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  • Jawbreaker example
  • Valence – the ones in the outer shell. Same number of valence electrons similar properties.
  • Table salt Different properties of the elements they are made from.
  • Sodium donates electron to chlorine to help fill its outer orbital.
  • Sea water, salt water, air, bronze (copper and tin), brass (copper and zinc)
  • Chemistry

    1. 1. Earth/Environmental Science Chemistry Chapter 3 P Squires 2005-2006
    2. 2. The study of matter is central to the study of chemistry. <ul><li>Q. What is matter? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Matter is anything that … </li></ul><ul><li>… has mass, </li></ul><ul><li>… and takes up space. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Do things you cannot see have mass? <ul><li>What about air? </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is density? <ul><li>Density is the ratio of the mass of an object to the volume of the object. </li></ul>Typical units of density are grams per milliliter, g/mL D = m V
    5. 5. Develop a method to measure the density of a piece of metal. <ul><li>What equipment will you need? </li></ul><ul><li>What data should you take? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you analyze the data? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Devise a method to measure the density of a liquid. <ul><li>What laboratory equipment will you need? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of data should you take? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you analyze the data? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Temperature is a measure of “how hot or cold” something is. How do we measure temperature?
    8. 8. Temperature Scales K C F 100 0 -273 373 273 0 212 32 -462 Boiling point of water Freezing point of water (Melting point of ice) Absolute zero
    9. 9. Physical States <ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li> Plasma </li></ul>What are some characteristics of each?
    10. 10. Physical and Chemical Properties <ul><li>Physical properties only involve changes in state or appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical changes and chemical properties always produce new substances. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Some physical properties … <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility </li></ul>Conductivity Odor Hardness Malleability Ductility
    12. 12. Elements <ul><li>A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>Ninety-two elements occur naturally. </li></ul><ul><li>Other elements have been produced in labs. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Elements <ul><li>Symbols are used to identify the different elements. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Most abundant elements in universe. <ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul>
    15. 15. Elements <ul><li>Do MiniLab on page 55. </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY DO FIRST TWO COLUMNS </li></ul><ul><li>(We will do the others later in class.) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Atoms <ul><li>The smallest particles of an element that has all the characteristics of that element. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dalton’s Atomic Theory <ul><li>Atoms are tiny, discrete particles </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are indestructible </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element have the same mass and properties </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms combine in simple whole-number ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms in different ratios produce different compounds. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Nucleus <ul><li>The center of the atom that is made up of protons and neutrons . </li></ul><ul><li>Protons are tiny particles that have mass and a positive (+) electrical charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons are particles with about the same mass but no charge. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Atomic and Mass Number <ul><li>Atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Mass number - the number of protons added to the number of neutrons </li></ul>
    20. 20. Electrons <ul><li>The number of electrons in a neutral atom equals the number of protons. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Electrons <ul><li>Surround the nucleus of the atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Have very little mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a negative (-) charge. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Electrons <ul><li>Exist in energy levels. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Hydrogen atom nucleus Discrete energy levels for electrons electron
    24. 24. Valence Electrons <ul><li>The electrons in the outer shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Want to have 8 valence electrons for a full shell. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Periodic Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IA IIA IIIA …………….IIA IIIA………… VIIIA
    26. 26. Periodic Table <ul><li>Metals – Hard and shiny; good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    27. 27. Periodic Table <ul><li>Non-metals: Dull and brittle; poor conductors of heat and electricity. </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    28. 28. Group 1A: Alkali Metals <ul><li>React with water easily to lose a valence electron. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a +1 ion </li></ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Found in nature combined with other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul>
    29. 29. Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals <ul><li>Forms compounds with Oxygen (Oxides) </li></ul><ul><li>React with water </li></ul><ul><li>Shiny solids that are heavier than Alkalis </li></ul><ul><li>React with Oxygen or other metals found in the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Lose valance electrons to form +2 ions </li></ul>
    30. 30. Group 7A: Halogens <ul><li>Form compounds with almost all metals </li></ul><ul><li>Salts (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><li>Have different Physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Very reactive and found combined in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to share or gain 1 e- to form a –1 ion </li></ul>
    31. 31. Group 8A: Noble Gases <ul><li>Colorless </li></ul><ul><li>Unreactive </li></ul><ul><li>Last to be discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely react (1 st time was in a lab in 1962) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Transition Metals <ul><li>Metals in the middle. </li></ul><ul><li>Share properties of metals, just not as strong. </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    33. 33. Lanthanides and Actinides 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Man made elements. Would make table too big if inserted where they go.
    34. 34. Metalloids <ul><li>Found along the stair step on periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Have properties of metals and nonmetals. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Isotopes <ul><li>Number of neutrons vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine atom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 protons + 18 neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 protons + 20 neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Activity <ul><li>Finish mini lab on page 55. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes are what causes radiation and are part of the study of nuclear chemistry. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Compounds <ul><li>Substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Forces that hold elements together in a compound. </li></ul>
    40. 40. What are the two types of bonds? Ionic bonds - transfer electrons to get more stable arrangements. Covalent bonds - share electrons to get more stable arrangements. What happens to the electrons?
    41. 41. Ionic Bond Na Cl +
    42. 42. Na + Makes Na + ions and Cl - ions + - An ionic compound: NaCl Cl
    43. 43. Covalent Bond
    44. 44. Bonding
    45. 45. Molecule <ul><li>A compound of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Chemical Formula <ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul>
    47. 47. Polar Molecules <ul><li>Do not share electrons equally. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Ions <ul><li>An atom that either gains or loses electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a charged particle. (+) or (-) </li></ul><ul><li>If has less than 4 valence electrons…tends to lose electrons </li></ul><ul><li>If has more than 4 valence…tends to gain electrons. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Attractive forces between two atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: NaCl </li></ul>
    50. 50. Activity <ul><li>Do Problem Solving Lab page 63. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Metallic Bonds <ul><li>An array of positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Molecular Geometry <ul><li>The structure of the molecule when formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on attraction of electrons. </li></ul>
    53. 53. VSEPR Theory V alence S hell E lectron P air R epulsion
    54. 54. Linear Molecular Geometry 180 degrees Two electron pairs Linear electron-pair geometry
    55. 55. Trigonal Planar Molecular Geometry Three electron pairs Trigonal planar electron-pair geometry 120 degrees
    56. 56. Tetrahedral Molecular Geometry Four electron pairs Tetrahedral electron-pair geometry 109.5 degrees
    57. 57. Making Molecular Models <ul><li>Do making molecular models worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully make the models and draw them in color on the worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Only complete 1 st and 2 nd column </li></ul>
    58. 58. Naming Chemical Elements
    59. 59. Naming Chemical Compounds
    60. 60. Chemical Reactions S(s) + O 2 (g)  SO 3 (g) 3 2 2 BCl 3 (g)  B(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 2 3
    61. 61. Balancing Chemical Reactions Reactants: Zn + I 2 Product: Zn I 2
    62. 62. <ul><li>The chemical equation for this reaction , </li></ul><ul><li>C + O 2  CO 2 </li></ul>
    63. 63. Chemical Equations <ul><li>4 Al(s) + 3 O 2 (g) ---> 2 Al 2 O 3 (s) </li></ul><ul><li>This equation means </li></ul><ul><li>4 Al atoms + 3 O 2 molecules ---produces---> </li></ul><ul><li>2 molecules of Al 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><li> AND/OR </li></ul><ul><li>4 moles of Al + 3 moles of O 2 ---produces---> </li></ul><ul><li>2 moles of Al 2 O 3 </li></ul>
    64. 64. Balancing Equations <ul><li>___ Al(s) + ___ Br 2 (l) ---> ___ Al 2 Br 6 (s) </li></ul>2 3
    65. 65. Balancing Equations <ul><li>____C 3 H 8 (g) + _____ O 2 (g) ----> _____CO 2 (g) + _____ H 2 O(g) </li></ul>
    66. 66. Balancing Equations ____B 4 H 10 (g) + _____ O 2 (g) ----> ___ B 2 O 3 (g) + _____ H 2 O(g)
    67. 67. Mixtures <ul><li>A combination of two or more components that are easily recognizable. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some examples of mixtures? </li></ul>
    68. 68. Solutions <ul><li>Part cannot be easily distinguishable, but have all of original properties. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some examples of solutions? </li></ul>
    69. 69. Acids and Bases <ul><li>Acids taste sour, and … </li></ul><ul><li>bases taste bitter. </li></ul>Acids are the H + ion. Bases are the OH - ion.
    70. 70. Acids and bases in the body. Acids and bases are found throughout the body. The most obvious is stomach acid. Also amino acids and proteins to name a few.
    71. 71. Stomach Acid … <ul><li>Digestion in the stomach involves HCl and enzymes that break food apart. </li></ul>Sometimes the contents of the stomach move up into the esophagus and heartburn occurs because the esophagus is not protected by mucus.
    72. 72. … and Antacids <ul><li>Antacids relieve heartburn. </li></ul>Antacids contain hydroxides and carbonates. Antacids contain bases and neutralize acids. Because of hydrolysis, carbonate compounds can act as bases. CO 3 2- + HOH  HCO 3 - + OH -
    73. 73. … and Antacids Gaviscon magnesium carbonate – MgCO 3 aluminum hydroxide – Al(OH) 3 Mylanta calcium carbonate – CaCO 3 magnesium hydroxide – Mg(OH) 2 TUMS calcium carbonate – CaCO 3
    74. 74. Acids and Bases <ul><li>Acids and Bases neutralize each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Their strength is based off the pH scale. </li></ul>
    75. 75. The pH Scale… <ul><li>pH measures the amount of acidity in a solution. </li></ul>Acidic Basic Neutral 0 ------------ 7 ------------ 14
    76. 76. Common Food Acidities
    77. 77. States of Matter <ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
    78. 78. Crystalline Structure <ul><li>Structures where particles are arranged in regular geometric patterns. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Geo Lab <ul><li>Perform Geo Lab on page 70-71. </li></ul><ul><li>Use 75 mL of tap water. </li></ul><ul><li>Use 27 g of salt (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><li>25 ml in one beaker for refrigerator, 25 ml heated in beaker, and 25 ml to sit in window. </li></ul><ul><li>Work in groups of 4 (two lab groups). </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure to label each beaker with your group name and block number. </li></ul>
    80. 80. Solids <ul><li>Have definite shape and volume. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Liquids <ul><li>Take the shape of their container. </li></ul><ul><li>Have definite volume. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Gases <ul><li>Have no definite shape or volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand or contract to fill space available. </li></ul>
    83. 83. Plasma <ul><li>Hot, highly ionized electrically conducting gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lightening, neon sign </li></ul>
    84. 84. Changes of State
    85. 85. Evaporation <ul><li>Changing from a liquid to a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Aka: Vaporization </li></ul>
    86. 86. Sublimation <ul><li>Changing from a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: dry ice </li></ul>
    87. 87. Condensation <ul><li>Change from a gas to a liquid. </li></ul>
    88. 88. Law of Conservation of Matter <ul><li>Matter can neither be gained or lost only changed in form. </li></ul>
    89. 89. Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>Energy can neither be lost or gained only changed in form. </li></ul>
    90. 90. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>What particles make up the nucleus of an atom? </li></ul><ul><li>a. protons only </li></ul><ul><li>b. neutrons only </li></ul><ul><li>c. neutrons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>d. protons and neutrons </li></ul>
    91. 91. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>Which of these make up the nucleus of an atom? </li></ul><ul><li>a. number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>b. number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>c. neutrons and protons </li></ul><ul><li>d. protons and electrons </li></ul>
    92. 92. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>Which is the average of the mass numbers of an elements isotopes? </li></ul><ul><li>a. atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>b. energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>c. atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>d. valence electrons </li></ul>
    93. 93. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>What is the most abundant element on the Earth’s crust? </li></ul><ul><li>a. hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>b. uranium </li></ul><ul><li>c. silicon </li></ul><ul><li>d. oxygen </li></ul>
    94. 94. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>What kind of ions characterize an acid? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Hydroxide ions (OH - ) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Hydrogen ions (H + ) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Oxygen ions (O -2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>d. Negative ions (-) </li></ul>
    95. 95. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>How many valence electrons do beryllium atoms (atomic number 4) have? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    96. 96. Chapter 3 Assessment <ul><li>Why don’t gases such as neon and argon combine chemically with other elements? </li></ul>