-region lead time: 3
    Mean factory-to-DC lead time: 1,11
    Max factory-to-DC lead time: 3
    Firm dedicated factories: 0
    Group shared factories: 4
    Firm dedicated DCs: 0
    Group shared DCs: 0
    Open DCs used: 60+
    Mean DC-to-region lead time: 0
    Max DC-to-region lead time: 0
    Mean factory-to-DC lead time: 2
    Max factory-to-DC lead time: 4
    Open supply webwith a high density of open DCsavailable to many other clientsand shared factories among the four firms
    Firm dedicated factories: 0
    Group shared factories: 0
    Open factories used: 64+
    Firm dedicated DCs: 0
    Group dedicated DCs: 0
    Open DCs used: 64+
    Mean DC-to-region lead time: 0
    Max DC-to-region lead time: 0
    Mean factory-to-DC lead time: 0
    Max factory-to-DC lead time: 0
    Open supply webwith a high density ofopen distribution and production centersavailable to many other clients
    * Inter-region transport induced lead times
    Contrasting Supply Networks, an Open Supply Web and a Global Open Supply Web in terms of factory-to-DC lead times with shared or open production centers
  • 90. Physical Internet10. Deploy capability certifications andopen performance monitoring
    Multi-level Physical Internet capability certificationof containers, handling systems, vehicles,information systemsports, distribution centers,roads, cities and regions,protocols and processes,and so on
  • 91. Physical Internet10. Deploy capability certifications andopen performance monitoring
    Live open monitoring of reallyachieved performanceof all -certifiedactors and entities,focusing on key performance indices of criticalfacetssuch as speed, service level, reliability, safety and security
    Such live performance trackingisopenlyavailableworldwideto enablefact-baseddecisionmakingand stimulatecontinuousimprovement
    Open information is to beprovidedwhilerespectingconfidentiality of specific transactions
  • 92. Physical Internet11. Prioritize webbed reliabilityand resilience of networks
    The overall Physical Internet network of networksshould warrant its own reliabilityand that of its containers and shipments.
    The webbing of the networks and the multiplication of nodesshould allow the Physical Internet to insure its own robustness and resilience to unforeseen events.
    For example, if a node or a part of a network fails,the traffic of containers should be easily reroutable,
    as automatically as possible
    Reference: Peck H., “Supply chain vulnerability, risk and resilience”, Chap. 14 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management, 2007
  • 93. Physical Internet11. Prioritize webbed reliabilityand resilience of networks
    • The Digital Internet is to transport information flows in a reliable manner by its intrinsic nature, its protocols and its structure.
    • 94. It not only transmits information from any one point to any other point within the network, it also insures its coherence and avoids its corruption by external elements, notably through its data encapsulation in packets.
    • 95. The Physical Internet’s actors, movers, routes, nodes and flowing containers should interact in synergy to guarantee:
    The integrity of physical objects encapsulated in -containers
    The physical and informational integrity of -containers, -movers, -routes and -nodes
    The informational integrity of -actors (humans, software agents)
    The robustness of client-focused performance in delivering and storing -containers.
    Ref.: Shi X. and Chan S., “Information systems and information technologies for supply chain management”, Chap. 11 in Global Logistics New Directions in Supply Chain Management, 2007
  • 96. Physical Internet12. Stimulate business model innovation
    Multiple actors with innovative business modelscommercializing novel offersenabled by and adapted to the Physical Internet,with innovative revenue models for the various stakeholders
    What are to be the -enabled equivalents ofAmazon, eBay and Google?
    How are to evolve the manufacturers, distributers, retailers,transporters and logistics providers so as to best exploit the Physical Internet?
    How are to evolve the material handling and transportationsolution and technology providersso as to best thrive from the emerging Physical Internet?
  • 97. Physical Internet12. Stimulate business model innovation
    Remunerating the Players
    • In the Digital Internet, the transmission of informationis remunerated mostly through bundled flat feesdue to the quasi nil marginal costs
    • 98. In the Physical Internet, the transmission of a container generates non negligible costs for each of the operators having taken charge of some part of the transmission
    • 99. It is thus necessary to define business models for commercializing offers as well as operator revenue models
    There currently exist examples paving the way to realize this, notably in the airline industry
    Reference: Crainic, T.G. and Kim, K.H., “Intermodal Transportation”, Chap. 8 in Transportation, Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, Barnhart C. and Laporte G. (Eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 467–537, 2007
  • 100. Physical Internet12. Stimulate business model innovation
    • The Digital Internet has created a plethoraof new businesses and business models,from service providers to platform buildersand e-retailers
    • 101. The advent of the Physical Internet will surely have the same impact, stimulating business model innovation:
    In the various logistic and transport industries, the technology and solutions providers, third-part operators, Physical Internet and Supply Web software services, and so on
    In the production, distribution and retailing industries, with business models exploiting the open supply web capabilities enabled by the Physical Internet
  • 102. Physical Internet13. Enable Open Infrastructural Innovation
    Systemic coherence and means interoperabilitymust enable the transparent usage ofheavy handling, storage and transport meanscurrently existing or to come in the future,that are currently so hard to use,currently reducingtheir potential positive environmental impact
    The Physical Internet homogeneity in terms ofcontainer modules encapsulating objectsshould allow a much better utilization of means,thus increasing the capacity of infrastructuresby the exploitation ofstandardizations, rationalizations and automationsthrough currently unreachable innovations
  • 103. Key Featuresof the Physical Internet Vision
    Encapsulate merchandises in world-standard modular containers
    Aim toward universal interconnectivity
    Evolve from material to container handling & storage systems
    Exploit smart networked containers embedding smart objects
    Evolve from point-to-point hub-and-spoke transportto distributed multi-segment intermodal transport
    Embrace a unified multi-tier conceptual framework
    Activate and exploit an open global supply web
    Design products fitting containers with minimal space waste
    Minimize physical moves and storages by digitally transmitting knowledge and materializing products as locally as possible
    Deploy capability certifications and open performance monitoring
    Prioritize webbed reliability and resilience of networks
    Stimulate business model innovation
    Enable open infrastructural innovation
  • 104. Physical Internet addressingunsustainabilitysymptoms
  • 105. Positioning the Physical Internet
    World Wide Web (WWW)Digital InternetDigital information Packets
    Smart Grid
    Energy InternetEnergy Packets
    Connecting Physical objects through WWW
    Internet of ThingsSmart Networked Objects
    Open Supply WebPhysical Internet
    Smart Physical Packets
  • 106. Realizing the Vision
    VISION
    Evolving towards a worldwide Physical Internet
  • 107. The Physical Internet:Global systemic sustainable visionstimulating and aligning action around the world
    Individual initiatives by businesses, industries and governments are necessary but are not sufficient
    There is a need fora macroscopic, holistic, systemic vision offeringa unifying, challenging and stimulating framework
    There is a need foran interlaced set of global and local initiatives towards this vision,building on the shoulders of current assets and projects,to help evolvefrom the current globally inefficient and unsustainable stateto a desired globally efficient and sustainable state
  • 108. Physical Internet ImplementationProgressive Deployment, Cohabitation and Certification
    The widespread development and deploymentof the Physical Internetwill not be achieved overnight in a Big-Bang logicbut rather in an ongoing logicof cohabitation and of progressive deployment,propelled by the actorsintegrating gradually the Physical Internet waysand finding ever more value in its usage and exploitation
  • 109. Physical Internet ImplementationProgressive Deployment, Cohabitation and Certification
    • A smooth transitionstarting with rethinking and retrofitting phases,then moving toward more transformative phases
    • 110. The Physical Internet can constitute itself progressively through the multi-level certification of:
    Protocols
    Containers
    Handling and storage technologies, distribution centers,production centers, train stations, ports, multimodal hubs
    Information systems (e.g. reservation, smart labels, portals)
    Urban zones and regions, inter-country borders
  • 111. Conclusion(1/2)
    This manifesto has outlined a bold paradigm breaking visionfor the future ofhow we handle, store, transport, realize, supply and usephysical objects across the world
    It proposes to exploit the Internet,which has revolutionized the digital world,as an underlying metaphor for steering innovationin the physical sphere
    The outlined Physical Internet does not aimto copy the Digital Internet,but to inspire the creation ofa bold systemic wide encompassing visioncapable of providing real efficient and sustainable solutionsto the problems created by our past and current waysand by our vision toward which we should aim
  • 112. Conclusion(2/2)
    With this manifesto and its underlying research,a small step has been made
    A lot more are needed to really shape this visionand, much more important,to give it flesh through real initiatives and projectsso as to really influence in a positive wayour collective future
    This requires a lot of collaborationbetween academia, industry and governmentsacross localities, countries and continents
    Your help is welcome
  • 113. Questions and comments are welcome
    Questions et commentaires sont les bienvenus
    Fragen und Kommentare sind willkommen
    Las preguntas y los comentarios son bienvenidos
    Benoit.Montreuil@cirrelt.ulaval.ca