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Chpt  9   part ii - types of reactions 031604
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Chpt 9 part ii - types of reactions 031604

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  • 1. Basic ChemistryPart Two Types of Chemical Reactions Pisgah High School M. Jones Rev. 5/15/01 5/2/02 3/15/04 3/16/04
  • 2. Types of Reactions1. Synthesis (combination)2. Decomposition3. Single Replacement4. Double Replacement5. Acid-Base Neutralization6. Combustion of
  • 3. Synthesis ReactionsGeneral format: A + B → C A = compound or element B = compound or element C = compound Always a single product 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l)
  • 4. Decomposition ReactionsGeneral Format: A → B + C A = compound B = compound or element C = compound or element Always a single reactant 2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
  • 5. Most single replacementand double replacementreactions involve theinteraction of ions.
  • 6. Ions either have a positivecharge or a negative charge. Cation = Positively charged ion Anion = Negatively charged ion
  • 7. AnionA Negative Ion ANIon
  • 8. Single Replacement ReactionsGeneral Format: M + LA → MA + L M and L = metals, A = anion X + CY → CX + Y X and Y = nonmetals, C = cationelement + compd → element + compdZn(s) + Cu(NO3)2 → Zn(NO3)2 + Cu(s)
  • 9. Double Replacement ReactionsGeneral Format: AB + CD → AD + CB compd + compd → compd + compdA reaction occurs when a precipitate is formed.ZnCl2(aq) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → 2 AgCl(s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq)
  • 10. Acid-Base Neutralization ReactionsGeneral Format: HA + BOH → BA + HOH Acid-base neutralization reactions are actually double replacement reactions.
  • 11. Acid-Base Neutralization ReactionsGeneral Format: HA + BOH → BA + HOH acid + base → salt + water Water is the insoluble “precipitate” HCl(aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl(aq) + HOH (l)
  • 12. Combustion Of Hydrocarbons General Format: CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2Ohydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + waterC3H8(g)+ 5 O2(g)→ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
  • 13. Identify the reaction type:. Na2CO3  Na2O + CO2. MgCl2 + F2  MgF2 + Cl2. 2SO2 + O2  2SO3. 2HI + Ba(OH)2  BaI2 + 2HOH. C5H12 + 8O2  5CO2 + 6H2O. ZnCl2 + Pb(NO3)2 
  • 14. Identify the reaction type:1. Na2CO3  Na2O + CO2 Decomposition
  • 15. Identify the reaction type:2. MgCl2 + F2  MgF2 + Cl2 Single replacement
  • 16. Identify the reaction type:3. 2SO2 + O2  2SO3 Synthesis
  • 17. Identify the reaction type:4. 2HI + Ba(OH)2  BaI2 + 2HOH Acid/base neutralization
  • 18. Identify the reaction type:5. C5H12 + 8O2  5CO2 + 6H2O Complete combustion of a hydrocarbon
  • 19. Identify the reaction type:ZnCl2 + Pb(NO3)2  PbCl2 (s) + Zn(NO3)2 Double replacement
  • 20. Predicting the Products ofChemical Reactions.
  • 21. Synthesis Reactions1. Metal + O2  metal oxide2. Nonmetal + O2  nonmetal oxide3. Metal + nonmetal  salt4. Water + metal oxide  metal OH- (base)5. Water + nonmetal oxide  oxyacid Metal oxide = basic anhydride Nonmetal oxide = acid anhydride Anhydride (anhydrous) = “without water”
  • 22. Decomposition Reactions1. Metal carbonates  metal oxide + CO22. Metal bicarbonate  metal oxide + CO2 + H2O3. Metal oxide  metal + O24. Metal hydroxide  metal oxide + H2O5. Oxygen-containing salts  salt + O26. Hydrates  salt + H2O
  • 23. Predicting the products ofsingle replacement reactions … A single replacement reaction occurs when … … one element changes from the elemental state to an ionic state and replaces a second ion in a compound.
  • 24. Consider this single replacement reaction:Fe(s) + CuCl2(aq)  Use the replacement series, and look at iron and copper.Since Fe is above Cu in thereplacement series, the Fe willreplace Cu.
  • 25. Consider this single replacement reaction:Fe(s) + CuCl2(aq)  FeCl3(aq) + Cu(s)The Fe replaces the copperand goes into solution as Fe +3ions (the Fe dissolves)… … the copper ions comes out of solution as solid, metallic copper.
  • 26. Consider this single replacement reaction:2 Fe(s) + 3 CuCl2(aq)  2 FeCl3(aq) +3 Cu(s) The final balanced equation is …
  • 27. Predicting the products ofdouble replacement reactions … A double replacement reaction occurs when there is … … an insoluble product, (a precipitate). Use the solubility rules to determine if one or more products are insoluble in water.
  • 28. Double Replacement ReactionsConsider the reaction between solutions of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate:Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  BaSO4 What is the formula for the product that contains barium?
  • 29. Double Replacement ReactionsConsider the reaction between solutions of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate:Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  BaSO4 + 2 NaNO3 What is the formula for the other product?
  • 30. Double Replacement Reactions Consider the reaction between solutions of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate: Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  BaSO4 + 2 NaNO3Which of the two is insoluble in water?The BaSO4 gets an (s) or “down arrow”
  • 31. Double Replacement ReactionsConsider the reaction between solutions of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate:Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)  BaSO4 + 2 NaNO3 (aq) Since NaNO3 is soluble in water, put an (aq).
  • 32. Predicting the Products of Neutralization ReactionsNeutralization reactions are in the same format as double replacement reactions. Acid + base  salt + waterThe formation of water is what drives an acid-base reaction.
  • 33. Neutralization ReactionConsider the reaction between nitric acid and calcium hydroxide:HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Write the formulas for the reactants.
  • 34. Neutralization ReactionConsider the reaction between nitric acid and calcium hydroxide: acid baseHNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Which is the acid, and which is the base?
  • 35. Neutralization ReactionConsider the reaction between nitric acid and calcium hydroxide: acid baseHNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) salt What is the formula of the salt that is produced?
  • 36. Neutralization ReactionConsider the reaction between nitric acid and calcium hydroxide: acid baseHNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + HOH(l) salt water Finally, add the formula for water. It is the “insoluble product.”
  • 37. Many of these reactions are REDOX reactions.REDOX reactions involve… Oxidation and Reduction
  • 38. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation – the loss of electrons Reduction – the gain of electrons
  • 39. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions… involve an exchange ofelectrons which causes …… a change in the oxidationnumber of two or moreelements.
  • 40. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Most synthesis, decomposition and combustion reactions are redox reactions. All single replacement reactions are redox.
  • 41. Reactions which can be redox: 1. Synthesis (combination) 2. Decomposition 3. Single Replacement 4. Double Replacement 5. Acid-Base Neutralization 6. Combustion
  • 42. Redox Reaction: single replacement 0 +2 -12 Fe(s) + 3 CuCl2(aq)  +3 -1 0 2 FeCl3(aq) +3 Cu(s)
  • 43. You will study redoxreactions in more detaillater in the semester.