Matter and             Energy:  Solids and LiquidsBasic Chemistry                    Rev. 02/20/03
Physical StatesSolid   Liquid        Gas              Plasma
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property    Solid     Liquid    GasPositionExpansionShapeVolumeCmprsbltyDensityMix...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property    Solid     Liquid     GasPosition     Fixed     Limited   RandomExpansi...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property     Solid       Liquid      GasPosition      Fixed       Limited RandomEx...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property     Solid       Liquid      GasPosition      Fixed       Limited RandomEx...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property     Solid       Liquid      GasPosition      Fixed       Limited RandomEx...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property    Solid    Liquid      GasPosition     Fixed    Limited RandomExpansion ...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property    Solid    Liquid      GasPosition     Fixed    Limited RandomExpansion ...
Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property    Solid    Liquid      GasPosition     Fixed    Limited RandomExpansion ...
Phase Changes
What are some phase changes Solid  Liquid   melting Liquid  Solid   freezing  Liquid  Gas    vaporization  Gas  Liquid...
Endothermic / Exothermic  Processes that give   off energy are called   exothermic.  Processes that absorb   energy are ca...
Endothermic or Exothermic ???Solid  Liquid  melting Endothermic                            ???Liquid  Solid  freezing   ...
Relate this to weather …Condensation of water vapor to rain drops gives off heat – exothermic.Evaporation of water to form...
Phase changes and the …   transfer of energySuppose you put a few drops ofalcohol on the back of your hand?   Why does it ...
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure  1. Consider a sealed container with water.      1             2           32. Some of the water 3. Some of...
Water / water-vapor equilibrium          A dynamic equilibrium          is established when the  vapor   rate at which liq...
The pressure of the  water vapor varies with thePressure gauge               temperature.      vapor                      ...
What’s theconnection betweenvapor pressure and     boiling?
Boiling occurs at thetemperature where the vapor pressure of the   liquid equals the  ambient pressure.
What is the boiling point of water here?Look at a        Water boils at sea level atvapor pressure   100 C where the ambie...
Temperature            Corresponding          vapor pressure in          mm Hg (or Torr)    At 100 C the    vapor pressure...
Therefore waterboils at 100 Cwhen the vaporpressure of waterequals theambient pressureof 760 mm Hg
Water boils atthe temperaturewhere the vaporpressure equalsthe ambientpressure.
When theambientpressure is 690,water will boilat thetemperaturewhere the vaporpressure is 690
Around 97 C
At different pressures …When the ambient pressure is very low, water can even boil at room temperature.  If the ambient pr...
Temperature          Corresponding        vapor pressure in        mm Hg (or Torr)
At different pressures …When the pressure is much higher than normal atmospheric pressure, water can stay liquid at temper...
Heat of Fusion        andHeat of Vaporization
Heat of FusionFuse means “to melt”The heat of fusion is the heat needed to melt one gram of a substance at the melting poi...
Latent heatSometimes the heat of fusion or heat of vaporization is called the latent heat, or the latent heat of fusion or...
Suppose you had a hot cup      of coffee …… and you wanted to cool it.   You could …1. Blow on it.2. Stick it in the refri...
By adding ice …… you cool the coffee because     the ice melts at 0.0 C,extracting heat from the coffee,     and cooling t...
Measuring the heat of fusion of ice                          Add iceAdd ice to calorimeter               Ti of hot        ...
The calculations are basedon conservation of energy. The heat lost by the hotwater is equal to the heatgained by the melti...
Q lost = Q gained  m hw c∆Thw = m i H fus + m i c∆Tiw                  Heat gained      Heat gained byHeat lost by hot    ...
Solve for Qf     the heat of fusion         Q lost = Q gainedm hw c∆Thw = m i H f + m i c∆Tiw      m hw c∆Thw - m i c∆Tiw ...
Heat of fusion data1.   Mass of calorimeter cup2.   Mass of cal cup and hot water3.   Mass of hot water4.   Initial temper...
Procedure1. Heat up water on hot plate2. Set up computer, load calibration file3. Set up “Graph in real time” parameters4....
Stop here, do the lab, then come       back.
Heat of fusion         Absorbs 334 J         per gramIce at     Melts (fuses)    Liquid0.0 C                       water a...
Heat of vaporization           Absorbs 2260 J           per gram Liquid       Vaporizes     Waterwater at                 ...
Sample problemFind the amount of heat needed to take 20.00 grams of ice at 0.0 C, melt it, heat it up to 100.0 C and compl...
Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram,
Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram, then it heatsup to 100.0 which takes 4.18 Jper gra...
Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram, then it heatsup to 100.0 which takes 4.18 Jper gra...
Solution – formulas and numbers Q tot = mH f + mc∆T + mH v Q tot = (20.00 g)(334 J/g) +   (20.00 g)(4.18 J/gC)(100.0 C) + ...
Distillation
Initial ObservationsA clear, colorless liquid has a strong, alcohol-like odor. When placed on a watch glass and ignited, i...
How could you separate a  mixture of two clear,   colorless liquids?   What if the liquids     have different     boiling ...
What does a“temperature vs time” graph look like for a    single liquid?
Heating curve               for a liquid              Temperature hits a              plateau as liquidtemperature        ...
Heating curve               for a liquid               Temperature rises               when all liquid istemperature      ...
Heating curve for two  liquids, A and B                  Boiling point                     time                  of liquid...
Fractional distillation can be used to separate the mixture into its various       “factions”. Isolate each fraction at   ...
Collecting the first fraction                    B                    3       A         Collect in the                 tim...
Collecting the second fraction                    B                    3        A        Collect in the                 ti...
Collecting the third fraction                    B                    3        A        Collect in the                 tim...
Predict what is in each tube   Test tube 1 May contain only A                    B                            Test tube 2 ...
Equipment setup for doingRing stand fractional distillation.and fingerclamp      thermometer or temperature probe         ...
Change the test tube in the beaker toRing stand      collect each fractionand fingerclamp      thermometer or temperature ...
Test the contents of each      test tube for …1. Odor – does it have an odor?   Is it strong or weak?2. Flammability – doe...
Record your observations    Start    End       Flam-TT# Temp    Temp Odor mability 1 2 3
Do the lab and  report yourfindings to the     class.
Phase Diagrams
Pressure   Phase Diagrams                              Vapor                            pressure              Temperature
A Phase Diagram of water …           Note           negative                                 VaporPressure           slope...
A Phase Diagram of water …Pressure                      760 mm Hg           0.0 C   100.0 C
Where does boiling occur?Pressure                        760 mm Hg                     100.0 C
Where does boiling occur?Pressure                          234 mm Hg                 70.0 C
Where does boiling occur?Pressure                   32 mm Hg              30.0 C
Where does boiling occur?           Boiling occurs at thePressure           temperature where the           vapor pressure...
Which region is which phase?Pressure            A      Liquid           Solid     B                                  C    ...
What are these transitions?                        liquid           solid                             2Pressure           ...
Transition 1 is …                         liquid           solidPressure             1                     melting        ...
Transition 2 is …                        liquid           solid                           2Pressure                       ...
Transition 3 is …                        liquid           solidPressure                    3                              ...
Transition 4 is …                        liquid           solidPressure                                 sublimation       ...
Transition 5 is …                        liquid           solidPressure                                Liquefying         ...
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6 matterandenergy

  1. 1. Matter and Energy: Solids and LiquidsBasic Chemistry Rev. 02/20/03
  2. 2. Physical StatesSolid Liquid Gas Plasma
  3. 3. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPositionExpansionShapeVolumeCmprsbltyDensityMixing
  4. 4. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansionShapeVolumeCmprsbltyDensityMixing
  5. 5. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShapeVolumeCmprsbltyDensityMixing
  6. 6. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShape Definite None NoneVolumeCmprsbltyDensityMixing
  7. 7. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShape Definite None NoneVolume Maintains Maintains AnyCmprsbltyDensityMixing
  8. 8. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShape Definite None NoneVolume Maintains Maintains AnyCmprsblty In-compress Slightly VeryDensityMixing
  9. 9. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShape Definite None NoneVolume Maintains Maintains AnyCmprsblty In-compress Slightly VeryDensity High High LowMixing
  10. 10. Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases Property Solid Liquid GasPosition Fixed Limited RandomExpansion V. limited V. limited infiniteShape Definite None NoneVolume Maintains Maintains AnyCmprsblty In-compress Slightly VeryDensity High High LowMixing Xtrmly slow Slow Fast
  11. 11. Phase Changes
  12. 12. What are some phase changes Solid  Liquid melting Liquid  Solid freezing Liquid  Gas vaporization Gas  Liquid condensation Solid  Gas sublimation Gas  Solid deposition
  13. 13. Endothermic / Exothermic Processes that give off energy are called exothermic. Processes that absorb energy are called endothermic
  14. 14. Endothermic or Exothermic ???Solid  Liquid melting Endothermic ???Liquid  Solid freezing ??? Exothermic Liquid  Gas vaporization Endothermic ??? Gas  Liquid condensation Exothermic ??? Solid  Gas sublimation Endothermic ??? Gas  Solid deposition Exothermic ???
  15. 15. Relate this to weather …Condensation of water vapor to rain drops gives off heat – exothermic.Evaporation of water to form water vapor absorbs heat, and cools the surroundings – endothermic.The formation of snow from water vapor gives off heat – exothermic.
  16. 16. Phase changes and the … transfer of energySuppose you put a few drops ofalcohol on the back of your hand? Why does it feel cold? Evaporation is an endothermicprocess and absorbs heat from the surroundings, your hand.
  17. 17. Vapor Pressure
  18. 18. Vapor Pressure 1. Consider a sealed container with water. 1 2 32. Some of the water 3. Some of the waterevaporates to make vapor condenses towater vapor make liquid water
  19. 19. Water / water-vapor equilibrium A dynamic equilibrium is established when the vapor rate at which liquid water evaporates into water vapor equals the rate at which water water vapor condenses into liquid water.
  20. 20. The pressure of the water vapor varies with thePressure gauge temperature. vapor Temp. Digital Thermometer Pressure 23 C water
  21. 21. What’s theconnection betweenvapor pressure and boiling?
  22. 22. Boiling occurs at thetemperature where the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the ambient pressure.
  23. 23. What is the boiling point of water here?Look at a Water boils at sea level atvapor pressure 100 C where the ambienttable. pressure is 760 mm Hg. The ambient Therefore, water pressure here is must boil between usually less than 95 C and 100 C, 700 mm Hg. usually around 97.5
  24. 24. Temperature Corresponding vapor pressure in mm Hg (or Torr) At 100 C the vapor pressure is 760 mm Hg
  25. 25. Therefore waterboils at 100 Cwhen the vaporpressure of waterequals theambient pressureof 760 mm Hg
  26. 26. Water boils atthe temperaturewhere the vaporpressure equalsthe ambientpressure.
  27. 27. When theambientpressure is 690,water will boilat thetemperaturewhere the vaporpressure is 690
  28. 28. Around 97 C
  29. 29. At different pressures …When the ambient pressure is very low, water can even boil at room temperature. If the ambient pressure is 17.5 mm Hg… …water would boil at 20.0 C.
  30. 30. Temperature Corresponding vapor pressure in mm Hg (or Torr)
  31. 31. At different pressures …When the pressure is much higher than normal atmospheric pressure, water can stay liquid at temperatures much higher than the normal boiling point, as in your car radiator.
  32. 32. Heat of Fusion andHeat of Vaporization
  33. 33. Heat of FusionFuse means “to melt”The heat of fusion is the heat needed to melt one gram of a substance at the melting point.The heat of fusion of ice can be found experimentally.
  34. 34. Latent heatSometimes the heat of fusion or heat of vaporization is called the latent heat, or the latent heat of fusion or vaporization.Latent heats can use the following symbols: Lf or Hf Lv or Hv
  35. 35. Suppose you had a hot cup of coffee …… and you wanted to cool it. You could …1. Blow on it.2. Stick it in the refrigerator3. Add ice to it.
  36. 36. By adding ice …… you cool the coffee because the ice melts at 0.0 C,extracting heat from the coffee, and cooling the coffee. The amount of cooling can be calculated using the heat of fusion of ice.
  37. 37. Measuring the heat of fusion of ice Add iceAdd ice to calorimeter Ti of hot Temp. water probe Tf of all Time water All ice melts Calorimeter Temperature with hot water
  38. 38. The calculations are basedon conservation of energy. The heat lost by the hotwater is equal to the heatgained by the melting iceand the water that comes from the ice.
  39. 39. Q lost = Q gained m hw c∆Thw = m i H fus + m i c∆Tiw Heat gained Heat gained byHeat lost by hot by ice as it “ice water” aswater as it cools melts to make it warms from water at 0.0 C 0.0 to Tf Hfus = heat of fusion hw = “hot water” i = “ice” iw = “ice water” c = 4.18J/gC Solve the equation for Hf
  40. 40. Solve for Qf the heat of fusion Q lost = Q gainedm hw c∆Thw = m i H f + m i c∆Tiw m hw c∆Thw - m i c∆Tiw Hf = mi
  41. 41. Heat of fusion data1. Mass of calorimeter cup2. Mass of cal cup and hot water3. Mass of hot water4. Initial temperature of hot water5. Final temperature of all water6. Mass of cal cup and all water7. Mass of ice added
  42. 42. Procedure1. Heat up water on hot plate2. Set up computer, load calibration file3. Set up “Graph in real time” parameters4. Mass calorimeter cup5. Add hot water and mass cup6. Get baseline temp. of hot water (~ 45 s)7. Add ice – monitor temp – get Ti and Tf from “Plot graph” and “examine data”8. Mass calorimeter cup and all water
  43. 43. Stop here, do the lab, then come back.
  44. 44. Heat of fusion Absorbs 334 J per gramIce at Melts (fuses) Liquid0.0 C water at Freezes 0.0 C Releases 334 J per gramHf = 334 J /g (80 cal/g)
  45. 45. Heat of vaporization Absorbs 2260 J per gram Liquid Vaporizes Waterwater at vapor at Condenses 100. C Releases 2260 J 100. C per gram Hv = 2260 J /g (540 cal/g)
  46. 46. Sample problemFind the amount of heat needed to take 20.00 grams of ice at 0.0 C, melt it, heat it up to 100.0 C and completely boil it away at 100.0 C.
  47. 47. Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram,
  48. 48. Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram, then it heatsup to 100.0 which takes 4.18 Jper gram per degree,
  49. 49. Solution – think about itIce at 0.0 C melts, which takes334 J per gram, then it heatsup to 100.0 which takes 4.18 Jper gram per degree, then thewater boils which takes 2260 Jper gram.
  50. 50. Solution – formulas and numbers Q tot = mH f + mc∆T + mH v Q tot = (20.00 g)(334 J/g) + (20.00 g)(4.18 J/gC)(100.0 C) + (20.00 g)(2260 J/g) Q tot = 60,240 J
  51. 51. Distillation
  52. 52. Initial ObservationsA clear, colorless liquid has a strong, alcohol-like odor. When placed on a watch glass and ignited, it burns, but not completely. Some nonflammable liquid remains. Is the liquid a pure substance? Is the liquid a mixture? Heterogeneous or homogeneous?
  53. 53. How could you separate a mixture of two clear, colorless liquids? What if the liquids have different boiling points?
  54. 54. What does a“temperature vs time” graph look like for a single liquid?
  55. 55. Heating curve for a liquid Temperature hits a plateau as liquidtemperature boils Boiling point of liquid time
  56. 56. Heating curve for a liquid Temperature rises when all liquid istemperature vaporized Boiling point of liquid time
  57. 57. Heating curve for two liquids, A and B Boiling point time of liquid B Boiling point of liquid A
  58. 58. Fractional distillation can be used to separate the mixture into its various “factions”. Isolate each fraction at each of the different boiling points.
  59. 59. Collecting the first fraction B 3 A Collect in the time 2 first test tube 1 what comes off in region 1.
  60. 60. Collecting the second fraction B 3 A Collect in the time 2 second test tube 1 what comes off in region 2.
  61. 61. Collecting the third fraction B 3 A Collect in the time 2 1 third test tube what comes off in region 3.
  62. 62. Predict what is in each tube Test tube 1 May contain only A B Test tube 2 A May contain both time 3 A and B 2 1 Test tube 3 temperature May contain only B
  63. 63. Equipment setup for doingRing stand fractional distillation.and fingerclamp thermometer or temperature probe sidearm boiling Jones condenser flask beaker or hot plate test tube
  64. 64. Change the test tube in the beaker toRing stand collect each fractionand fingerclamp thermometer or temperature probe sidearm boiling Jones condenser flask beaker or hot plate test tube
  65. 65. Test the contents of each test tube for …1. Odor – does it have an odor? Is it strong or weak?2. Flammability – does it burn? A lot or a little?Test by place a small amount on a watch glass and igniting it with a match.
  66. 66. Record your observations Start End Flam-TT# Temp Temp Odor mability 1 2 3
  67. 67. Do the lab and report yourfindings to the class.
  68. 68. Phase Diagrams
  69. 69. Pressure Phase Diagrams Vapor pressure Temperature
  70. 70. A Phase Diagram of water … Note negative VaporPressure slope pressure of water varies with temperature Temperature
  71. 71. A Phase Diagram of water …Pressure 760 mm Hg 0.0 C 100.0 C
  72. 72. Where does boiling occur?Pressure 760 mm Hg 100.0 C
  73. 73. Where does boiling occur?Pressure 234 mm Hg 70.0 C
  74. 74. Where does boiling occur?Pressure 32 mm Hg 30.0 C
  75. 75. Where does boiling occur? Boiling occurs at thePressure temperature where the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure.
  76. 76. Which region is which phase?Pressure A Liquid Solid B C Gas Temperature
  77. 77. What are these transitions? liquid solid 2Pressure 3 1 4 5 gas Temperature
  78. 78. Transition 1 is … liquid solidPressure 1 melting gas Temperature
  79. 79. Transition 2 is … liquid solid 2Pressure boiling gas Temperature
  80. 80. Transition 3 is … liquid solidPressure 3 freezing gas Temperature
  81. 81. Transition 4 is … liquid solidPressure sublimation 4 gas Temperature
  82. 82. Transition 5 is … liquid solidPressure Liquefying a gas by raising the pressure and gas 5 compressing it Temperature

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