Principles of Ecology


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Principles of Ecology

  1. 1. Principles of Ecology Chapter 2 PSquires 2009
  2. 2. Daily Work <ul><li>What is biology and why do we need to study it? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organisms and Their Environment <ul><li>Ecology – the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies relationships among living and non-living parts </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Example: Deer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study actual organism itself, but also what it eats, what eats it, its affect on other things in the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aspects of Ecology <ul><li>Biosphere – the portion of Earth that supports life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Abiotic <ul><li>Non living parts of an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: rocks, air currents, temperature, moisture, light and soil. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biotic <ul><li>All the living organisms that inhabit an environment, </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: people, plants and animals </li></ul>
  8. 9. Levels of organisms <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cells <ul><li>Basic unit of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul>
  10. 11. Tissue <ul><li>Groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Organs <ul><li>Group of two or more tissues organized to perform complex activities within an organism. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Organ systems <ul><li>Multiple organs that work together to perform a specific life function. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Organisms <ul><li>Anything that possesses all the characteristics of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Have orderly structure, produce offspring, grow, develop, and adjust to changes. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Habitat vs. Niche <ul><li>Habitat – place where an organism lives out its life. </li></ul><ul><li>Niche – the role and position an organism has in its environment. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Habitat Niche
  16. 17. <ul><li>Organisms or different species cannot occupy the same habitat and the same niche at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>COMPETITION!! Without any competition, one species will either be killed off or they will have to move somewhere else.
  17. 18. Trials of Life Video
  18. 19. Ecosystem <ul><li>Interactions among populations in a community </li></ul><ul><li>The community’s physical surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>What are the abiotic factors? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the limiting factors? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Biosphere <ul><li>Portions of the Earth that supports life. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Symbiosis <ul><li>Sym = together Living Together </li></ul><ul><li>Bio = life </li></ul><ul><li>Close association between two or more organisms of different species. </li></ul>
  21. 22. 3 Types of Symbiosis <ul><li>Parasitism (+, -) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One organism benefits, the other is harmed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: ticks on dogs. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. 3 Types of Symbiosis <ul><li>Mutualism (+,+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both organisms benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Ants and acatia trees </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. 3 Types of Symbiosis <ul><li>Commensalism (+,0) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One organism benefits, the other is neither harmed or helped. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Spanish moss growing in trees. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Autotroph <ul><li>Organisms that use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Feeders </li></ul>
  25. 26. Heterotrophs <ul><li>Organisms that cannot make their own food and must feed on other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Different feeder </li></ul>
  26. 27. Herbivore <ul><li>Plant eaters </li></ul>
  27. 29. Carnivore <ul><li>Meat eater </li></ul>
  28. 31. Omnivore <ul><li>All eater </li></ul>
  29. 33. Trials of Life Video
  30. 34. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food Chains – a simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through the ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Algae  fish  heron </li></ul>
  31. 35. Trophic Level <ul><li>Trophic level – the passage of energy and materials. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Food Webs <ul><li>Plants are called producers because they are able to use light energy from the Sun to produce food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water </li></ul>
  33. 37. Food Webs (cont.) <ul><li>Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals. They are called consumers . </li></ul><ul><li>What are the 3 types of consumers? (in yesterdays notes) </li></ul>
  34. 38. Food Webs (cont.) <ul><li>Then there are decomposers (bacteria and fungi) which feed on decaying matter. These decomposers speed up the decaying process that releases mineral salts back into the food chain for absorption by plants as nutrients. </li></ul>
  35. 39. The further along the food chain you go, the less food (and hence energy) remains available.
  36. 40. Food Webs (cont.) <ul><li>Most food chains have no more than four or five links. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals are part of more than one food chain and eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web . </li></ul>
  37. 41. Identify the: 1. Producers   2. Primary Consumers   3. Secondary Consumers   4. Herbivores   5. Carnivores   6. Omnivores  
  38. 42. Water Cycle
  39. 43. Carbon Cycle
  40. 44. Nitrogen cycle
  41. 45. Phosphorus Cycle
  42. 46. Chapter 4 Population Biology
  43. 47. Daily Work 1 <ul><li>What is the population of Canton? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the population of Haywood County? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the population of North Carolina? </li></ul>According to the 2008 census: Canton: 3867 Haywood County: 56,890 North Carolina: 9,380,884
  44. 48. Population Growth <ul><li>Population Growth is defined as an increase in the size of a population over time. </li></ul>
  45. 49. Population <ul><li>Groups of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time. </li></ul>
  46. 50. Community <ul><li>Collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common location. </li></ul>
  47. 51. Linear population graph
  48. 52. Exponential Growth <ul><li>Explosive Growth in the population numbers. </li></ul>
  49. 53. Lag Phase <ul><li>Time it take for a population to reach sexual maturity. </li></ul>
  50. 54. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>Total number of organisms a population can sustain. </li></ul>
  51. 55. J-Curve Population Graph
  52. 56. S-Curve Population Graph
  53. 57. Daily Work 2 <ul><li>Why does a population fluctuate once it reaches carrying capacity? </li></ul>
  54. 58. Limits in Population Size <ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding </li></ul>
  55. 59. Predation <ul><li>Populations in predators and prey experience changes in their numbers over a period of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles are shown in populations over the years. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Lynx eats hare </li></ul>
  56. 60. Competition <ul><li>Organisms within a population constantly compete for resources. </li></ul><ul><li>When populations numbers are low, resources are plentiful. As population sizes increase, competition for food, water and territory can become fierce. </li></ul><ul><li>When demand exceeds supply, the population size decreases. </li></ul>
  57. 61. Crowding <ul><li>When populations of organisms become crowded, individuals may exhibit stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: mice </li></ul><ul><li>Result: decrease in population size </li></ul>
  58. 62. Human Population <ul><li>Video -- population </li></ul>
  59. 63. Daily Work 3 <ul><li>Does the earth have a carrying capacity for humans? </li></ul>
  60. 64. Demographic Trends <ul><li>A good way to predict the future of the human population is to look at past population trends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demography is the study of human population growth characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic distribution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 65. Demographic Trends <ul><li>Unlike other organisms, humans are able to reduce environmental effects by eliminating competing organisms, increasing food production, and controlling disease organisms. </li></ul>
  62. 66. Immigration and emigration <ul><li>Immigration is movement of individuals into a population. </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration is movement from a population. </li></ul>