Oxford handbook of commercial correspondence

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Oxford handbook of commercial correspondence

  1. 1. lntroduction pdqe 5 n 1 Letters,faxes,and emails 7 o 2 = Contentand style 2s f+ 3 Enquiries 38 o4 Replies quotations and 47 5 5 t+6 Orders Payment 6r (n 767 Complaints adjustments and gs8 Credit n79 Banking 8710 Agentsand agencies 16811 Transportation shipping hnd 18st2 Insurance 22113 Miscellaneous correspondence 241L4 Memosand reports 2so15 Personnelappointments 266 Answer key z8z Glossary 288 Index 297
  2. 2. Lililumeryomtdcnce, 5 whether it is by letter, fax, or companiesinvolved in transportation, Lrurumtrntr|ls abyaspect of the world of commerce including shipping. umniill hmmmess-refl ectson the competenceand It ;gtchrotuumalism the personwho has written of Forthe purposesofthis book,we have chosen blockedstyleof correspondence the r+ druuffi" - company he or sheworks for. Clear, ,rffiffiuurecorrespondencean important part is with no punctuation andhave used some representativestyles of presentation and o - Mmuummmog pmumwufte an effcient business,and can gmdrelations. Unclear or confusing layout.Youmayfind otherways of doing things which are perfectly acceptable, and o- ummpoumdence causemany problems, can individual companiesmay have their own c iluoudl llpedlo misunderstandings, delays, iluutr rmrrnll humfurcss, poor relations between and preferred style for correspondence. most The n uudlmilffiaals, departments, and companies.. important thing is to be clear and consistent in whateveryou choose do. to r+ IO lUMe,writing skills - whaf is written and tumm mqpressed- should be as much a part ff Unit r introduces the three main kinds of commercialcorrespondence Ietters, - faxes, o rMia hrumlmess ilMro[lnmm[xcs. education as accountancyor and emails.The characteristicfeatures of each are illustrated with examples,and guidance is 5 ffi,rw @ord Handbook of Commercial given on when eachkind shouldbe used.Unit z, rlmrw4mldezceis intended for peoplewho again fully illustrated with examples,deals lmdifrmwrite commercial correspondence in with the important areasof content and style. ltnrm$rllmh of their work, and for students as part Eachunit thereafterfollows the same pattern: unrhrouwless commercewho planto make a and - An introduction to the topics coveredin the itmmmrmthebusiness world.It aims to provide unit, and an explanation of key terminology | .*dfjjiirnl inwriting commercial hslp and the functions of the organizationslikely itmmspondence all kinds, including letters, of to be involved.iem@s, ffi...........![ails, memos, social reports, - An analysisof the objectives aimforwhen to fl@mqpordence, application letters and and you are writing, with, where appropriate, cwm, eglains how to write clearly and Iffi Iists of alternativephrases, sentences, ortffimmely,and demonstrateshowit is possible paragraphswhich you can substitute intltu" pftite without seeming timid, direct yet hm different situations.mmif murde- conciserather than abrupt, and firm - Examplecorrespondence transactions, and futrmumlfi inflexible. togetherwith comprehension questions Ltrsms earlier editions of this book will of focusingon content,vocabularystyle,andmthrse $,at,while it retains the coreelements the rolesofthe correspondents.m"prewfimrs editions,this third edition has been - At the end of the unit, a summary of key,wsmnsed updated to reflect changesand and information inPoints to remembertoroumenolnrnents in commercial correspondence, refresh your memory. m pmmhcular wider use of email in the the At the back of the book you wiII flnd:mmrmmessworld. - An answer key to the comprehension ]trhe irook dealswith the structure, questions.Mwtrlhtion, content, and style of all kinds of - A new glossaryof usefulbusiness andmmespondence.Itcoversvarious types of commercial vocabulary to help youfimmmctioninduding enquiries,quotations,nnrdrftryi$, consolidateand build your knowledge. paJrynents, credit, complaints, and - A revisedand extendedindex to help you&drurorsfurxents, and provides background access information throughout the bookrdfnumilEtion examplesof commercial and quickly and easily.immesErondence the main types of fromumrmmmercial organization,for example banks, The accompanying Workbook providesfllsru]m-d$rce companies,agencies, and supplementary practice material.
  3. 3. tr The correspondenceand documents used o reflect authentic transactions and supply 3! information abolrt commercial practice in the I UK. The Handbook also helps you to gain a E better understanding of the sometimes confusing roles of different commercial organizations, e.g.merchant banks and commercial banks, Lloyds and other insurance companies,The Baltic Exchangeand the Shipping Conference. TheOxford Handbook of Commercial Correspondence been designedto provide has a comprehensiveguide and referenceto the essentialwriting skills neededinthe commercial world. Above all, we hope that this bookwill enable youto improve yourwriting skills so that you can approach any business writing task with increasedconfidence.
  4. 4. Ietters l- 8 8 l avour t Senderaddress s o F+ 8 Date F+ 8 ro 1o l nsi deaddress Attenti onl i ne Sal utati on oI 1r 1r Bodyofthe letter Compl i mentary ose cl t rn -iii 11 12 Si gnature LA Y OU T 2 -+r q, 12 12 14 Letterhead References Perpro x o 14 14 Jobti tl e E ncl osures t tn 14 LA Y our3 14 P ri vate and confi denti al 9.| 14 Subj ect tl e ti 5 14 14 Copi es AD D R E S S IN C E N V E LOP E S o- Faxes t6 tN TR oD U cl oN o 1 6 P repari ngfortransmi ssi on 5 J t6 srY LE -17 gJ r8 I. 19 - Emai l s UT 20 IN TR OD U C TION zo Advantages 20 D i sadvantages 20 E mai land otherformsof correspondence 20 E mai l addresses 21 LA Y OU T 2 1 H eader nformati on i 21 Message text 2 1 5i gnature 22 STY LE 22 E mai l abbrevi ati ons 23 24 25 z6 27 Pointsto remembet z8 Letters z8 Faxes z8 E mai l s
  5. 5. LettersJI Surname known l! T AY OU T1 > E If you knowthe name of the person you o! The letter opposite is from a private individual are writing to, write it asthe first line of the c G in Denmarkto a companyinthe UK.It shows address. Include eitherthe personsinitial/s or 6 o the basicfeaturesof a simplebusiness letter. his or her first given name,e.g. LE.Smith or Mr xe Mr lohn Smith,Nor Mr Smith. G Counrr sy rrrrE s usedin addresses as are o Senders address follows:I In correspondence that doesnot have a - Mr (pronounced /rmrsta/) is the usual rErrERHEAD,the sendersaddress placed is in courtesy title for a man. The unabbreviated the top right-hand cornerofthe page.It is also form Mister should not be used. acceptable,butless common,to placeit inthe - Mrs (pronounced/rmrsrz/, no unabbreviated top left-hand corner.Punctuation is rarely used form) is usedfor amarriedwoman. in addresses thesedays. - Miss(pronounced/l mrs/,not an The sLocrrp srylr is the most widely abbreviation) is usedfor an unmarried used,i.e.eachline startsdirectlybelow the one woman. above. - Ms (pronounced /mrzl or /mas/, no In contrast with practice in some other unabbreviated form) is used for both countries,in the UK it is not usual to write the married and unmarriedwomen.It is sendersname before his or her address. advisableto use this form of addresswhen you are unsure whetherthe woman you are Date vwiting to is married or not, or do not know which title she prefers. The date is written directly below the senders - Messrs (pronouncedltmesaz/, abbreviation address, separatedfrom it by a space. the In for FrenchMessfeurs, which is never used)is caseof correspondence with a Ietterhead used occasionallyfor two or more men, e.g. >seepagerz, it is usually written on the right- Messrs lones and B.L Parker,but more P. hand sideofthe page. commonly forms part of the name of a The month in the date should not be written company,e.g.MessrsCollier,Clark & Co.ltis in figures asthis can be confusing; for example rather old-fashioned. r.j.03 meansn March zoo3in British English, Other courtesytitles indude academic or where the sequenceis day-month-year, but medical titles, e.g.Doctor (Dr ),Profe ssor(Prof.); 3 Novemberzoo3 in American English,where military title s,e.g.Captain (Capt.), Major (Maj.), the sequenceis month-day-year. (CoI.),General ); and aristocratic (Gen Colonel It is acceptableto write the date with or titles,e.g. Dame,Lord, Sir, Lady.Sirmeansthat without the abbreviations and -nd,e.g. -th the addressee a knight, and is always is z4th October z4 October,and transpose or to followed by afirst name,e.g.Sir lohnBrown, the date and the month,e.g.Odober z4or never Sirl. Brown or SirBrown.It should not be z4October.These matters of personal are confusedwith the saruran roN Dear Sir. preference,but whatever you chooseyou Esq., abbreviationfor Esquire, seldom used is should be consistent throughout your now. It can only be used instead of Mr, and is correspondence. placedafter the name.Do not useEsq. and Mr at the sametlme,e.g.Bruce Esq.,NorMr Hill Insideaddress BruceHIIEsq. All these courtesy titles, exceptEsq., also are Therwsrpn ADDREss writtenbelowthe is usedin salutations>seepage10. sendersaddressand on the left-hand side of the page.
  6. 6. !tffiaddrcss oIts @ 6May2o- I IalEdrcss @ Compuvisionltd WarwickHouse WarwickStreet Forest HiIl Iondon SE23 lIF 1 .UK 5 :E t line @ FortheattentionoftheSalesManagerlruirn @ DearSirorMadamfffdthe letter @ Pleasewould you sendme detailsof your DVDvideo systems. I am particular$interested the Omega in range. @ Yoursfaithfully ,UcloseItrrue @ B. Ka"a,eW (Ms)B.Kaasen I
  7. 7. Note that a full stop is often used at the end Facoltddi Medicina G E ofthe abbreviation ifit takes the form ofthe ViaGentile$z o! first few letters of the word , e.g.Prof. (Professor) , t-7otoo Bari c |! but is not necessaryif it takes the form ofthe Lehrschule Bodenkunde u filr o first and last letter of the word, e.g.Dr (Doctor). x Amalienstrasse,E However,somepeoplepreferto write, e.g.Mr., p-8oooo Mdnchen4o 6 o Mrs.,with a full stop.Again, whatever you choose do,you shouldbe consistent to It is simplest to follow the aboveorder and o throughout your correspondence. style,though variations are possible:for example the name of the county, e.g. Jobtitle known Lancashire,may, known, be included onthe if If you do not know the name of the person you line below the name of the town or city; the are writing to, but know their job title, you can postcode may be written on a separate line; the usethat, e.g.The Sales Manager,The Finance name of the tovun,as well asthe country,tnay Diredor, in the inside address. be in capitalletters >seealsopage14. Departmentknown Alternatively, you can addressyour letter to a Attentionline particular department of the company,e.g.Ihe SaIe Department, TheAccountsDepartment. s An alternative to including the recipients >seeletter on page43. name or job title in the addressis to use an ArrENTroN LrNx >seeletteronpage9. Company known Finally,if youknow nothing aboutthe company and do not knowwhich person or Salutation department your letter should go to, you can Dear Siropensa letter written to a man whose simply addressthe letter to the company itself, name you do not know. e.g.CompuvisionLtd,MessrsCoIIier, Clark & Co. Dear Sirs usedto addressa company.(In is Orderof insideaddress American English a letter to a company usually Afterthe name of the personand / or company openswith Gentlemen.) receiving the letter, the recommended order DearMadam is usedto address woman, a and style of addresses the UK is as follows: in whether single or married, who;e name you do - Name of houseor building notknow. - Number of building and name of street, Dear Siror Madam (orDear Sir/ Madaml is road,avenue,etc. usedto address personwhen you do not a - Name of torrr-n city and postcode or know their name or sex.Noticethat Ms Kaasen - Name of country in the letter on page9 usesthis form, i.e.she doesnot assumethat the salesmanagerof IndustrialHouse CompuvisionLtd is a man > seealsopage36. 34-4t CraigRoad Whenyou knowthe name of the personyou Bolton are writingto,but do not knowthemwell, the at4 8rr salutation takes the form of Dear followedby a UK courtesytitle andthe personssurname.Initials In other Europeancountries,the number of the or first names are not used with courtesy titles, building may be placed after the name of the Mr e.g.Dear Smith,xor DearMr I. Smith or street.It is also common to substitute the name DearMr lohn Smith.Business associateswho of the country with an initial beforethe district you knowwell can be addressed using just codenumber. Thesetwo examples are from their first nam e,e.g. ar lohn. De Italy and Germany (Deufs chland) respectively.
  8. 8. A comma afterthe salutation is optional, i.e. 5ignature IDDearMr Smith,or Dear Mr Smifh. (ln American oEnglish a colon is usually used after the Always type yolu narne and, if relevant,your -5 job title, below your handwritten signature. iisalutation,e.g DearMr Smith:, . Gentlemen:). x o Thisis known asthe srcwarunr srocx. Even -h t though you may think your handwriting is =Bodyof the letter CL o easyto read,letterssuchas a,e,o,r, and v can 3The blocked style is the one most often used for easilybeconfused. t =the body ofthe letter. It is usual to leave a line It is,to some extent, a matter of choicespace betweenparagraphs. whether you sign with your initial/s, e.g.D.Jenkins,or your full given name, e.g.David lenkins,and whether you includeComplimentary close your courtesy title in your signature block asIf the letterbeginsDear Sir,Dear Sirs, in the letter on page 9. But if you includeDearMadam,or Dear Siror Madam,lhe neither your given name nor your title, yourcoMplrME NTARycLo s E shouldbe Yours correspondentwill not be able to identify yourfaithfully. sex and may give you the wrongtitle when he If the letter begins with a personal name, or shereplies. e.g. ear Mr lames,DearMrs Robinson, D orDear Ms Jasmin,it should b e Yourssincerely. Aletterto someoneyouknowwell may closewiththe more informalBest wishes. Note that Americans tend to closeeven formal letters with Yourstruly orTrulyyours,which is unusual inthe UKin commercial correspondence. Avoid closing with old-fashioned phrases, e.g.Weremain yoursfaithfully, Re ctfully speyours. A comma afterthe complimentary closeis optional, i.e.Yours faithfully, or Yoursfaithfuny. The complimentary closeis usuallyplaced on the left, aligned under the rest of the letter.TITLE STA TU S C O M PIIM EN T AR Y C LO SEMr married or umarried male YourssincerelvMrs married female YourssincerelyMiss unmarriedfemale YourssincerelyMs married or unmarried female YourssincerelySir male - name not known faithtully YoursMadam female -name not knornm YoursfaithfullySir/Madam when unsure whetheryou Yoursfaithfully are addressingmale orfemalemedical/academic/military these titles do not changewhether Yourssincerelye.g.DrlProfessor/General addressinga male or female
  9. 9. J4 Boardof DirectorsG L AY OU T 2 >E The name of the chairman (inthe USA,theoT Opposite is the companys reply to the letter president),who runs the concern,may be given,tra! from the prospective customer in Denmark. as well as the names of the directors,who6o It shows some more features of atypical decide the overall policy of the company.xe6 businessletter. The managing director (inthe USA,and increasingly in the UK,termed the chielo executiveoficer or cto),who takes an active.9 Letterhead role inthe day-to-day running of the company, The printed letterhead of a company gives a may be mentioned if he or she is not the same great deal of information about it. personasthe chairman.In the UK,the chairman runs the Board of Directors while the Typeof company Chief ExecutiveOfficer runs the company. The abbreviationltd after a companys name indicatesthat it has r,rru p r,rasr rrry. This rrr Address means that the individuals who own the In addition to the addressof the office from company, or part of it, i.e.the shareholders,are which the letter is being sent,the letterhead only responsible for their holding (i.e.the may also give the addressof the head office or capital they have contributed) if the company registeredoffice,if different, andthe addresses of goesbankrupt. In other words, it indicates to any branchesor other officesthe company ornms. people giving the company credit that in Telephoneand fax numbers will also be bankruptrythey can only be paidback from included and, if relevant, email andwebsite what the company owns, and not from the addresseg. cable(telegram)addressmay also A personalfunds of its shareholders. be included. It is important to remember that The abbreviationprc (nuat tc LIMrrED although the majority of companies are cotte.a.Nv) usedto showthat a companys is connected to the Internet, there are many sharescan be bought and sold by the public, countries where fax and cable are still unlike the sharesof private limitedliability important ways of transmitting information companies.In the USAthe term r.nrc. or, where banks are concerned,money. (tNco ne onarro) is used. Registered number CompuvisionLtd This usually appears in small print, sometimes SPWholesalersplc with the country or city in which the company Hartley-Mason Inc. is registered. The abbreviationaar.a (*) co.indicates that IntheUK,thevar (varur aooro rax) a company is a partnership between two or number may alsobe given >see,for example, more people. (And is usually vwitten as an the letter on page56. ampersand(&) in Englishcompany names.)If the company is a family concern,Son/ s,Br os References (Brothers),orDaughter/s may be added. Partnerships mayhave limited liability or Rrrrnrrvcrsareoftenquotedto indicate unlimited liability. what the letter refers to (Yourref.) and the cor- respondence refer to when replying (Ourref.). to F.Lynch & Co.Ltd References may either appearin figures,e.g. R.Hughes &Son 66t/t7,where 66t may ref.er the number of to Ifneitherltd nor & Co.appearafter a the letter and rTto the number of the companysname,then it may be a sorr department,or in letters,e.g.oslu.n,as inthe TRADxR, a personwho owns and runs a i.e. letter on page r3,where os standsfor Donald businesson their own. Sampson,the writer, and rrar for his assistant, MaryRalmor.
  10. 10. o Ltdo Comp$vision WarwickHouse WarwickStreet o ;i x o Forest Hill London !J sE23lJF = cl o Telephone +44(o)zo8566r86r 3 !, Facsimile+44(o)zo8566r385 EmaiI staff@comvis.co. k u www.comvis.co.u k Your ref. 6 May 20- @ Your ref. DS/MR Date llMay2O- !, Ms B.Kaasen o Bredgade51 tr N DK1260 CopenhagenK DENMARK DearMsKaasen, Thank you for your enquiry. I encloseour catdogue and price-list for DVD video equipment . Youwill findfull detailsof the Omegarangeonpages 31-35. Pleasecontact us if you have any fudher questions or would like to place an order. We lookforward to hearing from you. Yourssincerely, M*/ Ra/rwr0 p.p.Donald Sampson@ SalesManagero Enc. Chairman JohnFranksoee. lr.sc. N.lgnot R.Lichens Dircctors 5.B.Allen B.A 13
  11. 11. Note that the Your Ref. the letter on in t! 5ubjeetitle t E page 13is a date,as Ms Kaasendid not give oll any referencein her original letter. A suslrcr rrrr,r atthe beginning aletter, of E t! directly after the salutation,providesa further 6 o x Perpro reference, savesintroducing subject the the ine first paragraph, immediately drawsattention 6 p.p. Theabbreviation sometimes appears in to the topicof the letter,and allowsthe writer o .U signature blocks.Itmeansnza eno,i.e.for and to referto it throughout. on behalfof, andis usedby administratorsor It is not necessary beginthe subject to title personal assistants when signingletterson (w with Re. ith regard t o),e.g. e. Appli cationfo r R : behalfof their managers. thepostof webdesigner.When sending email messages may evenbe confusing this as.n.E is shortforreply>see page48. Job title Whensending letteror emailon behalfof a eopie: your company, is a goodideato includeyour it job title in the signature block, especially if When copiesare sent to people other than the your recipienthasnot dealtwith you before. named recipient, c.c. (carao.rrrcoev) is added, usually at the end of a letter, before the name/s ofthe recipienti s ofthe copres. Enclosures Sometimes you will not want the named If thereareany documents enclosedwith a recipient to know that other people have letter,althoughthesemay bementioned the in receivedcopies.In thls case, c. c. (nt tNo B. bodyof the letter,it is alsocommonto write :ARBoN copv), and the name/s of the Enc. EncI. or belowthe signature block. there If recipient/s, are added on the copiesthemselves, area numberof documents, thesecanbe though not, of course, the top copy. on listed,e.g.: Theseabbreviations are used in email, and Enc. mean exactlythe same thing >seepage 21. B|IIof lading$ copies) Insurance certificate(t copy) A D D R E S S IN G E N V E TOP E S Certificate origin A ropy) of (t B|IIof exchange copy) Envelopeaddresses written in a similar are wayto inside addresses>seepages8-ro. But in the caseof letters within or for the UK,the LAYOUT > 3 name of the town and the country are written Thefinal letterin this sectionshowssome in capital letters,and the postcodeis usually further features a business of letter. written on a Iine by itself. Mr G.Penter Private and confidential 49 MemorialRoad OR P IN G?ON Thisphrasemay bewritten at the headof a Kent Ietterand,moreimportant,on the envelope, in an6 9ua cases wherethe letteris intendedto be read MessrsWBrownlow Co. & oniy by the addressee. 6oo GrandStreet There manyvariations this phrase, are of LON D ON e.g. onfide C ntial,Strictlyconfi.dential,but little w tN guz difference meaning. in UK14
  12. 12. |D Ltd Comp*rvis{wm WarWick Warwick House Street o I s x Hill Forest o u London cl sE231JF = A o Telephone+44(o)zo8566r86r 3 !, +44(o)zo8566r385 Facsimile k Emailslaff@comvis.co.u www.comvis.co.uk ref. Your Your DS/MR ref. Date 21September 20- Ms B.Kaasen !J Bredgade51 o DK1260 -tr rl, CopenhagenK DENMARKl! Private and o Private and confidential confidential DearMsKaasen@ Subjecttitle I o Non-palrment of inv oice 322| L7 It appearsfrom our recordsthat, despite severalreminders,the above invoice remains unpaid. Unlessthe account is clearedwithin 14daysfrom the date of this letter,we shalltake legal action. Yourssincerely tt - 00lUld, JAJ4,W)ru Donald Sampson Sales Manager@ Copies @ c.c. MessrsPoole& Jackson Solicitors Ltd, C hai r m an J ohn F r ank soer Directots S B Allen M-sc- N.lgnot R.LichensB.A 15
  13. 13. 14 Faxes|!E I N T R OD U C T ION Preparinfor transmission g ott trt! Theword/ax comesfromlfacsimile, which Checkthat you have the correct fax number.6o meansan exactcopyor reproduction.Iike Checkthat the paperon which your message isxe email,thewordfax canbeusedas a noun, printed or written is suitable.If it is too big,too5 e.g.IsentaJaxor asa verb,e.g.We willfax small,or in poor condition,photocopytheo you when we have the inJormation. message paperthat can be accepted the on byo A fax message usefui when speedis is fax machine.Beforeusing the machine,check important and the recipientdoesnot have that you know how to dial, cancel, cleara paper email.It is especiallyusefulfordocuments jam, and send. containing diagramsor drawings.Likeemail, When you senda fax it is a goodidea to use a a fax can be sent quickly to many different fax transmissioncoverform. This will help to recipientsat the sametime. However,again ensurethat the fax reaches i.ntended its like email,fax is an open system,i.e. recipient safely.Most companiesusetheir own correspondence easilybe accessed can by headedfax transmissionform, but you can outsiders, it shouldnot be usedfor so easilycreateone for yourself,e.g.: confidential information. BRrrrsHcnvsrtt Ltd. When sendinghandwritten fax messages, Glazier House use a dark colourand make your writing large GreenLane and clear. Derby As faxesare copiesof documents, they D E 1 7R T cannot be usedwhen the originals are required. example, originalrrrr or For FA X ME S S A GE an LADTNG givesrrrlr to goods(i.e. you would To: own the goodsif you had the bill in your From: possession), would not be valid if it were a and Fax no.: faxed copy. Subject: Faxes havebeencourttested, and they tend Date: to be accepted legal cases, in along with letters, Page/s: as evidencein certain areasof international trade.However,an email containing similar S TY TE information might not be considered valid under certain circumstances. Generally, faxesare similar to lettersin style, Difierent fax machines offer a wide range Ievelof formality, andthe use of conventions. of facilities,including repeatdialling if the However,a fax may be shorterand the receivers machine is engaged; fax a Ianguagemore direct,likean email,asthere transmissionreport which givesdetailsof the is a time element in the costof sendingthem. time, date,sender, receiver, number of pages, As with email messages, bewareof using too duration, and result; a verification mark at the informal a tone with customersor suppliers foot ofthe pageto confirm the fax was sent; you do not know well. and a number memory for frequently used numbers.Check manual of your fax the machine to find out what functions it can perform. It is alsopossible senda fax from a to computer.r6
  14. 14. Adviceof damaged F HeadOffce consignment oF. Lynch & Eo. Ltd NessonHouse 5 NewellStreet This isfrom Lynch fax f x Birmingham & Cqwho received a |D _9 833EL damaged coHsrcNMENT !, = andweretold bytheir o Telephone: @lzt 46 657r +44 o Fax:+44(o)21 supplier,5atex5.p.A., to 3 458592 t, pcrane@lynch.co.u Email: k returnit >seepage ro6. = I www.lynch.comFnx messuqeTo D.Causio, SatexS.p.A.From L.Crane tnFaxno. (06)481,5473 x !lSubject Replacement damagedorder no.7UI8 of 3 ! .DDate 19October20- IF xPagels 1This is an urgent request for a consignment to replacethe aboveorder,which was damaged during delivery. We informed you about this in ourletter of 15September.Pleaseairfreight the following items:Cat.No. O_uantrtyR30 50R20 70N26 100The damaged consignment will be retumed when we receivethereplacement.?eh/ Aa*t"oPeterCraneChiefBuyer 17
  15. 15. J4 frrponr to o E lmportr/r cnqulry o! E Thisisafaxfrom G I BritishCrystal their to o x rc errs,5.A.lmporters,.E in SaudiArabia >see 5 o correspondence on C T AZ IER H O U SE.GR EEN tAN E .D ER BY D El l R T pagesrT4-176. TET E P H o N +4 4 @ ) 1 3 3 z4 5 7 9 0 . F A c s r M r L E : 4 ( o ) r 3 3 2 5 r 9 7 7 E: +43 This isquite fax Email: oliverh@crysta l.com. www.britishcrystal.com formalin styleasthe companies just have started theirbusiness FAX MESSAGE relationship.Notice how Mr Oliversells To S.A.Importers From H.Oliver,MarketingManajer the producttothe x importers. rSeealso Faxno. (966)1 34981.E Subject FrenchEmpire designsg BdtishCrystalsfaxed q enquirytoUniversal Date 16August 2G- Page/s 5,includingthisone E |! Airwaysandthe letter xIlI replyonpagesD4-r95. Thank you for your enquiry about our FrenchEmpire range of drinking glasses.There is a revival ofinterest in this period, so we are not surprised that these products have becomepopular with your customers. I am sendingwiththisfaxpp.l-4 of our cataloguewith CIFRiyadhprices, as you saidyouwould lil<ean immediate previewof this range.Iwou-ld appreciateyour comments on the designswith regard to yow market. I look forward to hearing from you. H. Olin?l H.Oliver(Mr) Marketing Managerr8
  16. 16. Faxaccompanying o an order o I Fax &&$Ewm&mrru With this fax,an ii x importeris sending o ffixpXm**ffi&Awx3 an officialorderand !, = specifications the for r ffimxvnpffiryruW d r i l l sh e r e q u i r e s. e H o 3 ll s a y s t h a t a c o N Fr R M ED L E T T Eo F c n eo r r w i l l R BlockD.5urulere Road lndustrial Telephone(+44) t 4836o829/4/ 5 be openedoncehe has Ogb a. lk eja. Lagos (44) t 4837 Facsimile oot t h e s u p p l i e r s C OM M ER C IAL INV O I C E . To JohnMalcovitch,ChiefEngineer Noticethat the fax is United Drilling Inc.Managing Director From TosinOmosade, copied his companys to accountant, alsothe and Fax 273-890-0740 chiefengineer. ltt x t Topic Drilling Heads 3 E. oNo.ofpages1-5 f x c.c. KwameAdeole(Accountant) Vidal Lamont (ChiefEngineer) Pages2-4 ofthis fax are specificationsfor the exploration drilling heads that we discussed your visit herein October. on Couldyou pleasesupply theseheadsas soonas possible? , I am alsosendingour official OrderNo NI f2O-1046.Ishall make arrangementsto open a confirmed letter of credit with the Nigerian International Bank as soon asyou have sent me your invoice and details of shipment. I look forward to hearing from you. Tosin0runsa"dp TosinOmosade (Mr) Managing Director r9
  17. 17. EmailsJI read by authorizedusers),which both work G IN T R OD U C T ION E along similar lines,make email more secure. o! Email (shortf.oreleetronic mcil) is a means of tr G sendingmessages between computers. E mai l and other formr of 5 o To send and receiveemail you need access to x correrpondencee the Internet. An Internet ServiceProvider (rs n) will provide you with connection software, Thereare severalareasofbusiness o which is often free. This will give you Internet communication where more traditional forms o access, storagefor incoming mail, and the of correspondence still the most suitable. are capqbilityto read your messages. Finally,you For example,personaland sensitive need email software, generally already correspondence such as messages of installed in modern computers,so that you can congratulation, condolence,or complaint are write, send,receive, and readmessages. usually best done by letter. Confirmation of contracts,memos which are confldential and Ad v a n ta g e r must be signedto acknowledgereceipt,and any correspondence which may be neededfor Thereare numerous advantages email.It is to legal or insurancepurposesshould not personaland easyto use.It can be usedboth normally be sent by email. You might find a job within and between companies,and is an on the Internet,but most companieswould effective wayto communicate quickly and still expectyour applicationto consistof a easily with people all over the world. It is completed form with a covering letter. especiallyuseful for short messages and for everydaycorrespondence, setting up a e.g. E mai l addreres meeting, passing on information, and making or replying to a request. Iook like this: Typical email addresses Youcan pick upyour email messages, dfranks@intchem.co.no even when you are travelling, via a laptop or corneyg@kingsway.ac.uk palmtop. With compatiblesystems,youcan access text and graphicdocuments,and The first part of the email address usuallythe is spreadsheets. whatever you sendor And surname and initial of the person you are receivecan be quickly and easily filed. contacting, or the name if itjs a department, or a shortenedversion ofit. The secondpart, which appearsimmediately after the @(at),is D i s a d v a n ta g e s the name of the rsn or organization, again or The disadvantagesof email include technical an abbreviation of it. Usually,the last part of problemswhich may result inthe unexpected the address includesthe domain name suffixes non-deliveryof messages, attachments or referring to the type of organization(e.g..co arriving in unreadable form. A non-technical forcompany,.ac (academic) a university) for disadvantageis that, paradoxically,the ease and to the country from which the message with which messages be sent resultsin can was sent (e.g..nofor Norway,.ukfor the Iarge amounts of junk and unnecessary UnitedKingdom). communication, which waste time. Other examples of domain name suffixes As with faxes,a major drawback is the lack referring to types of organizationinclude: of privacy and security. Do not use email to .biz business communicate confidential information. It is .gov governmentofice sometimessaidthat an email message like is .org non-profit-makingorganization a postcard - anyone can read what you have (e.9. charity) a written. However, digital signing and .pro profession(e.g.medicine,Iaw) encryption (coding data, so that it can only be
  18. 18. If the name of a country in its main language Attachments o differssignificantlyfrom its name in English, Iconsof anyarrAcHMENrs will appearhere. ID this is reflectedin its domain name suffx, e.g: The amount of header information, and the orderin which it appears, will vary according ii .de Deutschland(Germany) x o .es Espafia(Spain) to the software being used,so do not worry if !, .za ZuidAfrika (SouthAfrica) you the messages sendand receive not lookdo I cl exactlylike the one in the example. o 3 q, L A YOU T = 1 , rr , 1,1t Belowis a typical email message. Thepresentationof the text in an email is usually lessformal than in a letter.In this i1.,tLlIt I lr)llll lllIll exampleMs Kaasenhas usedthe formal Theheadergivesessentialinformation about DearSir/ Madam,but shecould simplyhave the message.In addition to the basicdetails headedher m essage the attention of the For shown in the sampie,it may include: SalesManager.Ratherthan ending with Yoursfaithfully, usesthe lessformal she c.c. I lookforwardto hearing Jromyou. This standsfor carboncopies, which means much the sameas it doeson a letter r.seepage14. Hereyou insert the email ,r r - r t11i , addresses anyoneyou want to sendcopies of This is like the signatureblock in a letter, of the message to. although it usually includesmore details,e.g. b.c.c. the senders companyor private address, and This standsfor blind carboncopies, which, as telephoneand fax numbers.Youcan program in a letter,you shoulduseif you do not want your email softwareto add your signature the main recipientto know who has received automaticaliyto the end of outgoing copres>seePage 14. messages. I H e a der or m at ion inf Subject:, I Message text f) D e a rSi r/ M a d a m Pleasewouldyou sendme details yourquadsoundsystems, of advertised the in Apriledition SoundMonthly? of I am particularly interested the Omegarange. in I look fonvardto hearingfrom you.r I Si g nat urbloc k e O Beatrix Kaasen(Ms) Bredgade 51 D K 12 6 0 Copenhagen K Tel/ Fax:(+45)741583 Email:kaasenb@intertel.net,dk
  19. 19. 14 |! ST Y tE Errr.r | .rbbrcvr.rti orrr i E o! Email is a relatively recent development, and TLAs(three-letteracronyms) tr t! becauseit is perceived as a quick and informal In orderto keep email messages short,people 5 o means of communication, people are often sometimesuse abbreviationsfor common xe unclear about the style and conventions they just expressions, asthey do in text messaging. should use in businesssituations. Theseare known asTLAs (three-letter o As a general rule, although email acronyms), although someof them are more o correspondencemay tend towards informality, than three letters long.Here is a list of some it shouldfollowthe sameprinciples as any of the most commonlyused TLAs: other form of businesscorrespondence. AFAIK asfaraslknow Here are somebasictips about style: BFN byefornow - In general,email messages follow the style Brw bytheway and conventionsusedin letters or faxes.For coB closeofbusiness example,youcanuse salutationssuch as FYr for your information DearMr Pintoor DearTom,and row inotherwords complimentary closes such as Yours sincerely NRN no reply necessary or Bestwishes. However,if you knowthe oroH ontheotherhand recipient well, or if you are exchanging a seriesof messages with one person,you may UseTLAs with great care,and onlywhen dispensewith the salutation and you have estabiished a friendly, informal complimentary close. relationshipwith your correspondent. They - Do not confusepersonalmessages with should not be be usedin letters and faxes. businessmessages.In businessmessage, a Emoticons the same rules of writing apply as for a Emoticons(a combination of the words Ietter: write clearly,carefuIly,and emotion andicon),alsoknow as smileys,are courteously;consideraudience, purpose, often usedin informal email correspondence. clarity,consistency, conciseness, tone. and They expressemotions which may not be - Usecorrectgrammar,spelling, evident from the words alone,e.g.: capitalization, and punctuation, as you a smile would in any other form of correspondence. -) afrown - Do not write words in capital letters in an -( ;) aw i nk email message. This can be seenasthe equivalent ofshouting andtherefore have a On the whole. it is better not to usethem in negative effect.If you want to stressa word, businessmessages, they may be considered as put asteriskson eachside of 1t, e.g.*urgent*. unprofessional, especially ifyou do not know - Keepyour email messages short and to the the recipient weII or are not sure that he or she point. Peopleoften receive a Iot of emails at will understandthem. work, so conciseness especiallyimportant. is - In general,limit yourself to one topic per message. This helps to keepthe message brief and makesit easierfor the recipient to answer,f,le, and retrieve it later. - Checkyour email message mistakes for beforeyou sendit, just as you would check a letter or a fax message.
  20. 20. A s k in g o r a n f |D estimate o E q *"i E elX Hereis an exampleof f rnd _l 10 x a n e m a i la s k i n g f o r an G EsrtMATE refit a to !, Fib Edil Yiew Lnsert Fgrmat Actions 3 store.There threeare o. o attachments. Notice 3 ro... I PeterLane -I that the email is q u ite !, short.lt is acceptable, as here, omit the to salutation and the Refitof HaltonRoad store complimentary close whenthe sender nd a recipient havebeenin touch with eachother lll previously. x g, Planof oremises list Architectsdrawinos 3 E o or,Vithreference our phoneconversation morning, wouldlikeone of your to this I 3 g. SE4 3TN,to givean estimaterepresentatives visitour storeat 443 HaltonRoad,London, tofor a completerefit.Pleasecouldyou contact to arrange appointment? me anAs I mentioned the phone,it is essential on thatwork is completed before end of theFebruary20-, and this would be statedin the contract.I attachthe plansand specifications.JeanLandmpn (Ms)Assistant K. Bellon, to Managing DirectorSuperbuys Superbuy Ltd, HouseWolverton Road,LondonSW167DNTel.:020 8327 1651Fax: 020 8327 1935j.landman@superbuys.com 2t
  21. 21. L tulakf,ng t! E arrangementsfor IUT an estimate tr t! PeterLanereplies to o x Jea nLa nd mancop yi ng , the message the to o surveyor,John Pelham. o Noticethat this message fulf ls the requirements for correspondence dealin g with an e nq uir y , i.e.the replyis sentas Refitof HaltonRoad store soonas possible and covers points the me ntio ne d th e in Dear Ms Landman.E enquiry.The styleis E quite info rmalb ut still John Pelham, available inspect premises Our surveyor, is to the and discussyourexact o politea nd b usine sslik e. Couldyou pleasecontactJohnon jpelham@wemshop.com,on his mobile requirements. or-g ll E The lettersRE: appear (7129289541),to arrangea convenient time for him to visitthe store? G beforethe subjecttitle xllt in th e h ea de r Fromyourattached specifications, I estimate work couldbe completed the withinthe time information. is Th you give,and we wouldbe willingto sign a contract this effect. to indicates that PeterLane hasselected thereply Peter Lane opt io n.The rigin al o message appears below Director, WembleyShopfittersLtd his reply. WycombeRoad,Wembley, Middlesex HAg 6DA Teleohone: 8903 2323 020 Fax:020 8903 2349 Email:plane@wemshop.com - Original message- From: Jean Landman To: PeterLane Subject: Refitof HaltonRoad store Dr :a l L 4 t N-ir r e ; Vi ih r e le r e n ce [u c) L np l rorre conve;tserti otrtfns rr]i )r rri !t, l w rrrri r.l l i he one oi t,o,rr r r ir r csd r - ltd lve s[DVr sr to uIsturc;rt 214-i l -l al i l rr ]-i i i :i i i t..,rrrj otr i ,.L-4i i i l !,Lc,gi v*arI i:sIir ila ilu tr ,r ra i cOiltp le te rel i t P teerse cti Lrl t.i rLr i .r,rrtl l tcli Ttc i o al r[i ]i l 1{Jrl r-r.r1;p0i i l l ri tcrtt? yl (i ,/!r .; r ir L iiL i.;le d o r r iir e 6.rl ronc.i i r:; esserrl i ;tl l l r.rt w oi i l r j s i r()l ri l l c.ted bei ore i i re erLl trl I I r i.ll L t.lt,, ,,4 - . a t r cl L iliSl;,V Oftl Ctt.: r,t:.atl rlld ti l ,.j (l {.}ll /trr-L ll rt i I e r lta cfr llr e r p llr r r s :r n r .ispeci fi caLronl ; Je .a n L a il( ii ir :1ii ( l/ s) A..i.r.rrri l..r l{ llollrrn iri-rr.,lrr.r lrrr:nlnr 124
  22. 22. Askingfor o informatIon o A c o m p a n y a se m a i l e d h f rArial t h e i r l o c a l c H A M B ERF o x o c o M M ER c E o a s kf o r t -6l q = someinformationabout cl ID their prospective 3 D rs r R rB U T o R s , S ato c. In ll In this reply,the answers g i v e nb y t h e c h a m b e r o f commerce havebeen RE: Sato lnc inserted the relevant at p o i n t si n t h e o r i g i n a l message.They areDearMr Rubain preceded the> by ltt symbol. x> Pleasefind answersto your queriesbelow. q, 3How longhasthe company beenin business? llll:lii E. o> The companyhas tradedfor 24yearsunderits current name. o 3 E.How manyshowrooms does it have?> lt has a chainof 30 showrooms throughout country. theWhat is its turnovereveryyear?> lts registeredturnover yearwas $410million. thisWill its products compete with mine?> lt specializes foreign in cars- yourswillbe unique yourcountry. toHow is it regarded Japan? in> lt has an excellentreputation.I hooethisinformation useful. isKyokoMamura(Ms)Assistantto TradelnformationOfficerSakuragiBldg,Minami Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo109Tel:(+61;3 45076851Fax:(+31;3 45078890Email:mamurak@tcha.com.jp 25
  23. 23. L lijrl i*:l rilltg{:11 ill Ol g;O+C-i S |! E ijr i cL{,tFtfqJbqaU o!t tr Mr Cliffo f Home m ak er s ,! is a furnitu re o x ma nu facturea nd re sup plie s Hug hes s Mr Actions Hetp o shopwith a wide range c, of g oo ds. th is In examp le, Hug hes Mr wantstwo new products ON A P P R OV A T . Cat. Nos KT3 and KT14on approval.E Eo Ord e rN o 8 1 4 6 3gCLEG DearMr Cliffxut A lot of customershavebeenaskingaboutyourbookcase and coffeetableassembly kits (abovecat. nos).We would liketo test the marketand have6 sets of each kit on approval beforeplacinga firm order.I can supplytrade references necessary. if I attacha provisional order(No.81463)in anticipation youragreement. of Thereis no hurry, so you can sendthesewithyournextdelivery Swansea. to Manythanks RobertHughes R. Hughes& Son Ltd Tel:0179258441 Fax:01792 59472 E m a i l r.h u g h e s @ h uson.com : Wh y d oe sMr Hughes What doesMr Wh a t s o r t o f o r d e r , r l s t h i sa n u r g e n t want the goodson Hughes hink m ight t hasbeensent,and request? approval? be required get to how hasit beensent? goodson approval?z6

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