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History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
History of Digital Camera
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History of Digital Camera

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  • Transcript

    • 1. History of Digital Camera
    • 2. 1960
    • 3. THE VIDEO DISK - 1961.  David Paul Gregg first envisioned theVIDEODISK in 1958 He patented it in 1961 and again in 1969. 
    • 4. VIDEODISK CAMERA - 1963. D. Gregg, an inventor at Stanford University, created a crudeforerunner to digital photography.  The videodisk camera couldphotograph and store images for several minutes.  Although theywere transient, videodisk images foreshadowed emergingtechnology.
    • 5. THE CCD, CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE - 1969.  Willard Boyle andGeorge Smith originated the basic design for the CCD. The CCD is alight-sensitive integrated circuit used in a wide variety ofapplications, primarily imaging.  In the space of an hour on October17, 1969, Boyle and Smith sketched out the CCDs basic structure,defined its principles of operation, and outlined applicationsincluding imaging as well as memory. 
    • 6. 1970
    • 7. THE FIRST E-MAIL - 1971. QWERTYUIOP by Ray Tomlinson
    • 8. BAYER COLOR FILTER ARRAY - 1975.Bryce Bayer invented the color filter array that bears his name (theBayer filter), which is incorporated into nearly every digital cameraand camera phone on the market today. Described in U.S. Patent3,971,065, "Color Imaging Array," filed in 1975, color filters arearranged in a checkerboard pattern to best match how peopleperceive images, and provide a highly detailed color image. The BayerFilter enables a single CCD or CMOS image sensor to capture colorimages that otherwise would require three separate sensors attachedto a color beam splitter - a solution that would be large andexpensive. The red, green, and blue colors of the Bayer filter arefabricated on top of the light-sensitive pixels as the image sensor ismanufactured, a process pioneered by Kodak.
    • 9. KODAK PROTOTYPE CCD DIGITAL CAMERA - 1975.  A Kodakengineer, Steve J. Sasson, holds a camera he constructed, the worldsfirst known still image digital camera.  The camera used the newlydeveloped Fairchild black and white 100 X 100 Pixel (.01 megapixel)CCD as an image sensor and required 23 seconds to record a singleimage onto digital cassette tape. The camera weighed 8 1/2 pounds. Rochester (NY) Democrat & Chronicle, page 8D, October 16, 2001.
    • 10. KODAK PROTOTYPE CCD DIGITAL CAMERA - 1975.  A Kodakengineer, Steve J. Sasson, holds a camera he constructed, the worldsfirst known still image digital camera.  The camera used the newlydeveloped Fairchild black and white 100 X 100 Pixel (.01 megapixel)CCD as an image sensor and required 23 seconds to record a singleimage onto digital cassette tape. The camera weighed 8 1/2 pounds. Rochester (NY) Democrat & Chronicle, page 8D, October 16, 2001.
    • 11. KODAK PROTOTYPE CCD DIGITAL CAMERA - 1975.  A Kodakengineer, Steve J. Sasson, holds a camera he constructed, the worldsfirst known still image digital camera.  The camera used the newlydeveloped Fairchild black and white 100 X 100 Pixel (.01 megapixel)CCD as an image sensor and required 23 seconds to record a singleimage onto digital cassette tape. The camera weighed 8 1/2 pounds. Rochester (NY) Democrat & Chronicle, page 8D, October 16, 2001.
    • 12. CANON AE-1 - 1976.  First 35mm camera with built-inmicroprocessor.  About $630 with f1.4 lens. That would be about$2,348 in 2009 dollars.
    • 13. APPLE I - 1977.  Apple introduced its first home computer, the AppleI.  The Apple I was based on the MOStek 6502 chip, whereas mostother kit computers were built from the Intel 8080.  The Apple I wassold through several small retailers and included only the circuitboard.  Users bought the workings and built their own case.   A tape-interface was sold separately. 
    • 14. The Apple Is initial cost was $666.66.   Steve Jobs and SteveWozniak, the most famous members of the Homebrew ComputerClub, designed the Apple I in 1976.   Many leaders in mainlinecomputer companies like IBM and Digital did not believe thatpersonal computers were powerful enough to have a market.  Sales ofthe Apple I and other PCs that followed proved them wrong.
    • 15. Inkjet Printer - 1977-78.  Canon: Bubble-jet. HP: Thermal-inkjetEpson: Piezoelectric inkjet
    • 16. In 1979, CCD cameras made their way into professional astronomy.The Kitt Peak National Observatory (USA) mounted a 320 x 512 pixeldigital camera on their 1-metre telescope and quickly demonstratedthe superiority of CCDs over photographic plates.
    • 17. In 1979, CCD cameras made their way into professional astronomy.The Kitt Peak National Observatory (USA) mounted a 320 x 512 pixeldigital camera on their 1-metre telescope and quickly demonstratedthe superiority of CCDs over photographic plates.
    • 18. 1980
    • 19. 1981 - Sony first Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) 570 x 490 pixels,stored images on 2 inch floppy disks, Mavipaks
    • 20. 1981 - Sony first Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) 570 x 490 pixels,stored images on 2 inch floppy disks, Mavipaks
    • 21. 1981 - Sony first Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) 570 x 490 pixels,stored images on 2 inch floppy disks, Mavipaks
    • 22. National Geographic Cover, January 1982National Geographic Cover, January 1982
    • 23. 1982 - Iomega: 10 MB Bernoulli Drive is released
    • 24. 1983 - Syquest: 44 MB removable drive is released, used primarily by the graphic arts community for electronic pre-press work.
    • 25. CANON AT OLYMPIC GAMES - 1984.  In July, 1984, Canon conducteda trial of a professional color still video camera (the RC-701) and ananalog transmitter at the Los Angeles Olympics.  The images weretransmitted back to Japan via phone lines in less than 30 minutes. They were then printed in the Yomiuri newspaper.  Immediatelybefore the Games, Canon announced its successful development of acolor electronic still camera designed for commercial broadcastinguse.  Using a regenerator and transmitter developed at the same
    • 26. the company conducted practical tests at the 84 Olympics. The colorelectronic still video camera with a 400K pixel CCD used in the testswas the first practical application for public use.  With thecooperation of the Yomiuri Shimbun, a leading Japanese dailynewspaper, images taken by the still camera were experimentallytransmitted to Japan over telephone lines, and proved to besupremely successful.  Based on data and experience from thosetests, Canon began product development, culminating in the CanonStill Video System of 1986.  Popular Photography, October 1984, p48.
    • 27. NEWTEK  Digi-View - 1986. In 1986 the NewTek  Digi-View, built torun on the Amiga platform, was the first inexpensive video digitizerdesigned for home computers.  It was developed to take advantage ofthe Amiga 1000s advanced video capabilities. Digi-View was also thefirst personal computer digitizer to capture 4096-color, photo qualityimages.    Soon afterward, NewTek followed with DigiPaint, whichprovided video painting capabilities within the computer system. Itwas developed to take advantage of the Amiga 1000s advancedvideo capabilities and was plugged into the Amigas parallel printer
    • 28. A video cable then lead from the digitizer to either a B&W videocamera with a color wheel attached, or to an external color splitterbox. The DigiView took 3 passes to digitize a frame, and each passwas done by filtering through one of 3 primary colors: red, green,and blue. This meant that the image being digitized had be still orpaused. The digitizer generally captured at 320x200 pixels with upto 4096 colors, but was capable of 640x200 pixels if the system hadsufficient memory.  Once all three captures were done, the Newtek
    • 29. KODAK STILL VIDEO SYSTEM - 1987.  Kodak entered the still videomarket with products for recording, storing, manipulating,transmitting and printing electronic still video images.  UnderstandingElectronic Photography, John J. Larish, 1990, p 31.
    • 30. KODAK STILL VIDEO SYSTEM - 1987.  Kodak entered the still videomarket with products for recording, storing, manipulating,transmitting and printing electronic still video images.  UnderstandingElectronic Photography, John J. Larish, 1990, p 31.
    • 31. JPEG - 1988.Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
    • 32. 1990
    • 33. Adobe Photoshop 1.0 (for Mac) - 1990.
    • 34. DYCAM MODEL 1 / Logitech FotoMan - 1990.  Dycam Model 1 (darkgrey) and the Fotoman (white) B&W digicams were the first completelydigital consumer camera sold in the United States (both made byDycam).  They stored 32 compressed images on internal 1MB RAM. 1/3-inch, 376 x 240 pixel CCD at 256 gray levels.  TIFF or PICT 2format.  8mm fixed-focus lens.  Shutter 1/30 to 1/1000 second. Built-in flash.  They operated similarly to the Canon XapShot exceptthat they included the digitizing hardware in the camera itself.  Thecamera was attached to a PC to transfer images (photos by Jef
    • 35. KODAK DCS-100 SLR DIGITAL CAMERA - 1990.  Shown privately atPhotokina ’90 with a price of $30,000.  Marketed in 1991.  1.3MPCCD (1024 x 1280 pixels).  Based on the Nikon F3 body.  ISO 100. Nikkor interchangeable lens mount.  Manual focus.  Shutter 8seconds  to 1/2000 second.  Optical reflex viewfinder, hot shoe, self-timer, internal 200MB memory.  Two versions - B&W and Color. Fitted into a large plastic suitcase, the system consisted of a 200MBexternal hard disk drive with batteries, a control panel, mono display,and cables, with a total weight of 55lb.
    • 36. KODAK DCS-100 SLR DIGITAL CAMERA - 1990.  Shown privately atPhotokina ’90 with a price of $30,000.  Marketed in 1991.  1.3MPCCD (1024 x 1280 pixels).  Based on the Nikon F3 body.  ISO 100. Nikkor interchangeable lens mount.  Manual focus.  Shutter 8seconds  to 1/2000 second.  Optical reflex viewfinder, hot shoe, self-timer, internal 200MB memory.  Two versions - B&W and Color. Fitted into a large plastic suitcase, the system consisted of a 200MBexternal hard disk drive with batteries, a control panel, mono display,
    • 37. HASSELBLAD DB 4000 – 1991.  Example of professional model digitalstudio camera that used a digital back attached to a standard filmcamera.  The professional model Hasselblad DB 4000 was aHasselblad motorized model 553ELX film camera combined with aLeaf digital back.  ISO 300, 1/125 to 1 second.  2048 x 2048 pixelCCD.  14-bit capture per color channel, 8-bit storage.  The Leaf backfit the body of the Hasselblad in place of a film magazine and used aSCSI 2 interface to Apple Macintosh/Quadra computers. 
    • 38. NIKON NASA F4 - 1991.  A modified Nikon F4 was first flown intospace on board the Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Thestandard Nikon F4 film body was converted to digital by placing aone megapixel monochrome CCD at the film plane. The battery-operated Electronic Still Camera (ESC) retained all the features of theF4 camera body and accepted any lens or optics with a Nikon mount.Nikkor lenses used included a 20mm f/2.8 AF, 35-70mm f/2.8 AF,50mm f/1.2 and 180mm f/2.8 AF.
    • 39. NIKON NASA F4 - 1991.  A modified Nikon F4 was first flown intospace on board the Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Thestandard Nikon F4 film body was converted to digital by placing aone megapixel monochrome CCD at the film plane. The battery-operated Electronic Still Camera (ESC) retained all the features of theF4 camera body and accepted any lens or optics with a Nikon mount.Nikkor lenses used included a 20mm f/2.8 AF, 35-70mm f/2.8 AF,50mm f/1.2 and 180mm f/2.8 AF.
    • 40. NIKON NASA F4 - 1991.  A modified Nikon F4 was first flown intospace on board the Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Thestandard Nikon F4 film body was converted to digital by placing aone megapixel monochrome CCD at the film plane. The battery-operated Electronic Still Camera (ESC) retained all the features of theF4 camera body and accepted any lens or optics with a Nikon mount.Nikkor lenses used included a 20mm f/2.8 AF, 35-70mm f/2.8 AF,50mm f/1.2 and 180mm f/2.8 AF.
    • 41. KODAK DCS 200 - 1992.   The DCS 200 had a built-in hard drive forimage recording.  On sale from 1992 to 1994, it was based on theNikon N8008s.  There were five variants of the DCS200: DCS 200 ci(color and integrated hard disk), DCS 200 c (color without internalhard disk), DCS 200 mi (black and white and integrated hard disk),DCS 200 m (black and white without internal hard disk) and theWheelcam (color by a triple green red and blue exposures). Resolution with the Kodak DCS 200 Digital camera was 1.54 million
    • 42. • There are now 50 Web servers in the world.• Kodak introduces its DCS200 digital camera, comprising a Nikon 8008 with a Kodak digital back.• USA Today and AP cover U.S. political conventions for the first time with digital cameras.• Leaf Systems unveils the DCB digital camera back, which captured images with a single pop and set the standards for professional image capture for years to come.• 3M strikes a deal with Allstock, The Stock Market, FPG and Tony Stone Worldwide to publish and distribute digital stock photo catalogues on CD. For agencies, the new technology means they can distribute more images at a lower cost than paper catalogues allow.
    • 43. KODAK DCS 200 - 1992.   The DCS 200 had a built-in hard drive forimage recording.  On sale from 1992 to 1994, it was based on theNikon N8008s.  There were five variants of the DCS200: DCS 200 ci(color and integrated hard disk), DCS 200 c (color without internalhard disk), DCS 200 mi (black and white and integrated hard disk),DCS 200 m (black and white without internal hard disk) and theWheelcam (color by a triple green red and blue exposures). Resolution with the Kodak DCS 200 Digital camera was 1.54 million
    • 44. APPLE QUICK TAKE 100 – 1994.  Manufactured for Apple by Kodak,the QT 100 was the the first mass-market color digital camera forunder $1000 ($749).  640 x 480 pixel CCD.  Up to eight 640 x 480resolution images could be stored in internal memory.  Fixed-focus50mm lens.  Built-in flash. 
    • 45. EPSON DESKTOP COLOR INKJET PRINTER, MJ-700V2C – 1994.  Thefirst photo quality desktop inkjet printer.  At 720 by 720 dots perinch, it offered double the resolution of other color printers of thetime.
    • 46. KODAK DC-120 - 1996.  1280 x 960 pixel CCD.   ISO 120.  Shutter16 to 1/500 second.  38mm to 114 mm autofocus f/2.5 zoomlens.  First 1 megapixel camera to break the $1,000 price barrier.MSRP $799. Daniel Welsh, Digital Images Direct from Reality, 15March 2000.
    • 47. SONY CD-RW Disks - 1997.  Sony introduces CD-RW discs. 1998. iMac
    • 48. 1999:Worlds First Practical DSLR

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