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  • 1. Differentiated Instruction Grades 6-12
    Patricia Hutton
    LA consultant
    CMSCE at Rutgers
    tikap@aol.com
    908-757-2751
    1
  • 2. Session Overview
    What Is Differentiation?
    Differentiation Strategies
    Differentiation Practice
    Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction
    Resources
    2
  • 3. What Is Differentiation?
    A teacher’s response to learner needs
    The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and learning preferences
    Instruction that appeals to students’ differences
    3
  • 4. 4
    Why differentiate ?
    • Because not all children learn in the same way.
    • 5. Because NCLB requires all children to be proficient.
    • 6. Because research demonstrates effectiveness.
    • 7. Because meeting a student’s needs maximizes growth.
    • 8. Because of diverse student populations. (ELL, disabilities, and cultural backgrounds)
  • 5
    Teachers Can Differentiate
    Content
    Process
    Product
    According to Students’
    Interest
    Learning
    Profile
    Readiness
    Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
  • 9. 6
  • 10. Key Elements of DI Theory
    High-quality curriculum
    Continual assessment
    Respectful tasks
    Building community
    Flexible grouping
    Teaching up
    7
  • 11. Reflection
    How are traditional classrooms and differentiated classrooms alike?
    How are they different?
    8
    ?
  • 12. Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms
    Consideration of student differences
    French 1-
    Use of assessment
    English
    Use of student interest and learning style
    Physical education
    Middle school science
    9
  • 13. Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms (continued)
    Instructional format
    Middle school English
    Assignment options
    Algebra 2-
    US History
    Factors guiding instruction
    10
  • 14. 11
    What are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?
    Discussion Question
  • 15. Because……….
    When you differentiate you must:
    Know exactly where students are before you know how to take them someplace new
    Organize resources
    Prepare for varying degrees of depth
    Support
    Modify your strategy as you go
    Recognize there are different ways to reach the same destination
    12
  • 16. Differentiation Strategies
    All strategies are aligned with instructional goals and objectives.
    Specific strategy selection based on
    Focus of instruction
    Focus of differentiation
    13
  • 17. Knowing the Learner
    Learning styles
    Auditory
    Visual
    Kinesthetic
    Tactile
    Thinking styles
    Concrete random
    Concrete sequential
    Abstract random
    Abstract sequential
    Multiple intelligences
    14
  • 18. Assessing the Learner
    Before instruction
    Pre tests
    Journaling
    Surveys
    Squaring off
    Graffiti facts
    During instruction
    Portfolios
    Tests
    Rubrics
    Fist of five
    After instruction
    Post test
    Portfolio
    Conferences
    Circles
    Donut
    15
  • 19. Adjustable Assignments
    Whole group
    Lecture
    Presentation
    Demonstration
    Jigsaw
    Text
    Small group
    Interest
    Random
    Homogeneous
    Heterogeneous
    Pairs
    Interest
    Task
    Independent
    Personalized
    Multiple intelligences
    16
  • 20. Differentiation Strategies
    Compacting- Steps for compacting
    Independent Study- Sample independent projects
    Interest Centers or Interest Groups
    Flexible Grouping- Types of groups
    17
  • 21. Strategies That Support Interest-Based Studies
    Studying concepts and principles through the lens of interest
    Student choice of tasks
    Independent Study
    I-Searches
    Orbitals
    Mentorships
    Group Investigations
    Interest Groups
    Jigsaw
    Literature Circles
    WebQuests
    Student-selected audiences
    18
  • 22. Strategies for Differentiated Processing
    Cubing
    Learning logs or journals
    Graphic organizers
    Centers or interest groups
    Role playing
    Choice boards
    Jigsaw
    Think-pair-share
    PMI
    Model-making
    Labs
    Tiered activities
    19
  • 23. Strategies Continued
    Complex instruction- 10th grade English
    Small groups
    Open-ended
    Ambiguous
    Integrate reading and writing
    Use multiple intelligences and multimedia
    20
  • 24. Orbital studies- grade 6
    Addresses similarities and differences
    Independent investigations that orbit around curriculum
    Students choose topics
    Students develop research question and plan, method of presentation, and criteria for assessment
    21
  • 25. Entry points- Grade 7 Social Studies
    Address differing multiple intelligence profiles
    5 entry points
    Narrational
    Logical-quantitative
    Foundational
    Aesthetic
    Experiential
    22
  • 26. Examples of Differentiation Strategies
    Choice Boards- Persuasion
    Photosynthesis
    Technology
    Tiered Activities- Causes of the Civil War
    Photojournalism 10-12
    Learning Contracts- Samples
    23
  • 27. Summarization Pyramid
    SOME GREAT PROMPTS
    Synonym
    Analogy
    Question
    Three attributes
    Alternative title
    Causes
    Effects
    Reasons
    Arguments
    Ingredients
    Opinion
    Formula/sequence
    Insight
    Larger category
    Tools
    Sample
    People
    Future of the topic
    Create a pyramid of horizontal lines, then ask students at different readiness levels to respond to tiered prompts as they interact with the topic.
    24
  • 28. Change the Verb
    Raise or lower the challenge level by changing the verb in your prompt:
    CONSIDER USING:
    Analyze
    Revise
    Decide between
    Why did
    Defend
    Devise
    Identify
    Classify
    Define
    Compose
    Interpret
    Expand
    Imagine
    Suppose
    Construct
    Recommend
    Predict
    Argue for (or against)
    Contrast
    Critique
    25
  • 29. Using Technology in Differentiated Instruction
    It's a Wild Ride- project based learning
    tech matrix- identify appropriate tools
    backpack it- Make pages with to-do lists, notes, files, and images
    word 2 word- dictionaries in multiple languages
    podcasts
    National Geographic webcams
    United Streaming videos
    Virtual Field trips
    Handhelds
    26
  • 30. Technology for Student Products
    www.blogger.com
    http://pbwiki.com/
    www.voicethread.com
    http://www.storycenter.org/
    Bio Cube
    Acrostic poems
    Character trading cards
    27
  • 31. 28
    Strategies to replace Lectures
    • The Thinking Web
    • 32. The Forum
    • 33. The Gallery Walk renowned
    Strategies to Support Lectures
    • Text Lookback Procedure
    • 34. Verbal Retelling
    • 35. RTC Procedure
    • 36. Cubing - example
    • 37. Graphic Organizer Samples
    • 38. KWL Procedure
    • 39. Performance Tasks
    • 40. Importance Charts
  • Big Question Teaching
    Frame lessons and units as questions, issues or problems -more challenging and interesting -narrows the topic
    Open-ended questions stimulate thought, encourage creative thinking and diverse responses -authentic learning and investigation.
    Examples of big questions:
    •  What makes a poem memorable?
    •  What are the unsolved mysteries of the pyramids?
    •  What does it mean to be an ethical scientist?
    29
  • 41. Learning Agendas
    A list of projects or activities to be completed during a specific time- independent with support and collaboration when necessary.-visual record of work - develop management and organizational skills
    Tasks vary to meet student needs-extra items for enrichment- compacting activities
    Flexible Grouping
    30
  • 42. Centers or Stations
    Flexible grouping -work with individual students or small groups
    Focus on important learning goals, use materials that support individual students' growth; use activities addressing a range of reading levels, learning profiles, and student interests; and provide clear directions
    Student-led or teacher-led.
    In a secondary math classroom, learners might rotate through five stations:
    •  working with the teacher to learn about probability
    •  solving probability problems from the textbook
    •  generating a list of real-world applications for probability
    •  working on new computer program with a small group
    •  completing a review worksheet from the last unit
    31
  • 43. 32
    Diner Menu – Photosynthesis
    Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
    • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
    Entrée (Select One)
    • Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
    • 44. Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
    • 45. Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.
    Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
    • Define respiration, in writing.
    • 46. Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
    • 47. Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
    • 48. With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
    Dessert (Optional)
    • Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
  • 33
    THINK-TAC-TOE
    Book Report
  • 49. 34
    Tiered Activity – Writing a Persuasive Essay
    6th–7th Grade Classroom
  • 50. 35
    LearningContract #2
    To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________________, I want to
    _ Write a report
    _ Put on a demonstration
    _ Set up an experiment
    _ Develop a computer presentation
    _ Build a model
    _Design a mural
    _ Write a song
    _ Make a movie
    _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram
    _ Other
    This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because
    ______________________________________________________________
    To do this project, I will need help with
    ______________________________________________________________
    My Action Plan is________________________________________________
    The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _________
    ______________________________________________________________
    My project will be completed by this date _____________________________
    Student signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___
    Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___
  • 51. Differentiation Practice
    Differentiation Scenario
    36
  • 52. 37
    Differentiation Activity – Reading
    Your task is to take the following instructional objective and identify two differentiation strategies that might be used to teach the objective.
    Objective: Students will complete a report on the bookThe Outsiders.
    Identify the pros and cons of using both strategies in a class of 25 students that includes these 5 students:
    Sherry likes to be asked to do things by the teacher. She is interested in fitting in and speaks out often in class. She has a wild imagination and loves to read, but her comprehension skills are below grade level.
    Jimmy is hyperactive and likes to dance around the room when class is near the end. He is an audio/visual learner, is a solid reader, and enjoys excelling and being the “best.” He gets very excited to start new books, but they don’t hold his attention for long.
    Terrance does not feel a connection to school. He is a very intelligent student, but he “follows.” He seems to do well in every type of activity when he applies himself. He has exhibited strong reading skills, but does not always complete work.
    Jack failed reading three times. He is an expert hunter and fisherman and knows more about the outdoors than anyone. He seems to learn best with hands-on activities. His reading and writing skills have only slightly improved over the last 2 years.
    Marie is a very quick learner. She seems to get things just by listening. She likes to excel. She is very concerned about rules and right vs. wrong. She is a natural leader. Her reading and writing skills are both above grade level.
  • 53. Assessment in the Differentiated Classroom
    Ongoing
    Instruction-dependent
    Student-dependent
    Informative for continuedinstruction
    38
  • 54. Assessment Tools
    Student Progress- monitoring tools
    Engrade-online gradebook
    39
  • 55. Seventh Grade Science-independent
    As part of an exploration of life science, students chose a living creature and develop questions of interest to them individually.
    Students figure out how to find answers to their questions.
    Each student determines ways to share their findings with their peers.
    (Questions can vary in complexity.)
    40
  • 56. High School Algebra II-compact
    Students can pre-test and “compact out” of a unit
    Students who opt out do independent investigation of following teacher guidelines
    Students who did not “compact out” receive whole group instruction, , divide into cooperative groups for practice, or meet in a small group wthe teacher
    Whole class review and test
    41
  • 57. High School U.S. History-choice board
    Students read biographies of their choice from a suggested reading list. Each student chooses to do one of the following:
    • Write a two-page summary of the person’s life.
    • 58. Note transforming dates in the subject’s life and make a timeline.
    • 59. Choose three events that most impacted the subject’s life and make a poster explaining each.
    Students read names from a posted list and go to pre-assigned groups, which include:
    • Students meet in small groups and “tell the story” in first person of the subject of each biography
    • 60. Students make a chart listing similarities and differences in their characters’ personalities, lives, and accomplishments
    • 61. Students brainstorm qualities of “greatness” and create a matrix they will use to rank all of their subjects
    • 62. Students choose one or a few topics making news in their lifetimes and conduct a time-travel/round-table discussion in character as their subjects.
    Students complete an assignment from the following product list:
    • A PowerPoint presentation
    • 63. A scripted presentation to the class
    • 64. An argumentative or comparative essay.
    42
  • 65. Independent Practice
    Click on the link to access this file:
    Create a differentiated activity for your curriculum.
    43
  • 66. The Equalizer: A Tool for Planning Differentiated Lessons
    Foundational…………….Transformational
    Concrete………………….Abstract
    Simple…………………… Complex
    Single Facet………………Multiple Facets
    Small Leap………………..Great Leap
    More Structured…………..More Open
    Less Independence………More Independence
    Slow………………………..Quick
    44
  • 67. Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Your Classroom
    Start slowly.
    Organize your classroom space.
    45
  • 68. Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Your Classroom (continued)
    Start student files.
    Start student portfolios.
    Use a clipboard.
    Use technology.
    46
  • 69. Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Additional Considerations
    Teacher support
    Professional development
    Adequate planning time
    47
  • 70. Reflection
    48
    • How can DI benefit your students?
    • What are the implications for your instructional planning?
    • How will you know if you are successfully meeting students’ needs?
  • 71. Where Do I Go From Here?Resources
    Assessment:
    Curriculum-based measurement
    www.studentprogress.org
    National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC):
    www.cast.org/ncac/
    49
  • 72. Resources (continued)
    Access Center: www.k8accesscenter.org
    http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/diffstrategies.html
    http://www.teachersworkshop.com/twshop/differentiatedideas.html
    http://www.cited.org/library/site/media/Differentiated%20Instruction%20Using%20Technology%20UPDATE12%205%2007.pdf
    50
    Differentiated-Instructional-Strategies
  • 73. 51
    Enhance Learning with Technology: Strategies for Differentiating-variety of strategies to use in the classroom
    http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/differentiatingstrategies.html
    Technology to Support Diverse Learners
    Practical suggestions in specific areas of support.
    http://www.wested.org/cs/tdl/print/docs/tdl/home.htm
    The Promise of Accessible Textbooks
    practical information on accessibility legislation and information about CAST http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/AccessibletextbooksHTML.asp
  • 74. 52
    Teachnology-Links to research on educational practices-Create customized rubrics, calendars, lesson plans, etc. with a subscription.
    http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/dif_instruction/
    Virtual Reality/Computer Simulations and the Implications for UDL Implementation
    Discover how virtual reality/computer simulation can support Universal Design for Learning theoretically and practically.
    http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/virtualreality.asp
  • 75. 53
    By Content Area: English
    Differentiated Instruction in the English Classroom
    free download “How Do Teachers Manage a Differentiated Classroom?”
    http://books.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources/E00577/chapter4.pdf
    By Content Area: Reading
    Learning to Read with Multimedia Material
    literature base , cutting-edge innovations ,implementation strategies, guidance on choosing programs, and resources
    http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=144
    Computer-Assisted Instruction in Reading
    overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and explains how it can be applied http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_reading.asp
  • 76. 54
    Content Area: Writing
    Computer-Assisted Instruction and Writing
    http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_writing.asp
    Using Assistive Technology to Support Writing
    research that supports the use technology in a writing curriculum
    http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=108
  • 77. 55
    Content Area: Math
    Learning Mathematics with Virtual Manipulative - practical suggestions -extensive list of resources.
    http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=151
    Computer-Assisted Instruction and Math
    overview of CAI and explains how it can be used effectively in math classrooms.
    http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_math.asp
    Web-Based Resources for Mathematics: Tools and Activities for Teaching and Learning
    large annotated list of free web-based tools and activities focusing on a specific mathematics concept or skill
    http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/MathWebResources.asp
  • 78. 56
    Content Area: Science
    Using Multimedia Tools to Help Students Learn Science
    extensive list of resources.
    http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=148
    Computer-Assisted Instruction and Science
    overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and explains how it can be applied to enhance science instruction.
    http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/5/cu10.html
    Differentiation for Science
    http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/sciencedifferentation.asp
  • 79. Resources
    http://differentiationcentral.com/
    http://www.internet4classrooms.com/links_grades_kindergarten_12/sample_units_lessons_differentiated_instruction.htm
    http://www.netc.org/classrooms@work/index.html
    http://www.tandl.leon.k12.fl.us/lang/MHSlessonspage.html
    http://www.help4teachers.com/samples2.htm
    http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Choice+Boards
    http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/lausd/offices/di/Burleson/workshops/differentiate/index.htm
    http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspResourceCatalog
    http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/heal/mathsites.htm
    http://www.exploratorium.edu/explore/
    http://www.westedrtec.org/techtips
    http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/semr/Bookmarks.pdf
    http://www.eht.k12.nj.us/~jonesj/Differentiated%20Instruction/Developing%20a%20Tiered%20Activity%202.htm
    http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml
    http://www.readingquest.org/strat/
    http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/Frameworks/mathsci/ms5_2as1.htm
    57
  • 80. 58
    Thank you!
    Patricia Hutton
    LA consultant
    CMSCE at Rutgers
    tikap@aol.com
    908-757-2751