Differentiated Instruction Grades 6-12 Patricia Hutton LA consultant CMSCE at Rutgers email@example.com 908-757-2751 1
Session Overview What Is Differentiation? Differentiation Strategies Differentiation Practice Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction Resources 2
What Is Differentiation? A teacher’s response to learner needs The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and learning preferences Instruction that appeals to students’ differences 3
4 Why differentiate ?
Because not all children learn in the same way.
Because NCLB requires all children to be proficient.
Because research demonstrates effectiveness.
Because meeting a student’s needs maximizes growth.
Because of diverse student populations. (ELL, disabilities, and cultural backgrounds)
5 Teachers Can Differentiate Content Process Product According to Students’ Interest Learning Profile Readiness Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
Key Elements of DI Theory High-quality curriculum Continual assessment Respectful tasks Building community Flexible grouping Teaching up 7
Reflection How are traditional classrooms and differentiated classrooms alike? How are they different? 8 ?
Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms Consideration of student differences French 1- Use of assessment English Use of student interest and learning style Physical education Middle school science 9
Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms (continued) Instructional format Middle school English Assignment options Algebra 2- US History Factors guiding instruction 10
11 What are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom? Discussion Question
Because………. When you differentiate you must: Know exactly where students are before you know how to take them someplace new Organize resources Prepare for varying degrees of depth Support Modify your strategy as you go Recognize there are different ways to reach the same destination 12
Differentiation Strategies All strategies are aligned with instructional goals and objectives. Specific strategy selection based on Focus of instruction Focus of differentiation 13
Knowing the Learner Learning styles Auditory Visual Kinesthetic Tactile Thinking styles Concrete random Concrete sequential Abstract random Abstract sequential Multiple intelligences 14
Assessing the Learner Before instruction Pre tests Journaling Surveys Squaring off Graffiti facts During instruction Portfolios Tests Rubrics Fist of five After instruction Post test Portfolio Conferences Circles Donut 15
Adjustable Assignments Whole group Lecture Presentation Demonstration Jigsaw Text Small group Interest Random Homogeneous Heterogeneous Pairs Interest Task Independent Personalized Multiple intelligences 16
Differentiation Strategies Compacting- Steps for compacting Independent Study- Sample independent projects Interest Centers or Interest Groups Flexible Grouping- Types of groups 17
Strategies That Support Interest-Based Studies Studying concepts and principles through the lens of interest Student choice of tasks Independent Study I-Searches Orbitals Mentorships Group Investigations Interest Groups Jigsaw Literature Circles WebQuests Student-selected audiences 18
Strategies for Differentiated Processing Cubing Learning logs or journals Graphic organizers Centers or interest groups Role playing Choice boards Jigsaw Think-pair-share PMI Model-making Labs Tiered activities 19
Strategies Continued Complex instruction- 10th grade English Small groups Open-ended Ambiguous Integrate reading and writing Use multiple intelligences and multimedia 20
Orbital studies- grade 6 Addresses similarities and differences Independent investigations that orbit around curriculum Students choose topics Students develop research question and plan, method of presentation, and criteria for assessment 21
Examples of Differentiation Strategies Choice Boards- Persuasion Photosynthesis Technology Tiered Activities- Causes of the Civil War Photojournalism 10-12 Learning Contracts- Samples 23
Summarization Pyramid SOME GREAT PROMPTS Synonym Analogy Question Three attributes Alternative title Causes Effects Reasons Arguments Ingredients Opinion Formula/sequence Insight Larger category Tools Sample People Future of the topic Create a pyramid of horizontal lines, then ask students at different readiness levels to respond to tiered prompts as they interact with the topic. 24
Change the Verb Raise or lower the challenge level by changing the verb in your prompt: CONSIDER USING: Analyze Revise Decide between Why did Defend Devise Identify Classify Define Compose Interpret Expand Imagine Suppose Construct Recommend Predict Argue for (or against) Contrast Critique 25
Using Technology in Differentiated Instruction It's a Wild Ride- project based learning tech matrix- identify appropriate tools backpack it- Make pages with to-do lists, notes, files, and images word 2 word- dictionaries in multiple languages podcasts National Geographic webcams United Streaming videos Virtual Field trips Handhelds 26
Technology for Student Products www.blogger.com http://pbwiki.com/ www.voicethread.com http://www.storycenter.org/ Bio Cube Acrostic poems Character trading cards 27
28 Strategies to replace Lectures
The Thinking Web
The Gallery Walk renowned
Strategies to Support Lectures
Text Lookback Procedure
Cubing - example
Graphic Organizer Samples
Big Question Teaching Frame lessons and units as questions, issues or problems -more challenging and interesting -narrows the topic Open-ended questions stimulate thought, encourage creative thinking and diverse responses -authentic learning and investigation. Examples of big questions: • What makes a poem memorable? • What are the unsolved mysteries of the pyramids? • What does it mean to be an ethical scientist? 29
Learning Agendas A list of projects or activities to be completed during a specific time- independent with support and collaboration when necessary.-visual record of work - develop management and organizational skills Tasks vary to meet student needs-extra items for enrichment- compacting activities Flexible Grouping 30
Centers or Stations Flexible grouping -work with individual students or small groups Focus on important learning goals, use materials that support individual students' growth; use activities addressing a range of reading levels, learning profiles, and student interests; and provide clear directions Student-led or teacher-led. In a secondary math classroom, learners might rotate through five stations: • working with the teacher to learn about probability • solving probability problems from the textbook • generating a list of real-world applications for probability • working on new computer program with a small group • completing a review worksheet from the last unit 31
32 Diner Menu – Photosynthesis Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
Entrée (Select One)
Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.
Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
Define respiration, in writing.
Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
35 LearningContract #2 To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________________, I want to _ Write a report _ Put on a demonstration _ Set up an experiment _ Develop a computer presentation _ Build a model _Design a mural _ Write a song _ Make a movie _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ Other This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because ______________________________________________________________ To do this project, I will need help with ______________________________________________________________ My Action Plan is________________________________________________ The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _________ ______________________________________________________________ My project will be completed by this date _____________________________ Student signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___ Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___
Differentiation Practice Differentiation Scenario 36
37 Differentiation Activity – Reading Your task is to take the following instructional objective and identify two differentiation strategies that might be used to teach the objective. Objective: Students will complete a report on the bookThe Outsiders. Identify the pros and cons of using both strategies in a class of 25 students that includes these 5 students: Sherry likes to be asked to do things by the teacher. She is interested in fitting in and speaks out often in class. She has a wild imagination and loves to read, but her comprehension skills are below grade level. Jimmy is hyperactive and likes to dance around the room when class is near the end. He is an audio/visual learner, is a solid reader, and enjoys excelling and being the “best.” He gets very excited to start new books, but they don’t hold his attention for long. Terrance does not feel a connection to school. He is a very intelligent student, but he “follows.” He seems to do well in every type of activity when he applies himself. He has exhibited strong reading skills, but does not always complete work. Jack failed reading three times. He is an expert hunter and fisherman and knows more about the outdoors than anyone. He seems to learn best with hands-on activities. His reading and writing skills have only slightly improved over the last 2 years. Marie is a very quick learner. She seems to get things just by listening. She likes to excel. She is very concerned about rules and right vs. wrong. She is a natural leader. Her reading and writing skills are both above grade level.
Assessment in the Differentiated Classroom Ongoing Instruction-dependent Student-dependent Informative for continuedinstruction 38
Seventh Grade Science-independent As part of an exploration of life science, students chose a living creature and develop questions of interest to them individually. Students figure out how to find answers to their questions. Each student determines ways to share their findings with their peers. (Questions can vary in complexity.) 40
High School Algebra II-compact Students can pre-test and “compact out” of a unit Students who opt out do independent investigation of following teacher guidelines Students who did not “compact out” receive whole group instruction, , divide into cooperative groups for practice, or meet in a small group wthe teacher Whole class review and test 41
High School U.S. History-choice board Students read biographies of their choice from a suggested reading list. Each student chooses to do one of the following:
Write a two-page summary of the person’s life.
Note transforming dates in the subject’s life and make a timeline.
Choose three events that most impacted the subject’s life and make a poster explaining each.
Students read names from a posted list and go to pre-assigned groups, which include:
Students meet in small groups and “tell the story” in first person of the subject of each biography
Students make a chart listing similarities and differences in their characters’ personalities, lives, and accomplishments
Students brainstorm qualities of “greatness” and create a matrix they will use to rank all of their subjects
Students choose one or a few topics making news in their lifetimes and conduct a time-travel/round-table discussion in character as their subjects.
Students complete an assignment from the following product list:
A PowerPoint presentation
A scripted presentation to the class
An argumentative or comparative essay.
Independent Practice Click on the link to access this file: Create a differentiated activity for your curriculum. 43
The Equalizer: A Tool for Planning Differentiated Lessons Foundational…………….Transformational Concrete………………….Abstract Simple…………………… Complex Single Facet………………Multiple Facets Small Leap………………..Great Leap More Structured…………..More Open Less Independence………More Independence Slow………………………..Quick 44
Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Your Classroom Start slowly. Organize your classroom space. 45
Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Your Classroom (continued) Start student files. Start student portfolios. Use a clipboard. Use technology. 46
Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Additional Considerations Teacher support Professional development Adequate planning time 47
How can DI benefit your students?
• What are the implications for your instructional planning? • How will you know if you are successfully meeting students’ needs?
Where Do I Go From Here?Resources Assessment: Curriculum-based measurement www.studentprogress.org National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC): www.cast.org/ncac/ 49
51 Enhance Learning with Technology: Strategies for Differentiating-variety of strategies to use in the classroom http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/differentiatingstrategies.html Technology to Support Diverse Learners Practical suggestions in specific areas of support. http://www.wested.org/cs/tdl/print/docs/tdl/home.htm The Promise of Accessible Textbooks practical information on accessibility legislation and information about CAST http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/AccessibletextbooksHTML.asp
52 Teachnology-Links to research on educational practices-Create customized rubrics, calendars, lesson plans, etc. with a subscription. http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/dif_instruction/ Virtual Reality/Computer Simulations and the Implications for UDL Implementation Discover how virtual reality/computer simulation can support Universal Design for Learning theoretically and practically. http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/udl/virtualreality.asp
53 By Content Area: English Differentiated Instruction in the English Classroom free download “How Do Teachers Manage a Differentiated Classroom?” http://books.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources/E00577/chapter4.pdf By Content Area: Reading Learning to Read with Multimedia Material literature base , cutting-edge innovations ,implementation strategies, guidance on choosing programs, and resources http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=144 Computer-Assisted Instruction in Reading overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and explains how it can be applied http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_reading.asp
54 Content Area: Writing Computer-Assisted Instruction and Writing http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_writing.asp Using Assistive Technology to Support Writing research that supports the use technology in a writing curriculum http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=108
55 Content Area: Math Learning Mathematics with Virtual Manipulative - practical suggestions -extensive list of resources. http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=151 Computer-Assisted Instruction and Math overview of CAI and explains how it can be used effectively in math classrooms. http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/computeraided_math.asp Web-Based Resources for Mathematics: Tools and Activities for Teaching and Learning large annotated list of free web-based tools and activities focusing on a specific mathematics concept or skill http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/MathWebResources.asp
56 Content Area: Science Using Multimedia Tools to Help Students Learn Science extensive list of resources. http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=148 Computer-Assisted Instruction and Science overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and explains how it can be applied to enhance science instruction. http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/5/cu10.html Differentiation for Science http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/sciencedifferentation.asp