Earth/Environmental Science Chapter 4 Minerals P Squires 2005-2006
Minerals <ul><li>A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a  specific chemical composition and definite crystalline str...
Minerals are inorganic <ul><li>Have never or will never be alive. </li></ul>
Minerals are solids <ul><li>What have we learned are the characteristics of solids? </li></ul>
Minerals have Crystalline Structure <ul><li>Arranged in geometric patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal  – a solid in which t...
Minerals From Magma <ul><li>What is magma? </li></ul><ul><li>Magma --  a molten material found beneath the earth’s surface...
Minerals from Solutions <ul><li>What are solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they form solutions? </li></ul>
Mineral Groups <ul><li>3000 Minerals found in the Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 30 are common. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Silicates <ul><li>Silicon is 2 nd  most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of silicon and ox...
Examples of Silicates Mica Quartz
Carbonates <ul><li>Minerals composed of one or more metallic elements with CO 3 </li></ul>
Examples of Carbonates Limestone Marble Coquina Malachite
Oxides <ul><li>Compounds of Oxygen and a metal. </li></ul>
Examples of Oxides Hermatite Magnetite
Other Mineral Groups <ul><li>Sulfides – pyrite </li></ul><ul><li>Halides – halite (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><li>Silver </li></u...
Mineral Identification <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul...
Luster <ul><li>The way a mineral reflects light </li></ul>metallic vitreous resinous greasy pearly silky
Streak <ul><li>The color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered. </li></ul>
Hardness
 
Cleavage <ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage   is when a mineral   breaks along its planes of weakness.  Flat smooth surfaces usually...
Fracture <ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture  is   when a mineral does not break along a plane of weakness.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Specific Gravity <ul><li>Specific gravity  is the ratio of  the density of the mineral to the density of water. </li></ul>
Acid Test <ul><li>Acid test  is when a drop of hydrochloric acid is dropped on a mineral.  If it fizzes it is either calci...
Minerals Review <ul><li>How many minerals are found in Earth’s crust? </li></ul><ul><li>a. 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 2000 ...
Minerals Review <ul><li>Which of the following is a part of the definition of a mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>a. liquid </li>...
Minerals Review <ul><li>What property causes the mineral galena to break into tiny cubes? </li></ul><ul><li>a. its density...
Mineral Review <ul><li>What would you use the Mohs scale of harness for? </li></ul><ul><li>a. to identify a mineral </li><...
Mineral Review <ul><li>Sapphires and rubies are both forms of the mineral corundum,  but they are different colors.  Why? ...
Geo Lab <ul><li>Read and complete </li></ul><ul><li>“Making a Field Guide to Minerals”  </li></ul><ul><li>on page 92-93 </...
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Minerals

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  • Earth’s crust is composed of about 3000 minerals Made of minerals? Pencil lead, windows, metal in chairs and poles.
  • Transcript of "Minerals"

    1. 1. Earth/Environmental Science Chapter 4 Minerals P Squires 2005-2006
    2. 2. Minerals <ul><li>A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and definite crystalline structure. </li></ul><ul><li>What object’s in the classroom are made of minerals? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Minerals are inorganic <ul><li>Have never or will never be alive. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Minerals are solids <ul><li>What have we learned are the characteristics of solids? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Minerals have Crystalline Structure <ul><li>Arranged in geometric patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal – a solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Minerals From Magma <ul><li>What is magma? </li></ul><ul><li>Magma -- a molten material found beneath the earth’s surface. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Minerals from Solutions <ul><li>What are solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they form solutions? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mineral Groups <ul><li>3000 Minerals found in the Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 30 are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals are made up of the 8 most common elements. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Silicates <ul><li>Silicon is 2 nd most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of silicon and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Can form tetrahedrons with single or double chains and sheet. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples of Silicates Mica Quartz
    11. 11. Carbonates <ul><li>Minerals composed of one or more metallic elements with CO 3 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Examples of Carbonates Limestone Marble Coquina Malachite
    13. 13. Oxides <ul><li>Compounds of Oxygen and a metal. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Examples of Oxides Hermatite Magnetite
    15. 15. Other Mineral Groups <ul><li>Sulfides – pyrite </li></ul><ul><li>Halides – halite (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul>
    16. 16. Mineral Identification <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage and Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Density and Specific Gravity </li></ul>
    17. 17. Luster <ul><li>The way a mineral reflects light </li></ul>metallic vitreous resinous greasy pearly silky
    18. 18. Streak <ul><li>The color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Hardness
    20. 21. Cleavage <ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage is when a mineral breaks along its planes of weakness. Flat smooth surfaces usually show planes of cleavage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Fracture <ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture is when a mineral does not break along a plane of weakness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conchoidal fracture is a curved shell shaped break (like on arrow heads) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Specific Gravity <ul><li>Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the mineral to the density of water. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Acid Test <ul><li>Acid test is when a drop of hydrochloric acid is dropped on a mineral. If it fizzes it is either calcite or dolomite </li></ul>
    24. 25. Minerals Review <ul><li>How many minerals are found in Earth’s crust? </li></ul><ul><li>a. 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>d. 4000 </li></ul>
    25. 26. Minerals Review <ul><li>Which of the following is a part of the definition of a mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>a. liquid </li></ul><ul><li>b. organic </li></ul><ul><li>c. synthetic </li></ul><ul><li>d. inorganic </li></ul>
    26. 27. Minerals Review <ul><li>What property causes the mineral galena to break into tiny cubes? </li></ul><ul><li>a. its density </li></ul><ul><li>b. the internal arrangement of its atoms </li></ul><ul><li>c. its hardness </li></ul><ul><li>d. its luster </li></ul>
    27. 28. Mineral Review <ul><li>What would you use the Mohs scale of harness for? </li></ul><ul><li>a. to identify a mineral </li></ul><ul><li>b. to find the mass of a mineral </li></ul><ul><li>c. to calculate the density of a mineral </li></ul><ul><li>d. to determine a mineral’s fracture </li></ul>
    28. 29. Mineral Review <ul><li>Sapphires and rubies are both forms of the mineral corundum, but they are different colors. Why? </li></ul>
    29. 30. Geo Lab <ul><li>Read and complete </li></ul><ul><li>“Making a Field Guide to Minerals” </li></ul><ul><li>on page 92-93 </li></ul>

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