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Periodic table
 

Periodic table

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    Periodic table Periodic table Presentation Transcript

    • The Periodic Table and the Elements Penny Squires Pisgah High School 2005 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • The Periodic Table and the ElementsWhat is the periodic table ?What information is obtained from the table ?How can elemental properties be predicted base on the PT ? 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)In 1869 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany)published nearly identical classification schemesfor elements known to date. The periodic table isbase on the similarity of properties and reactivitiesexhibited by certain elements. Later, HenriMoseley ( England,1887-1915) established thateach elements has a unique atomic number, whichis how the current periodic table is organized.http://www.chem.msu.su/eng/misc/mendeleev/welcome.html 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic LawThe Periodic Law states that when elements arearranged in order of increasing atomic number their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter. 1 18 IA VIIIA1 H 1 2 IIA Periodic Table 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA He 2 1.00797 4.0026 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 102 Li Be B C N O F Ne 6.939 9.0122 10.811 12.0112 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.179 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 183 Na Mg IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB Al Si P S Cl Ar 22.9898 24.305 26.9815 28.086 30.9738 32.064 35.453 39.948 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 364 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 39.102 40.08 44.956 47.90 50.942 51.996 54.9380 55.847 58.9332 58.71 63.54 65.37 65.37 72.59 74.9216 78.96 79.909 83.80 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 545 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 85.47 87.62 88.905 91.22 92.906 95.94 [99] 101.07 102.905 106.4 107.870 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.904 131.30 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 866 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 132.905 137.34 138.91 178.49 180.948 183.85 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.09 196.967 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.980 [210] [210] [222] 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 1097 Fr Ra Ac Ku http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/periodic_table.html [223] [226] [227] [260] 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • ArrangementThe modern Periodic Table is arranged according to atomic number. Remember that it is the atomic number, or nuclear charge, that determines the identity of the element.  3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic Table Expanded ViewThe way the periodic table usually seen is a compress view, placing the Lanthanides and actinides at the bottom of the stable. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals 1 18 IA VIIIA 2 13 14 15 16 171 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB4 Nonmetals5 Metals67 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • METALS Hard and Shiny 3 or less valence electrons Form + ions by losing e-Good conductors of heat and electricity 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • NONMETALS Gases or dull, brittle solids 5 or more valence electrons Form - ions by gaining e-Poor conductors of heat and electricity 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Metalloids Appearence will vary 3 to 7 valence electrons Form + and/or - ionsConduct better than nonmetals but not as well as metals 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare EarthMain (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth) 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Reading the Periodic Table: Classification Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7) 1 These elements have the same number of valence shells. 18 IA VIIIA 2 13 14 15 16 171 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2nd Period2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB45 6th Period67 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • s block p block d block f block 3 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell. 1 18 IA VIIIA 2 Alkali Family: Alkali Family: 13 14 15 16 171 IIA 11e- in the valence shell e- in the valence shell IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB4 Halogen Family: Halogen Family:5 77e- in the valence shell e- in the valence shell67 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Infamous Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali Halogen Noble Gas Alkaline Chalcogens 1 IA (earth) 18 VIIIA 2 13 14 15 16 171 IIA Transition Metals IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB4567 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Hydrogen: A Unique Element 1s1 Shown Over Group 1A & 7A Hydrogen is neither an alkali metal nor a halogen  However, hydrogen does show reactions that are similar to both alkali metals and halogens H. + . Cl : H : Cl :Hydrogen can also gain an electron to form an ion with a 1 - charge H. + e- H: - or H- called hydride 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 1A: Alkali MetalsReact with water easily to lose a valence electron.Form a +1 ionSoftFound in nature combined with other elementsGood conductors of heat and electricity 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 2A: Alkaline Earth MetalsForms compounds with Oxygen (Oxides)React with waterShiny solids that are heavier than AlkalisReact with Oxygen or other metals found in the earthLose valance electrons to form +2 ions Ca (g) Ca+ (g) + e- First Ionization Step Ca+ (g) Ca2+ (g) + e- Second Ionization Step 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 3A: Boron GroupAlways found combined with other elements in nature.Found as oxides in the earth’s crust.B, Al, Ga, and In form +3 ionsTl only forms a +1 ion 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 4A: Carbon Group Few rules apply to this group!!!! 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 5A: Nitrogen GroupWide variety of Chemical and Physical properties.N forms a –3 ionBi forms a +3 ion 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 6A: Oxygen Group or ChalcogensAct like nonmetalsTend to gain 2 e- to form –2 ions.Can also share 2 e- 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 7A: HalogensForm compounds with almost all metalsSalts (NaCl)Have different Physical propertiesVery reactive and found combined in natureTend to share or gain 1 e- to form a –1 ion 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Group 8A: Noble Gases•Colorless•Unreactive•Last to be discovered•Rarely react (1st time was in a lab in 1962) 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Rare Earth Metals1. Lanthanides – Named because they follow lanthanum Silvery metals with high melting points Found mixed in nature – very hard to seperate2. Actinide – Named because they follow actinium Radioactive elements Only 3 exist in nature – the rest are synthetic 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Transition MetalsShare conductivity, luster and malleability with other metals.Closein atomic size, electronegativity and ionization energyDifferent physical properties (determined by their electron configuration)Can lose 2 e- to form +2 ion or 3 to form a +3 ionIfthey form more than one type of ion the element will have a different color when combined. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic Table e- configuration from the periodic periodic table 1 18 IA VIIIA 2 13 14 15 16 171 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He 1s1 1s22 Li Be B BC N O F Ne 2s1 2s2 2p1 2p 2p 2p4 1 2 3 2p5 2p63 Na Mg 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB Al Si P S Cl Ar 3s1 3s2 3p1 3p2 3p3 3p4 3p5 3p64 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Be Kr 4s1 4s2 3d1 3d2 3d3 4s13d5 3d5 3d6 3d7 3d8 4s13d10 3d10 4p1 4p2 4p3 4p4 4p5 4p65 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Ni Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 5s1 5s2 4d1 4d2 4d3 5s14d5 4d5 4d6 4d7 4d8 5s14d10 4d 10 5p1 5p2 5p3 5p4 5p5 5p66 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Ni Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 6s1 6s2 5d1 5d2 5d3 6s15d5 5d5 5d6 5d7 5d8 6s15d10 5d 10 6p1 6p2 6p3 6p4 6p5 6p67 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 7s1 7s2 6d1 6d2 6d3 7s16d5 6d5 6d6 6d7 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Periodic Table: electron behaviorThe periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons West (South) Mid-plains East (North) METALS METALLOID NON-METALS Alkali Noble gas Alkaline Halogens Transition Calcogens These elements These elements These elements tend to give up will give up e- or tend to accept e - and form accept e- e - and form 1 CATIONS ANIONS 18 IA VI A II 2 13 14 15 16 171 IA I II IA I A V VA VA I VI IA2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123 II IB I B V VB VB I VI IB VI B II IB IB I4567 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • 2. Trend in Atomic RadiusAtomic Radius:The size of at atomic species asdetermine by the boundaries of thevalence e-.Largest atomic species are thosefound in the lower left corner sincethese atoms have the largest n. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Trend in Ionic RadiusIonic Radius:Atoms can gain or lose electrons to form ions.Electrons are negative so if they gain or lose one they will have a charge.(Cation = lose to form + ion/becomes smaller andAnion = gains to form – ion/becomes larger) 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Ionic Radius (cont.) 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • 3. Trend in Ionization EnergyIonization potential:The energy required to remove thevalence electron from an atomicspecies. Largest toward top rightcorner of PT since these atoms holdon to their valence e- the tightest. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • 4. Trend in Electron AffinityElectron Affinity:The energy releasewhen an electron isadded to an atom.Most favorabletoward NE corner ofPT since these atomshave a great affinityfor e-. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • Summary of TrendPeriodic Table and Periodic Trends1. Electron Configuration 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward NE of PT 4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable NE of PT 2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward SW corner of PT 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM
    • SummaryPeriodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter TableType: Metal, metalloid and NonmetalType Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/ActanidesFamily: Elements in the same column have similarFamily chemical property because of similar valence electrons Alkali, Alkaline, chalcogens, halogens, noble gasesPeriod: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell. 3.3 Periodic Table 9.17.00 1:37 PM