Grade 6 May 3-6, 2010 Day 1 –Monday, May 3, 2010 –Language Arts Literacy Day 2 –Tuesday, May 4, 2010 –Language Arts Literacy Grades 7 and 8 April 27-April 30, 2010 Day 1 –Tuesday April 27, 2010 –Language Arts Literacy Day 2 –Wednesday, April 28, 2010 –Language Arts Literacy 2
Essays Articles editorials Letters Journals Biographies Autobiographies Speeches Full-length books How- to articles Recipes Directions Charts, graphs, and tables Schedules 3 What is Expository/ Everyday Text?
Can you identify your challenges? Take a minute or two to talk to a partner and identify one challenge your students have working with everyday text. Post your response to the chat window or into the microphone. 4
Common Challenges Student Factors lack of interest lack of experience lack of prior knowledge poor attitude toward reading Text Factors technical vocabulary maps, charts, tables, diagrams the structure of informational writing- chapters, headings, subheadings 5
The main purpose -to inform or describe Organized using various text structures 6
Descriptive: includes main idea and detail "..... in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the Horns which is not very hard and forks 2/3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its face white round its neck, its Sides and rump round its tail which is Short & white: Verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot, his brains on the back of his head, his Norstrals large, his eyes like a Sheep he is more like the Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat." Lewis and Clark As Naturalists
Enumerative/listing: listing information, outlining a series of steps By early 1803 Lewis was in Philadelphia. He took crash courses in medicine, botany, zoology, and celestial observation. He studied maps and journals of traders and trappers who had already reached as far up the Missouri River as the Mandan villages in North Dakota. By the time he left Washington he knew as much about the West, and what to do when he got there, as any man in America. Lewis and Clark: Preparations
Sequence: a series of events or the order of occurrences
January 18, 1803 - In secret communication to Congress, Jefferson seeks authorization for expedition – first official exploration of unknown spaces undertaken by United States government. Appropriation of $2,500 requested. (Final cost will be $38,000.)
Spring - Lewis, now picked as commander, is sent to Philadelphia for instruction in botany, zoology, celestial navigation, medicine from nation’s leading scientists. Also begins buying supplies to outfit the expedition. Lewis writes to former army comrade, William Clark, inviting him to share command of expedition. Clark writes to accept.
July 4 - News of Louisiana Purchase announced. For $15 million, Jefferson more than doubles the size of United States: 820,000 square miles for 3 cents an acre. The next day, Lewis leaves Washington. Timeline of the Trip
Comparison/Contrast: two or more events, places, characters, or ideas are similar and/or different
In temperament Lewis and Clark were opposites. Lewis was introverted, melancholic, and moody; Clark, extroverted, even-tempered and gregarious. The better educated and more refined Lewis, who possessed a philosophical, romantic and speculative mind, was at home with abstract ideas; Clark, of a pragmatic mold, was more of a practical man of action. Each supplied vital qualities which balanced their partnership. Biography of Lewis and Clark
Cause/Effect: reasons why an event occurred, or several effects from a cause
Captain Clarke and some of our men in a periogue went ashore with them; but the Indians did not seem disposed to permit their return. They said they were poor and wished to keep the periogue with them. Captain Clarke insisted on coming to the boat; but they refused to let him, and said they had soldiers as well as he had. He told them his soldiers were good, and that he had more medicine on board his boat than would kill twenty such nations in one day. After this they did not threaten any more, and said they only wanted us to stop at their lodge, that the women and children might see the boat. The Journals: September 25, 1804,Patrick Gass
Signal / Cue Words problem solution because cause since as a result so that Problem and Solution: On June second they arrived at a major fork in the river, in north-central Montana, an estimated 465 river miles upstream from the mouth of the Yellowstone. It shouldn't have been there. No Indian informant had mentioned it. There was not even a hint of it from anybody. Yet it posed the most significant geographical question of the entire Expedition. Which of these rivers was the Missouri? The issue was fraught with danger. They needed to reach the Rockies, find the Shoshoni Indians, get some horses, portage to the head of the Columbia, and reach the Pacific before winter closed in. To choose the wrong route would consume twice the time it would take to correct the mistake, and would, Lewis declared, not only lose them the whole of the present travel season, but "would probably so dishearten the party that it might defeat the expedition altogether." Decision at the Marias 13
How would you teach your students to approach this question? In paragraph 7, the author makes his opinion clear by A. quoting experts. B. using examples. * C. comparing ideas. D. asking questions. 14
Which of the following statements best describes the author’s attitude towards libraries? A. They are an important part of every community. * B. They are being replaced by large bookstores. C. They are useful for young children. D. They are too crowded. What is this question asking ? Main idea Fact/opinion Author’s purpose Inference Cause/effect Vocabulary 15
In paragraph 3, the word venture means A. to travel a familiar route. B. to do something that is risky. * C. to join a new group of people. D. to relax in a comfortable place. 16 What is this question asking ? Main idea Fact/opinion Author’s purpose Inference Cause/effect Vocabulary
17 “Pirates in Tuxedos” is specifically about a struggle between A. freedom and dependence. B. industry and nature. C. environment and heredity. D. dreams and reality. Which detail supports the author’s main idea? A. Orcas ruin his fishing profits. B. Killer whales travel in pods. C. Orcas prey in the ocean depths. D. Killer whales are intelligent. As described in the article, killer whales are A. dangerous to humans. B. hated by fishermen. C. ecologically beneficial. D. gentle once trained. What is this question asking ? Main idea Fact/opinion Author’s purpose Inference Cause/effect Vocabulary
18 In paragraph 3, what does the author mean when he says, “How wonderful it would be if several more pods…could join him there”? A. He wants to bring marine life to the children of Oregon. B. He wants to reduce the number of whales at sea. C. He realizes that whales need companionship to survive. D. He recognizes that whales in captivity are costly. The author’s feelings toward killer whales are caused by A. media hype. B. jealousy. C. politics. D. competition. What is this question asking ? Main idea Fact/opinion Author’s purpose Inference Cause/effect Vocabulary
What is this question asking ? Main idea Fact/opinion Author’s purpose Inference Cause/effect Vocabulary In the article, the author attempts to A. explain the differences between marine animals. B. tell the story of his difficult and stormy career. C. challenge a popular accepted opinion on orcas. D. describe the pressures of life on board a boat. The title metaphor, “Pirates in Tuxedos,” captures the killer whales’ A. beauty and agility. B. spirit and cleverness. C. environmental impact. D. character and appearance. 19
Open Ended Questions 20
21 As the article explains, Sybil Ludington was a real person. • How did Sybil’s actions affect the American Revolution? • How could this historic ride influence other people? Use specific information from the article and any additional insight to support your response. Sybils actions made a huge difference in the American revolution. She did an important ride that warned people about the British in the town of Danbury. If she had not done this there could have been more trouble with the British. The historic ride could influence other people because she shows that women were an important part of history. Maybe Deborah Champion even rode because of Sybil Ludington. She was only sixteen and rode over 40 miles. That shows that she did a lot. Maybe it is important to show people that she could do a lot. It changes how people think. Your score ________________
This 3demonstrates an understanding of the task. The student briefly explains how Sybil’s actions affected the American Revolution. (She did an important ride that warned people about the British in the town of Danbury. If she had not done this there could have been more trouble with the British.) The student also supplies textbased facts regarding how Sybil’s ride might have influenced others. (Maybe Deborah Champion even rode because of Sybil Ludington. She was only sixteen and rode over 40 miles.) However, the response, although accurate, fails to elaborate on the importance of Sybil Ludington’s ride. (That shows that she did a lot.) 22
23 Sybil rode and warned people of the British burning a town. She did a lot of good things and rode twice as far as Paul Revere did. I think this stopped the British and this is important. Your score_______________
This 1 demonstrates the inclusion of some text-based facts. (Sybil rode and warned people of the British burning a town.) Although the student states Sybil Ludington’s ride may have been important, there is no clear connection between her ride and the outcome of the American Revolution. There is also no insight concerning Sybil Ludington’s possible influence on other people. 24
Her actions affect the American Revolution because she showed that a young girl could help save the country too. She got people to stop the British in Danbury. That was brave! She rode a lot on the horse to tell people. I think that people can do a lot in history even if it is not expected of them. So other people will be influenced like the local soldiers who were gathered at her father’s farmhouse that night. 25 Your score______________
The student provides text-based answers for the first part of the task. (She got people to stop the British in Danbury. She rode a lot on the horse to tell people.) However, the last sentence does not provide enough information or elaboration to complete the second half of the task. (So other people will be influenced like the local soldiers who were gathered at her father’s farmhouse that night.) Without further elaboration, this 2-point response demonstrates a partial understanding of the required task. 26
Sybil acted brave. She rode her horse alot that night. It was raining really hard but she did it anyway. 27 Your score____________
Although the student provides a few facts from the passage (She rode her horse alot that night. It was raining really hard), this 0-point response demonstrates the student has minimal or no understanding of the task. 28
This article is about female patriots and their experiences.• Why does the author choose to write about female patriots?• Explain why it is important to recognize everyone’s part in history.Use specific information from the article and any additional insight to support your response. Julie Doyle Durway chooses to write about female patriots because they are probably not as well known as other Revolutionary War people like Paul Revere. She wants us to know that women at the time were brave and important to the war. Because of her brave deeds, Sybil Ludington helped her countrymen and countrywomen for America’s freedom. It is important to recognize everyone’s part in history because without each person’s help, the events of history may have happened different. It is important to learn that sometimes people don’t recognize the great things they do. When I was in first grade my family moved and I had to change schools. My parents told me to be brave even though I was really scared. Just like Sybil Ludington I did the best I could and made many friends the first day. My classmates liked me and I was able to do many great things. She rode twice as far as Paul Revere and she helped America. It is also important to know that even a teenage girl can do great things. That way, I know that I can do great things if I choose to. 29
This 4-point response demonstrates that the student synthesized the text and understood the task. The student makes the connection between Sybil Ludington’s actions and the influence such actions can have on both historical outcomes (without each person’s help, the events of history may have happened different) and the present. (Just like Sybil Ludington I did the best I could and made many friends the first day.) The details are accurate and the personal insights provided demonstrate that the student draws a logical, meaningful conclusion to the text. (It is also important to know that even a teenage girl can do great things. That way, I know that I can do great things if I choose to.) 30
The author wants people to know that there were women who helped the Revolution too. They are not as well known. But they are important too. Special people—like Sybil Ludington is important. She is important and should be recognized. 31 Your score______________
This 2-point response demonstrates only a partial understanding of the task. Although the answer accurately addresses part one of the task (there were women who helped the Revolution too), the response does not attempt to address the second part of the task concerning its importance. Elaboration or insight on the first part of the task as well as a response for the second part of the task are needed for a higher score. 32
The author writes about female patriots to show that they are important in history too. I did not know about female patriots before, but did hear about Paul Revere. It is important to recognize everyone’s part in history. Even the young women need to be given credit for what they do. It is important to recognize everyone’s part in history since it can surprise people and it can show what people can do. Debra Champion never thought she would help the Revolution, but she did, but she lost the town’s supplies. She is important in history after all as a patriotic messenger, just like Paul Revere. 33 Your score____________
This 3-point response is accurate and shows that the student read the passage and understood the task. The student addresses the importance of individuals’ actions on historical events. (Even the young women need to be given credit for what they do.) However, if more elaboration and detail were provided as to why it is necessary to recognize people’s importance, the answer would have earned a higher score. 34
In the article the author compares watching a movie at home to watching a movie in a theater. • Describe what it is like to watch a movie at home. • Describe what it is like to watch a movie in a theater. • Explain two things they have in common. Use information from the story to support your response. 35 How would you model a response to this question?
Planning a new city was an overwhelming task. The city planners faced many challenges. Consider all of the problems the planners faced.
Describe three of the problems the planners faced.
Tell which problem you think was the most challenging. Explain why you think this was the most challenging problem.
Use information from the article to support your response. 36 What graphic organizer could students use with this prompt?
“Pirates in Tuxedos” describes stresses that the author experiences in his work. • Give one example of stress on the job that the author describes. • How does this job stress spill over into his personal life? Use information from the article to support your response. In paragraph 12, the author decides not to say a word to the receptionist about his true feelings. Suppose he were to speak to her. • What might he say? • Explain why he would say this. Use information from the article to support your response. 37 What strategies could you use to teach these to your students?
Inference Practice Have your students copy all of the headlines from the frontpage on a sheet of paper. Instruct them to think carefully about each headline and predict what the article is about. Tell them to write their inferences next to each headline. Have them read the articlesand write whether or not their inferences were correct. 38
Check the Phone Book Students need practice locating information. Have your students use the phone book to locate specific information. Write the following questions on separate index cardsand placethem next to a stack of old phone books. Either individually or working in teams as a competition, the students answer the questions. The Cards: Your mother needs some special medicine at 2:00 AM. Where could you go to get it? You'd like to buy a motorcycle. What shop will you go to first? Why? What makes of motorcycles do they sell? Your family wants to go out for dinner. Choose a restaurant. Write its name, location, and serving hours. Where could you buy a bicycle built for two? Locate two places. 39
Questions Good Readers Ask Who constructed this text (age, gender, nationality)? For whom was the text constructed? To whom was it addressed? When was the text constructed? Where did it appear? For what purpose could the text be used? What is the text trying to do to the reader/listener/viewer? What are the author’s ideas? What does the text tell me that I already know? What does the text tell me that I do not already know? What am I learning from this text? What has been left out? What are the author’s views/beliefs? Whose point of view is presented and whose is not? What are some common assumptions about society that exist in the text? Who is telling the story? Whose voice and positions are being presented? Whose voices are not heard? 40
Group Reading Strategy Designated responsibilities for each group : Group 1: Rephrase the article in your own words. Group 2: Identify questions that you would like to ask the author. Group 3: Elaborate on the implications/consequences of the author’s position. Group 4: What assumptions is the author making? Analyze these assumptions. Group 5: What information does the author present and what more would you like to know? 41 Can you think of a sample expository text you might use this strategy with?
Paired response: Students analyze a text by writing. Students read the selection. Students select a quote, passage, or line from the reading that they find meaningful and record it. Students write personal thoughts, feelings, and reactions in Column II. Exchange journals and respond to the writing of the partner. In Column IV, the students respond to the comments their partner wrote. Partners discuss. 42
Sample Question Guide for Reading Prose Nonfiction 43
Graphic Organizers Education Place http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ Index of Graphic Organizers http://www.graphic.org/goindex.html SCORE http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.htm Graphic Organizer Makers http://teachers.teach-nology.com/web_tools/graphic_org/ Write Design Graphic Organizers http://www.writedesignonline.com/organizers/ 44
Reading Expository Text: Before reading, list or make a webbing of what students know about the topic. Brainstorm and list questions students have about the topic. Have students view the text for clues to the content. Preview the table of contents, illustrations, headings and sub-headings. Encourage students to predict the content. Read, or have students read, portions of the text. Have students recall significant details. Compare students' predictions to the text. 45
Teaching Tips for Nonfiction Help students use images and visual imagery to improve reading comprehension.
Select five to 10 pictures from a book the class will be reading. Show students the pictures and ask them which ones they think would be in a book titled [title of book].As a group, have students sort the pictures into three categories: in the book, not in the book, or not sure.Ask students to cite the reasons.After reading, ask students to rearrange the pictures into the correct categories and discuss their reasons for moving them.
Teach Nonfiction Conventions Include these nonfiction conventions: LabelsGraphsCaptionsComparisonsFonts and effectsTablesCross-sectionsOverlaysInsetsIllustrations and photographsMaps 47
Question/Answer Relationship students use four question/answer relationships (QAR’s) The teacher introduces QAR and models using a short reading passage. Then identify which QAR’s are evidenced. Finally, answer questions and discuss. QAR Descriptors Think & Search –students need to put together different pieces of information from the text Right There –in the text in one place Author & You –not explicitly stated in the text- think about what they already know, what the author tells them, and how it fits together On My Own –not text-based-using their own experiences and background knowledge 48
Gist Strategy uses prediction based on prior knowledge Prereading – Have the students predict the gist, or main point, of the text Prompts – What do you think this text is going to be about? What makes you think so? What do you think it is going to tell us about our topic? What makes you think so? Reading – Prompts – Did you find evidence to support your prediction? What was it? Did you find evidence that doesn’t support your prediction? What was it? At this point, do you want to change your prediction? Why or why not? Postreading–Students make a final revision of the gist statement. Discuss. Prompts – Do you want to make any changes about this topic? If yes, what changes and why? What have you learned from this reading? 49
Two-Column Notes organize informational texts 50
Problem-Solution Frame 1. Have students complete frame.
Problem - a dilemma, or a situation that someone wants changed
Action - what is done to solve the problem
Results - what is the result
2. Summarize the passage
Sentence 1 – Who had the problem and what is the problem?
Sentence 2 – What action was taken to solve the problem?
Sentence 3 – What happened as a result of the action?
Semantic Feature Analysis teaches vocabulary - activating prior knowledge, making predictions, and by classifying new words Select a list of similar words. Write features across the top of the matrix. Students place a check in the column if the word has that feature. Students discuss their answers, then read the assigned passage. Students review the matrix. 52