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Disaster Management inDisaster Management inIndiaIndiaPast, Present and FuturePast, Present and FutureN. Vinod Chandra MenonN. Vinod Chandra MenonMember,Member,National Disaster Management AuthorityNational Disaster Management Authority(NDMA)(NDMA)Government of IndiaGovernment of India
Disasters in IndiaDisasters in India Moving away from the Great Bengal famineMoving away from the Great Bengal famineof 1769-1770 in which a third of theof 1769-1770 in which a third of thepopulation perished.population perished. The Chalisa famine of 1783, the Doji Bara orThe Chalisa famine of 1783, the Doji Bara orSkull famine of 1790 to 1792, the NorthSkull famine of 1790 to 1792, the NorthWest Provinces famine of 1838, the NorthWest Provinces famine of 1838, the NorthWest India Famine of 1861, the Bengal andWest India Famine of 1861, the Bengal andOrissa famine of 1866, the Rajputana famineOrissa famine of 1866, the Rajputana famineof 1869, the famine of 1899 to 1901, theof 1869, the famine of 1899 to 1901, theBengal famine of 1943…Bengal famine of 1943… The drought years of 1965, 1972, 1979,The drought years of 1965, 1972, 1979,1987, 20021987, 2002
India’s Vulnerability to DisastersIndia’s Vulnerability to Disasters 57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Ofthese, 12% is vulnerable to severethese, 12% is vulnerable to severeearthquakes.earthquakes. 68% land is vulnerable to drought.68% land is vulnerable to drought. 12% land is vulnerable to floods.12% land is vulnerable to floods. 8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.8% land is vulnerable to cyclones. Apart from natural disasters, some citiesApart from natural disasters, some citiesin India are also vulnerable to chemicalin India are also vulnerable to chemicaland industrial disasters and man-madeand industrial disasters and man-madedisasters.disasters.
Seismic Activity in IndiaSeismic Activity in India180 AD - 2004180 AD - 2004
Distribution of epicenters of earthquakes greater thanmagnitude 5.0 for the period 1976-2000, South East Asia andIndian Ocean
Areas of ConcernAreas of Concern Activating an Early Warning SystemActivating an Early Warning Systemnetwork and its close monitoringnetwork and its close monitoring Mechanisms for integrating the scientific,Mechanisms for integrating the scientific,technological and administrative agenciestechnological and administrative agenciesfor effective disaster managementfor effective disaster management Terrestrial communication links whichTerrestrial communication links whichcollapse in the event of a rapid onsetcollapse in the event of a rapid onsetdisasterdisaster Vulnerability of critical infrastructuresVulnerability of critical infrastructures(power supply, communication, water(power supply, communication, watersupply, transport, etc.) to disaster eventssupply, transport, etc.) to disaster events
Areas of ConcernAreas of Concern Funding : Primacy of relief as disasterFunding : Primacy of relief as disasterresponse.response. Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored.Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored. Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compileLack of integrated efforts to collect and compiledata, information and local knowledge ondata, information and local knowledge ondisaster history and traditional responsedisaster history and traditional responsepatterns.patterns. Need for standardised efforts in compiling andNeed for standardised efforts in compiling andinterpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imageryinterpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imageryand early warning signals.and early warning signals. Weak areas continue to be forecasting,Weak areas continue to be forecasting,modelling, risk prediction, simulation andmodelling, risk prediction, simulation andscenario analysis, etc.scenario analysis, etc.
Areas of ConcernAreas of Concern Absence of a national level, state level, andAbsence of a national level, state level, anddistrict level directory of experts anddistrict level directory of experts andinventory of resources.inventory of resources. Absence of a National Disaster ManagementAbsence of a National Disaster ManagementPlan, and State level and district level disasterPlan, and State level and district level disastermanagement plans.management plans. Sustainability of effortsSustainability of efforts Effective Inter Agency Co-ordination andEffective Inter Agency Co-ordination andStandard Operating Procedures forStandard Operating Procedures forstakeholder groups, especially critical firststakeholder groups, especially critical firstresponder agencies.responder agencies. Emergency medicine, critical care medicine,Emergency medicine, critical care medicine,triage, first aidtriage, first aid
Nodal Agencies for Disaster ManagementNodal Agencies for Disaster Management Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWCFloods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC Cyclones : Indian Meteorological DepartmentCyclones : Indian Meteorological Department1.1. Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological DepartmentEarthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family WelfareEpidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry ofAvian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry ofEnvironment, Ministry of Agriculture and AnimalEnvironment, Ministry of Agriculture and AnimalHusbandryHusbandry Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment andChemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment andForestsForests Industrial Disasters : Ministry of LabourIndustrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour Rail Accidents : Ministry of RailwaysRail Accidents : Ministry of Railways Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil AviationAir Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation Fire : Ministry of Home AffairsFire : Ministry of Home Affairs Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic EnergyNuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy Mine Disasters : Department of MinesMine Disasters : Department of Mines
Dynamics of DisastersDynamics of Disasters There is a high probability of a lowThere is a high probability of a lowprobability event happening somewhereprobability event happening somewheresometime soon…sometime soon… The unpredictability of disaster events andThe unpredictability of disaster events andthe high risk and vulnerability profilesthe high risk and vulnerability profilesmake it imperative to strengthen disastermake it imperative to strengthen disasterpreparedness, mitigation and enforcementpreparedness, mitigation and enforcementof guidelines, building codes andof guidelines, building codes andrestrictions on construction of buildings inrestrictions on construction of buildings inflood-prone areas and storm surge proneflood-prone areas and storm surge pronecoastal areas.coastal areas.
New Directions for DisasterNew Directions for DisasterManagement in IndiaManagement in India The National Disaster ManagementThe National Disaster ManagementAuthority (NDMA) has been set up as theAuthority (NDMA) has been set up as theapex body for Disaster Management inapex body for Disaster Management inIndia, with the Prime Minister as itsIndia, with the Prime Minister as itsChairman.Chairman. Disaster Management Authorities will beDisaster Management Authorities will beset up at the State and District Levels toset up at the State and District Levels tobe headed by the Chief Ministers andbe headed by the Chief Ministers andCollectors/Zilla Parishad ChairmenCollectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmenrespectively.respectively.
New Directions for DisasterNew Directions for DisasterManagement in IndiaManagement in India AA National Disaster Mitigation FundNational Disaster Mitigation Fund will bewill beadministerd by NDMA. States and districts willadministerd by NDMA. States and districts willadminister mitigation funds.administer mitigation funds. AA National Disaster Response FundNational Disaster Response Fund will bewill beadministerd by NDMA through the Nationaladministerd by NDMA through the NationalExecutive Committee. States and Districts willExecutive Committee. States and Districts willadminister state Disaster Response Fund andadminister state Disaster Response Fund andDisaster Response Fund respectively.Disaster Response Fund respectively. 8 Battalions of8 Battalions of National Disaster Response ForceNational Disaster Response Force(NDRF) are being trained and deployed with(NDRF) are being trained and deployed withCSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eightCSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eightstrategic locations.strategic locations. AA National Disaster Management PolicyNational Disaster Management Policy andandNational Disaster Response PlanNational Disaster Response Plan will also bewill also bedrawn up.drawn up.
Lessons LearntLessons Learnt Be Prepared : Preparedness andBe Prepared : Preparedness andMitigation is bound to yield moreMitigation is bound to yield moreeffective returns than distributingeffective returns than distributingrelief after a disaster.relief after a disaster. Create a Culture of Preparedness andCreate a Culture of Preparedness andPrevention.Prevention. Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holdersholders
Future DirectionsFuture Directions Encourage and consolidate knowledgeEncourage and consolidate knowledgenetworksnetworks Mobilise and train disaster volunteers forMobilise and train disaster volunteers formore effective preparedness, mitigation andmore effective preparedness, mitigation andresponse (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides,response (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides,NYK, Civil Defence, Homeguards)NYK, Civil Defence, Homeguards) Increased capacity building leads to fasterIncreased capacity building leads to fastervulnerability reduction.vulnerability reduction. Learn from best practices in disasterLearn from best practices in disasterpreparedness, mitigation and disasterpreparedness, mitigation and disasterresponseresponse
Future DirectionsFuture Directions Mobilising stakeholder participation of Self HelpMobilising stakeholder participation of Self HelpGroups, Women’s Groups, Youth Groups,Groups, Women’s Groups, Youth Groups,Panchayati Raj InstitutionsPanchayati Raj Institutions Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises,Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises,Mock drills and Scenario AnalysisMock drills and Scenario Analysis Indigenous knowledge systems and copingIndigenous knowledge systems and copingpracticespractices Living with Risk: Community Based Disaster RiskLiving with Risk: Community Based Disaster RiskManagementManagement Inclusive, participatory, gender sensitive, childInclusive, participatory, gender sensitive, childfriendly, eco-friendly and disabled friendly disasterfriendly, eco-friendly and disabled friendly disastermanagementmanagement Technology driven but people ownedTechnology driven but people owned Knowledge Management: Documentation andKnowledge Management: Documentation anddissemination of good practicesdissemination of good practices Public Private PartnershipPublic Private Partnership
Invest in PreparednessInvest in Preparedness Investments in Preparedness andInvestments in Preparedness andPrevention (Mitigation) will yieldPrevention (Mitigation) will yieldsustainable results, rather than spendingsustainable results, rather than spendingmoney on relief after a disaster.money on relief after a disaster. Most disasters are predictable, especiallyMost disasters are predictable, especiallyin their seasonality and the disaster-in their seasonality and the disaster-prone areas which are vulnerable.prone areas which are vulnerable. Communities must be involved inCommunities must be involved indisaster preparedness.disaster preparedness.
Best PracticesBest Practices On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hitOn 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hitthe coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr.the coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr.with a storm surge of six to nine meterswith a storm surge of six to nine metersheight, killing an estimatedheight, killing an estimated 500,000500,000 people.people. Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program,Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program,the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225km/hr. killed onlykm/hr. killed only 138,000138,000 people evenpeople eventhough the coastal population had doubled bythough the coastal population had doubled bythat time.that time. In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a windIn May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a windspeed of 250 km/hr. onlyspeed of 250 km/hr. only 127127 people lostpeople losttheir lives.their lives. In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed ofIn May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of200 km/hr. only200 km/hr. only 111111 people lost their lives.people lost their lives.
New possibilitiesNew possibilities National Urban Renewal MissionNational Urban Renewal Mission for 70for 70cities: recent experience ofcities: recent experience of“unprecedented” extreme weather“unprecedented” extreme weatherconditions in a few major metros andconditions in a few major metros andmegacitiesmegacities 100,000100,000 Rural Knowledge CentresRural Knowledge Centres( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-Governance for informed decision makingGovernance for informed decision makingin disaster-prone areas: before, duringin disaster-prone areas: before, duringand after disastersand after disasters