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Representationandideologytvdrama

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Transcript

  • 1. Representation
  • 2. Why are the Media called the Media?
  • 3. Because they MEDIATE our view of reality. Producers Reality Texts Audiences
  • 4. Constructions of Reality • • • • How might the following media construct rather than reflect reality? TV News programme (by selecting which stories to “run” and which to ignore). TV crime drama A website for a charity A lifestyle magazine
  • 5. Representation – some definitions • Representation is the ability of texts to draw upon features of the world and present them to the viewer, not simply as reflections, but more so, as constructions (O’Shaughnessy & Stadler 2002). Hence, the images do not portray reality in an unbiased way with 100% accuracy, but rather, present ‘versions of reality’ influenced by culture and people’s habitual thoughts and actions (O’Shaughnessy & Stadler 2002).
  • 6. Representation of Social Groups • We often analyse representations in the media according to categories such as: • Age • Disability • Gender • Socio-economic grouping • Race • Nationality • sexuality
  • 7. Ideology • An ideology is a belief system that is constructed and presented by a media text. • Media texts represent the world in order to support a dominant ideology. • For example, newspapers often promote the dominant ideology of patriotism through their representation of race and nationality.
  • 8. Some Dominant Ideologies • Capitalism. The production of capital and consumption of surplus value as a life goal. • Patriotism. To love, support and protect one’s country and its people. • Marriage and family. The “right way” to live is to marry an opposite-sex partner and have children. • Male superiority. Men are more suited to positions of power, and more suited to decision-making at work and at home.
  • 9. Dominant Ideologies around the world • Many dominant ideologies are extremely culturespecific. For example: • Christian fundamentalism as a political force in the USA • Shariah law is some Muslim countries • The principle of individual freedom in the Netherlands • Dominant ideologies are central to people’s belief systems. It is often difficult or impossible to challenge them effectively.
  • 10. Hegemony • Hegemony is the way in which those in power maintain their control. • Dominant ideologies are considered hegemonic; power in society is maintained by constructing ideologies which are usually promoted by the mass media.
  • 11. Examples of hegemonic values • • • • • The police are always right It is important to be slim A credit card is a desirable status symbol Mass immigration is undesirable The poor are lazy and deserve their hardship • Men are better drivers than women • It is important to wear fashionable clothes
  • 12. Stereotypes • Stereotypes are characters in a media text who are “types” rather than complex people. • Stereotypes are often defined by their role, such as “bad cop” or “nice old lady”. • Children’s media texts often use stereotypes so a young audience can identify quickly with the characters. • Stereotypes are usually negative representations, considered to be too reductive. Many are considered offensive, such as a “drunken Irishman”, a “fanatical Muslim” or an “over-emotional woman”.
  • 13. Extension/restriction of our experience of reality • By giving audiences information, media texts extend experience of reality. • Every time you see a media text, you extend your experience of life but in a second-hand way (vicarious). • However, because the producers of the media text have selected and constructed the information we receive, then our experience is restricted.
  • 14. Add your own definition of: • • • • Hegemony Ideology Representation Stereotype to your technical glossary
  • 15. Advert analysis • How would you analyse this image? • Who is represented and how?
  • 16. The Sophie Dahl “Opium” Ad Expensive, aspirational accessories Exposed nipple – a broken taboo Purple velvet – connotes royalty & luxury Idealized female form enhanced using Photoshop Sexually submissive pose
  • 17. Get used to looking at the images from different media texts Who is being represented and how? Is it a positive or negative representation? Does it conform to a stereotype? Does it demonstrate any dominant ideologies/hegemonic value?
  • 18. “Sony PSP – Now in White”
  • 19. When watching TV drama ask yourself • Who is represented in this clip? • Is there any dominant idelogies/hegemonic values present?
  • 20. Shameless
  • 21. Make sure you know Your definition of: •Hegemony •Ideology and •Representation And that’s its on your blog. It needs to be in your own words.

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