Urban Interlude ( Lund Sweden )


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Urban Interlude ( Lund Sweden )

  1. 1. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude 1
  2. 2. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Table of contents Personal Vision………………………………………………………………….. 3 About Composing in Architecture……………………………………………….5 Look Through the ears……………………………………………………………6 Acoustic Focus………………………………………………………………….....7 The Search of the Concept inside the Architecture…………………….....8 The Soundscape Concept…………………………………………………….….9 Dimensions and Perception in the Soundscape………………………………10 The Sequencer of The sound Space…………………………………………...12 Esthetical Language of Sound. Music And Architecture………………………...…………….13 Music And Architecture Concepts……………………………………………....14 Rhythm…………………………………………………………………………….14 Harmony………………………………………………………………………...…16 Frequency…………………………………………………………………………18 Scale……………………………………………………………………………….19 Architectural Aim…………………………………………………….……………20 Choosing a Site………………………………………………………………...…21 Sketches…………………………………………………………………….……..25 Urban Interlude ( The proposal )……………………………………………...…28 Presentation Layout………………………………………………………………36 Renders…………………………………………………………………………….41 2
  3. 3. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Personal Vision Most architects turns deaf ears to sounds they produce themselves in their buildings every day. Sound perception is an user-oriented-instant-contact modality, a way of Architecture is not only a form, light, sound or materials, but the integration of perception almost unconscious, which let us understand that hearing is the only sense everything. (Tadao Ando) which doesn’t unplugs and is always on constant work. Many architects are unfamiliar When we talk about sound, it comes to our mind something elemental and common, or unconscious of the infinite possibilities which are to be found when working with related with the day-to-day. Sound delivers us valuable information on the medium in acoustic intended architectonic spaces. Lights, shape, dimensions, colors, and which we live, that cognitive process is related with our mental processes of learning materials, among others, are employed for this purpose. But let’s keep Sound aside. and association, reasoning, memory, judgment and information related to emotion, With Sound you can realize architectonic creations, a definite intention can be defined, feelings and even the way of being of things. a message, but also we can understand the behavior of the sound, as a set of acoustic Humans live surrounded of sensations which are located in the regular space where he manifestations which as a whole can be the closest to music, which is a very well or she develops, their assimilation often goes unnoticed as they are recorded on our studied and methodical discipline, created intentional and intuitively by man, that has subconscious, where one the most important senses is Hearing, also the leading sense qualities applicable to Architecture, which is referred by many as frozen music. on most occasions. The contextual-environmental information which we receive through hearing delivers data on the components of the acoustic environment, The Soundsphere or the set of characteristic sounds and sound objects of a determined context and its spatial qualities. Hearing can provide us with the guidelines to associate sounds with places, objects, people, colors, temperatures between many physical situations which make us go from intangible to tangible, but is sound intangible or invisible? Different physical manifestations can imply or demonstrate that sound posses form, structure and properties which set them away from the ethereal or the imaginary. Architectonic spaces often lack of proper or correct acoustics planning, where the “Acoustic Intention” is the most outstanding characteristic to start to comprehend the creation of architectonic objects destined to be used by beings which have senses that go beyond the reach of Sight and the free inclinations towards disposable and useless aesthetics. Acoustics is not visible. Acoustic energy is invisible and often poorly represented on visual terms. Frequently, the vast majority of architects attributes sound or acoustic to determined spaces, as theaters, opera houses, concert halls, cinemas, auditoriums, etcetera. 3
  4. 4. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The perception and the use of the senses is something which has no rules, which is Schafer contends that we suffer from an overabundance of acoustic information and personal and individually unique for each human being, but we must understand that explores ways to restore our ability to hear the nuances of sounds around us. This there are situations, objects, different type of shapes, that stimulates us in similar ways, book is a pioneering exploration of our acoustic environment, past and present, and an setting guidelines to understand themselves as a whole or a society and establish attempt to imagine what it might become parameters to propose our own designs. There is no silence for the living. R. Murray Schafer, in “Voices of Tyranny, Temples of Silence” We don’t have eyelids for the ears. We are condemned to hear I hear with my small ear… Most of the sounds I hear area bounded to things. I use the Sounds as evidence to identify such things. If they are hidden, the sounds shall reveal them. I hear across the jungle, just around the corner, and, above the hills. Sound reaches places which sight can’t Sound dives underneath the surface Sound penetrates through the heart of things. If it ceased to take into consideration the things to which it is bounded the Phenomenology world disappears. I turn blind. I am dragged Sensually by the vast music of the Universe Everything in this world has its sound- even the quiet objects… In acoustics, the sum is equal to a difference The sounds talk to me about spaces, whatever they are small nor big, narrow Or wide, interior or exterior. The echoes and reverberation give me Information about the surfaces and obstacles. With a little practice I can start to hear “acoustics shadows”, as blind people do. The auditory space is very different from visual space. We found our selves Always in the edge of visual space, looking inside of it With our eyes. But always we found ourselves in the center of The auditory space, hearing outside our ear. In consequence, the visual consciousness is not the same as aural consciousness. Aural consciousness is centered. I do not find myself always in the heat of the sound universe. I talks to me in its many tongues. It talks to me in the tongue of the gods. 4
  5. 5. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude About Composing in architecture Composing has always been a goal in Architecture, which, in many cases, is simply a Composition examples random chance or an element surprisingly unthought-of, after having executed a complete process of design. This is due to many factors, understandable and complex in some occasions, as the economy, politics, social doctrines, cultural systems, and etcetera. Composing is a method of individual and personal nature, bounded to the self expression of a way or a manner to create something, which leads into practice, reaches its purest state in what we call method. The architectural methodology is one of the most important tools when we talk about the identity of an architect for it is the way in which he or she faces a new proposal and its management, it is a process that, as a response to conceptual and spatial stimuli, it forms an execution system, that expresses and compliments itself in a proposal whose creative processes have a sole coherence and a reason to be final, which will be reflected at the resultant object. The method is the ideal form to face spatial dilemmas in Architecture, each one Unique and Individual, being the key to start the creative process, the management of our new spaces. First of all, the composition is the root tool of architecture, the order of the elements of the space is fundamental in the function of the architect, in the way to understand the environment in which we live, will have its particular processes of observation, deduction, approach and intuition applied at the same time. The election and later execution of an architectural method is but a reflection of influences, studies, ways of being, the person that conducts the proposal, all together as breakthroughs of personal and essential matter for a creative process that depends of the criterion of it to apply the adequate method. The questions that come about when we deal with a new proposal are: why, what for, what, where, for whom, being all of them important, but they don’t have a reason to be without a how. How do we face the challenge that a proposal involves? Which tools area adequate? Which are the steps to elaborate an architectural object? The response is the Method. En every discipline that involves creativity the method applied is score, where Music Sound Wave can be found, which maintains and confirms one idea, order, that plays a key role not only in space, but also in time. 5
  6. 6. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Different enviroments and different acous c sensa ons Look through the ears A cavern and its universe of echoes.. Ar s c representa on of the sounds within the city The intermi ent movement of people and its sounds Look through the ears… The information that the environment delivers us which is perceived by our senses is the one that participates in our memory building memories, reactions and reflexes are the way for a response or determined behavior, for particular stimulance. Distant sounds are mixed with near sounds When senses are combined, the assimilation of the medium make us fusion ourselves crea ng soundscapes with our environment and to interact with it. Sounds are capable of making our senses take part among them, proving us with sensations, which assimilated in our memory can deliver us valuable and associative- oriented- information towards the circumstances we are experiencing. A sound can talk about space, its depth, height, and materiality. The acoustic reflection can indicate us in which point are we located in relationship with a surface, proximity, distance, all of these which make sound a basic tool of orientation. The noise of a city is understood with a simple image In a critical situation, we can compare sound with wind, which assimilate each other in their invisibility, but, the question is what is really that gives us evidence of their existence? The answer is in the reaction. Action and reaction are the conditions for narrowing the sound studio scope, in which we find according to vectorial geometry, an appliance spot of focus, sound emitter and one of more receptors or simply varied focuses and one sole receptor. The tranquillity also owns sounds 6
  7. 7. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Acoustic Focus Sounds are part of reactions that manifest through waves, mostly perceptible by man, for we are not capable of hearing all the sounds but a limited spectrum, which is part of our daily registry, which helps us to associate sounds and sensations according to the memory and experience. By understanding the sounds as part of the identity of things we shall start by breaking down qualities which can give us a hint on how to acquire the sound as a fundamental tool for our projects. each thing with its sound…. Sound is part both of the ambiguous and the universal but by recognizing the qualities of sound, proper of each thing; we are assuming each thing posses a sound. The events, circumstances and sound manifestations can find its purest form in the beautiful discipline known as Music. The composition in music is very important, if we take it consideration for creating music, as the basic method for creating music, the musical structure has very different Music has qualities in its purest state, which are Rhythm, Timming, Harmony, Pulse, qualities for each style, as music itself, in which we can find guides and components , among others, which are fundamental pillars of this discipline which are applicable for which related inside a score in different ways can generate infinite results, but ideally, every moment in architecture. what we are looking for is the planned result, since music is not a random product, If we put together technical aspects of sound (acoustics) with the configuration of Order made with a purpose and that responds to several circumstances. of the Music, which is the commanding element of all the sounds, we find a very useful Culturally music has been an instrument of expression and communication for way to lead architecture towards our projects goals and achieve in many different ways thousands of years, which keep us related to architecture. On its purest state music Harmony. delivers personal sensations which can be shared, according to our understanding and collective memory. Music structure pretends to narrate a fact through time, since each music piece has a beginning and a determined end, but it is there where it turns interesting, as music has the ability to keep in our mind, as a melody, rhythm, phrase, etc. And that makes us part of a transcendental and memorable occasion, which make us think that our architecture must endure not only physically but also sensitively. Each component of our architectural objects that range from a chair to a skyscraper has its own language and qualities; it has its own composition that makes it unique, with similitude with music, rhythm, frequency, proportion. Briefly, it all consists of a structure, not only in terms of function of use but also of its concept. The conceptual will be the guide to define our proposal, with a more delicate eye towards intention and the expression of idea and architectural concept. 7
  8. 8. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Search of the concept inside of Sound Urban Space in Kobe, Japan 8
  9. 9. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Soundscape Concept When heavy noise frequently occurs in our surrounding the human instinct is to stop the noise, or at least stop the noise from reaching our hearing sense. When the later Defining Soundscape method is used, whether it is by holding your hands over your ears or by using The term soundscape originates from the early 1970s and the work of R. Murray headphones designed to block external sound, all sound disappears, even sound that Schafer and his colleagues at the Simon Fraser University in Canada . we need to maintain social and contextual awareness. The definition of the word soundscape is “an environment of sound” with emphasis on Research has shown [3] that staying for a long period of time in an environment where the way it is perceived and understood by its community and the individuals present. sounds are completely absent causes a feeling of isolation and insecurity. Man The use of the term soundscape in this article will refer to an artificially enhanced requires a background of sounds for normal functioning and also for satisfaction . sound based environment. Four different classes of sounds emerged from the studies Conclusions on the study made on the research center and Acoustic of the Internoise of Schafer. These classes were: company of August 2009 Ottawa Canada. • Keynotes • Signals • Soundmarks • Sound romances A keynote sound is the tonal centre of a soundscape. For example the keynote of an ocean town would be the sound of the sea. The hum of the computer hard drive is the keynote for many of our work environments. An infrequent and also alarming informational sound is classified as a signal. A police siren or email alerts are typical examples. A soundmark is the acoustic equivalent of a land mark. It sonically distinguishes and identifies a particular location. Finally, sound romances are those sounds that inspire a feeling of for instance nostalgia or remembrance. The different classes of sound described above are important to remember when creating artificial soundscapes. The user shouldn’t for instance be presented with a soundmark that differs from the actual location of the user. Dangers of Noise vs. Silence When considering noise in a work area from the perspective of the workers habituating it you might ask what this is doing to the workers and their ability to perform their tasks. Roland Rylander who is a researcher in the field of environmental health says that a common reaction of noise is a feeling of disturbance of ongoing activities such as work tasks. This feeling is usually referred to as “annoyance”. A long-term exposure of noise can however lead to more serious effects such as strong feelings of exhaustion and defeat. 9
  10. 10. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Dimensions and perception in the soundscape The figure exposed above shows the sensations that are experimented in a city inside the soundwalk or urban trip of the sound using four key concepts for meditating in the sound landscape: Cacophony: mix of negative sounds Hubbub: mix of positive sounds Constant Sound: that doesn’t change and is permanent in the environment. Reprieve: short term changes on sounds. The organization or position of the different elements are organized in tow main axes: cacophony and constant repriev that will change and evolve, interacting inside the soundscape. The change, the evolution and dynamic change of the different sound sources will have its music in axes, for example: Train, voices, water, heels, bells, air conditioning, airplanes, brakes, people selling, traffic, lights, alarms, metro, speakers, paper and plastic bags, music, construction, maintenance, bicycles, small children, buses, incidental sounds, market, mechanical noise, natural sounds, people in general. All these components are an analogy of the way in which instruments blend into an orchestra, which can be related in the change of punctuation in music, but the question is, which of these elements give order to an urban symphony? The language for interpreting this situation we can find clearly in the Music, due to its aesthetic way of representing sound. For composing with these elements it must be considered the search of a positive environment where the sum or rest of the components and its adequate organization in the landscape has as a result the vitality in the mixture of sources of sound and its mutation inside the course of time. The relationship between architecture and sound begins to turn clearer, when we get close to the basic concept of Composition, which deliver us elements for ordering then in terms of time and space. Urban Noise 10
  11. 11. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The different fields of investigation must have a conceptual frame in order give form to possible theories that give strength to the subject of soundscape. For example, putting individual sources inside a spatial area, each source has its properties potentially variable and quantifiable, as intensity. Each source interacts in the landscape for producing the global effect that we get to hear in the end. One of the most simple aspects to evaluate in a city or urban situation, is the activity, which is generally supported by the purpose it is aimed for that is the elaboration of a route that, generally, the elaboration of a route is a study of the fundamental pillars for demonstrating the theories that come from determined studies for each urban component. Inside the study routes it is very important to set the objectives and measuring parameters that must operate based on the objectives of our architectural proposals linked to the Soundscape. Some study parameters can be resumed in some specific points, for example: What is being heard in the moment in which the study takes place? Which are the attractive or focus points in the area? Outstanding aspects of the place Main orientation points Mechanisms of operation of the place Aspects that have more influence in the Soundscape Qualities and character of space Types of User Inside of what can be marked as study points, it is important to focus the attention on the perception in human awareness of the environment of the city, for example, to study the possible stimuli of the landscape of making the user feel and determined scale of qualification, for example: calm, relaxation, commodity and tranquility, vitality and excitation, sympathy or apathy among others. Moments on the city……. 11
  12. 12. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The sequencer of Sound Space The components of a city are very similar from one to another, but what makes the difference is the order where they are available in the landscape. Each one has its own essential characteristics that distinguish from its equals. In the cities, one of the most important study cases is the urban circuit, which corresponds to a fundamental characteristic of mobility of each urban landscape. Each urban component has its reason to be and the determined position that created for the function that fulfills as natural it is part of dynamic plot in constant move and changed through time is also part of a urban sequence of facts that responds in different ways to each user in the city. Fundamentally we must understand the city as a mean in constant movement despite having components apparently static but: where is the movement and where does it manifest? The urban user is the one that determines the daily mechanic of the city, giving shape to the connection between the components. The urban connectivity in occasions use to have a discontinuity that generates urban vacuums in which the use transforms into a spontaneous and improvised urban recycling, going from transforming the different places of the city, due to the lack of physical consistence in the programming of the components, these places known as bomb-sites and belong also to a hidden grid inside of the city, but are responsible of breaking the basic urban sequence of pause that belong to the use. The urban sequence is constructed by qualities that are moving and mutating space after space, like an armed chair by the characteristics of each urban area, for example, a commercial area will be followed by a pedestrian area which will be connected with a plaza, a parking lot, a bus terminal, a train station, etc. which is not a rule to follow on its self, but according to this example, what is the link between each component? The use is the factor to be analyzed as it trespasses from one zone to another, transferring Pedestrian ways , plazas, railway sta ons, Bus Stops, Streets..Some urban components.. utilities and necessities, like the pause, the promenade, the search, the transfer, etc. 12
  13. 13. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Esthetic Language of Sound Music and Architecture Esthetic Language of Sound The sounds associate with events that have an essential meaning, which is proper of each object and situation. Architecturally, there is evidence of a difficulty, a lack in the use of the language to be represented or describe the sound and the soundscape among all. This lack of language can refer to the need of an esthetic of sound and that maybe reflect the predominance of the visual in the design and conceptualization of the environment. The Partiture 13
  14. 14. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Rhythm Music and Architecture concepts Urban sound walks spectrum .The images, below, In a general way rhythm is a flow of controlled movement or a measured one, related to represent the sound files those sounds produced, sound or sight, generally produced by a sort of different elements of the environment. digital noise-maps of urban space. The rhythm is a basic characteristic of all the arts, especially music, the poetry of dancing. It can also be detected in natural phenomenon. There is rhythm in infinite activities that govern the existence of all living beings. Those activities are related to the rhythmical process of the geophysical phenomenon like oceanic tides, solar day, moon calendar and season change. For architecture, the rhythm transform into a complex tool that generally is linked to factors unthought-of and related to chance, but if planned it can obtain controllable results that will provide that quality tool in order to wield in every moment while our projects turn to life. Order in music is an aspect that must be understood as it is necessary and inherent to architecture, our labor as architects is to order space, inhabit it and understand it, its expressions, its conformation, its chemical state and above all its condition of every changing environment, sometimes dynamic, sometimes static, but always been read in terms of movements. From the minor scale, from the individual to the general one, man has movements proper of its necessity and objectives, that from a chair to a city street in the city, they will be an implicit response in time with a beginning and end and in a specific spot in space. It is like that how human behavior before the daily bases is governed by temporal rules, that blend the act and the presence in the different places of our surroundings, like a street, a plaza in the city, a bus station, a magazine kiosk, etc, each on with its own rhythm and each one surrounded by rhythms according to function and use. Many architects overlook, according to scale, the rhythms in a city where the urban planner generally dismiss small things, like a dead end street, a narrow sidewalk, a traffic jam, etc, overlooking the mix of situations that exist daily where one of the most determinant aspects will be mix, fusion and clash of rhythms. Speaking in urban terms and making reference to what is necessarily obvious, the city is a true symphony of hymns, each one responding from an individual scale until we find what is collective; the people, the cars and bicycles, the magazine seller, the pizza delivery boy and even people drinking alcohol in the main plaza have their rhythmical behavior, that determines the daily variations of the environment in which we develop. 14
  15. 15. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Rhythm in music refers to the frequency of repetition, at regular intervals and in certain irregular occasions of strong sounds and weak ones, long ones, brief ones, high pitch and low pitch ones) in a composition, that composition can be translated to Architecture in a very simple way: that composition that can be translated into architecture in a very simple way: the architecture is a composition that will be part of the final work. Under my personal philosophy architectural must not generate by itself, like an sculpture or a piece of complacency. The Architectural rhythm has, like any living being, a structure that makes it a temporal essence, that make places unique. The Musical Rhythm is closely related to the user’s moods, to different conditions, that can be controlled if they open conceptual doors and techniques. In a general sense, it is a flow of movement controlled or measured, visual or sound related, generally produced by the order of different elements in the environment. Rhythm is a basic characteristic of all the arts, especially music, poetry and dance. It can also be detected in the natural phenomenon. There is rhythm in the infinite activities that govern the existence of all living beings. Rhythm has a lot to do with defining the compass, the type of compass that defines the Ritmic pattern accent and the music figures that compose it. If we make a simply analogy as an example, the accents can be exemplified in the events or functional milestones and if we talk of a city like a score or stave, these will be represented by plazas, bus stations, pedestrian crossing (people walking), etc. In Music, rhythm is written with a stave only with the defining musical figure of the length of the pulse. If musical notes are added to the stave sounds appear. By adding the accents, figures and defined compass by the rhythm, the melody emerges. In other words, the rhythm is supported by the accents, according to the structure given. The melody gives shape to all of this. ordered elements in the timeline 15
  16. 16. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Harmony The term harmony comes from the Greek ἁρμονία, that means “agreement, concordance” and the verb is ἁρμόζω (harmozo) “adjust, connect”. The term harmony has many meanings, musical and extra musical ones, among them architectural in essence, related in some way with other. In general, harmony is the equilibrium of the portions between the different parts of a whole, and its result always connotes beauty. In music harmony is the discipline that studies the perception of sound in vertical shape or simultaneous in form of chords and the relation that is established with those of his environment. Like all human disciplines, the study of the harmony presents two versions: the descriptive study, that helps us to understand the environment and its existents moments at the moment of observation and the prescriptive study, that is, the condition of understanding the equilibrium of future interventions where the proportion, scale, use, time and space, that will have to be considered, among others, like rules for harmony. mathematical and rhythmic progressions forming the harmony The study of the harmony is only justified in relationship to western music, as the west is the only culture that has a polyphonic music, that is, a music that is used to execute different musical notes simultaneously and in a coordinated way. This way, the study of the harmony can have a scientific base, the norms and descriptions of the harmony have a relative scope conditioned culturally. This example to technical rates and a little boring, it is key for understanding how delicate the interpretation of the soundscape are in different cultural, social, weather conditions among others. To make harmony universal is a very delicate subject and it is difficult to achieve, for we can’t stop considering that harmony is a cultural subject too. In Western music, harmony is the sub discipline that studies the concatenation of different superimposed notes, that is: the organization of the chords. It is called chord in combination with one or more different notes that sound simultaneously, or that are perceived as simultaneous, though successive, like in an arpeggio, that in terms of architecture, become dually, complex, subtle and helpful, as the simplicity of 3 elements, can give us an approximation of an architectural method, usable and applicable if we loyally respect the conditions of harmony from the minimum, for example, the points that are needed for a plane, that is three. 16
  17. 17. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Can we generate our own chords in our architecture? The harmonic combination is mandatory function of the Architect, that doesn’t pretend being sculpture or using the architecture as an excuse for art, the construction of new spaces through existing spaces and that of the existing will be the first step to achieve it. Melody, counterpoint and harmony are totally interrelated. Traditionally, harmony works as escort, shell and base of one or more melodies. The melody (horizontal dimension of the music) is a succession (trough time) of sounds belonging to chords, that are enriched by sounds that adorn and soften , and produce expressive effects, complimenting the previous ones thanks to the subtle one that engage the chords in which that melody is based (integrating in a perfect way the harmony). The Ianis Xenakis Example Sainte Marie de La Toure e is a Dominican Order priory in a valley near Lyon, France designed by the architect Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis and constructed between 1956 and 1960. Le Corbusier's design of the building One of the most graphic example and literal texts and extremes of the sound and began in May, 1953 with sketches drawn at Arbresle, France outlining the basic shape of the building and [1] architecture relationship by means of musical language is the work made by Iannis Xenakis, terrain of the site. La Toure e is considered one of the more important buildings of the late Modernist style. Greek composer and architect, who experimented with the rhythmic decomposition and musical series and compasses, standing the individual behaviors of each element, called event, establishing its own probabilistic and statistics laws, composing in base of the lineal order. He used to transform polyphonies in dense acoustic masses, with a conception of the time and space enough to generate and create atmospheres with his music. Inside his philosophy he formulated the existence of sound events formed by thousands of sounds isolated from a multitude of sounds, as a whole, that is a new sound event on its theoretical conception. The articulation of the massive events, on base of temporary flexible molds has been one of my inspirations in this experimental challenge. Metastasis, also ''Metastaseis'', is an orchestra work for 61 musicians by [[Iannis Xenakis]]. His first major work, it was written in 1953-54 One of his main works is the convent of Sainte Marie de la Tourette (1953), worked together after his studies with Olivier Messiaen and is 8 minutes in length. with Le Corbusier, it main contribution was the harmonic and rhythmical progression of this projects, which has very characteristic strokes of a music score on its early stages, showing figures rhythmically aligned, vertical elements defining spaces, mathematical geometric and ''Metastasis'' was inspired by the combination of an Albert Einstein|Einsteinian view of time and harmonic succession, of simple and dynamic frequencies. Xenakis' memory of the sounds of [[war]]fare, and structured on mathematical ideas by Le Corbusier. Music usually consists of a set of sounds ordered in time; music played backwards is hardly recognizable. Messiaen's similar observations led to his noted uses of non-retrogradable rhythms; Xenakis wished to reconcile the linear perception of music with a relativistic view of time. In warfare, as Xenakis knew it through his musical ear, no individual bullet being fired could be distinguished among the cacophony, but taken as a whole the sound of "gunfire" was clearly identifiable. The particular sequence of shots was unimportant: the individual guns could have fired in a completely different pattern from the way they actually did, but the sound produced would still have been the same. These ideas combined to form the basis of ''Metastasis''. 17
  18. 18. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Frecuency Frequency is a measure used generally for indicating the repetitions that in every moment or periodical events in the unit of time. The frequency has an inverse relationship with the concept of Length of Wave (see graphic 1 and 2) a mayor frequency shorter length of wave and vice versa. The frequency f is equal to the speed v of the wave, divided by the length of wave called wave λ (lambda) The frequency in architecture, it is equal to other aspects of order, like rhythm, one of the systems of measure forgotten at the moment of observing, especially when it deals with man and the use that gives space inside the line of time. Each persons, each situation, presents a distant frequency, conditioned by factors, like work schedules, the time of lunch, wait for the bus, the relaxation in a plaza, the bicycles in a corner, etc. speaking in urban terms, the frequency will be a dynamic element, belonging to each thing, master of temporary patterns and predictable situations, that help to understand with ease the daily succession of facts, acts and events that construct a daily dwelling. The acoustic representation of waves gives us a basic idea of the fluctuations that can be define in PH Ar choke (1958) is a 360-degree glare free luminaire created by 72 leaves, which shield the light source, a city, conformed by patterns that have its structure of high and low pitch, acute or bass, as redirect and reflect the light onto the underlying leaves, giving dis nct, unique illumina on. The PH Ar choke for example the comparison between a pedestrian and a transport vehicle. But beyond the is considered to be a classical masterpiece made by comparisons, the frequency is generally the accumulation of situations in a determined Poul Henningsen more than 40 years ago. moment, if we talk in urban terms, situations inside the temporality of seconds, days, months and years will have their own configuration, its functional tone height, its moment or peak, its climax, its depression an example of it, by example it is what happens in the plazas of the world in a city, where the frequency of spatial events, in the dynamic condition, finds moments of pause that will have a determined frequency, like a serious plaza, where the promenade and the dynamic of the pedestrian and the city, changing the sense, the rhythm, its transforms and acquire a curve in its peculiar way of understanding architecture called frequency. 18
  19. 19. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Scale In a general sense, what is called musical scale is the ordered consecutive succession of all the sounds in the particular sound environment, inside a simple and schematic way, these sounds are willing in ascending way (low to acute) though in a complementary way in descending order, each one in specific position inside the scale. Room Inspired by fractals The architecture, a scale could be assumed like the spatial proportion existing between the components of our media. The hierarchy applied in the extremes of urban tensions and its order, the succession of events related between them and united by spatial conditions in common, like for example the promenade in a commercial avenue and its shop windows, the sequence of use formed by the purchase, the promenade, the permanence, the departure, the arrival, the approximation. The practical schematization of spaces will give way to the architectural melody, embodied in the use and inside different scales can happen at the same time creating spatial dissonance in some cases. When a scale starts to get bigger the implicit appearance of the arpeggio is the real ramification, from time to time of fractal nature of the situations and facts in our environment, in the space. The arpeggio in the music is bounded to the execution, this comes from a questions: who executes architecture? Ideally it should be the man, as user and receptor of our proposals and those of others, but what if we are executers and interpreters? In the discipline called Architecture we must have the capacity of interpreting and executing, obviously with the implicit observation implied in order to be able to achieve harmony, in case of that being desired . 19
  20. 20. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Architectural Aim Inside the analyzed topics and proposals inside the conceptual framework, the elaboration of an architectural method applicable in a specific context is proposed, by using the theory terminology and personal conclusions as design parameters. The way in which the different elements, like rhythm, harmony, frequency, sounds cape, scale, arpeggio, among some, deduced from the analysis and observation of the urban context will be applied as a translation or conceptual interpretation by transporting the most remarkable aspects of an architectural object. The main idea is to use each concept as a flexible rule, manageable and adaptable by transforming the theory of these in methodical design guide as an spatial analysis instrument. In this experimental proposal, where architectural theory, philosophy and observation merges; this method as tool that embraces urban scales in different levels, from the general to the particular, ranging from a city to human scale, maintaining the character of composition, linked to music with its high and low-pitch melodies altogether with the melody in the city, its changes, nuances and components, its configuration, direction, temporality, among others. Sound as conceptual axis helps us to comprehend from other point of view the context in which we formulate and we place our proposals, as a new adaptable object of the environment and above all as a background of spatial comprehension. Urban lecture will be focused principally in terms of space proposed in the theoretical framework with its basic inclinations, techniques translated to simple acoustic and the generation of sound environments (soundscape). To sincronize this study the creation of an adaptable project for the city of Lund, generated with the mentioned instruments to try to demonstrate the application of this theory through an urban renewal plan of the selected sector. 20
  21. 21. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Choosing a Site Inside the urban context, personally my interest and fascination aims towards the concept of “the plaza”, as an spatial component inside the flows of a city. The pause and the walk are both a characteristic axis of every urban space and plaza, they are that little variable space with proper rhythms of the city in which we live. What’s interesting about the plaza concept which each of them might have, that makes it an spatial entity, is that for some people basically it is composed of trees and furniture for supporting the back and resting, but with and architectural eye, the richness of living sensations that make us get out of the sound and movement of the city inside spaces tensed by its functional axes which respond to the need of transition between dwelling space is simply sublime and unique. The plaza delivers us a common factor for the city or “barrio”, where the function of the spatial patella for understanding the reason to be of these objects. The quality of the plaza as an urban component and architectural object is one of the inspirations that give a soul to this project, basing mainly in the condition of intermediate space, which inspires something more in the conceptual and functional interpretation, emerging a question like: can we create a plaza that connects in different levels the city? We can take the basic elements of a plaza and use them in a functional composition. From this surges the idea of generating different types of pause inside the city and transform them into an object with the qualities of a plaza using both the pause and the walk as structuring elements. For that purpose three contiguous places have been chosen in the city of Lund, in the context of Ban Torget, close to the train station of the city, the three places reunite the conditions for the proposal. Strategically the location of the chosen sites have an spatial richness according to the exposed theory in the manifest, with diverse components and the dominant character inside the city, like the train, commercial avenues, massive flow of pedestrians, traffic, etc. And mainly the spatial physiognomy of urban pause spaces, from a plaza to a cemetery moving through an unifying element, that moves the pedestrian to inhabit different stages of this urban scale, proposed for uniting two important zones in which the city looses continuity, that is why the proposal has been baptized with the name of Urban Interlude, which in natural music terms means: “music piece located between two parts of a same work. 21
  22. 22. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Site Ban Torget Area, Lund Sweden. 22
  23. 23. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Urban Situa on Ban Torget Area, Lund Sweden. The most important pedestrian way marked with the arrow 23
  24. 24. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Urban Situa on Ban Torget Area, Lund Sweden. The first Formal Intentions. Pedestrian Rythm in Lund Geomettric references of the Site 24
  25. 25. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Sketches Urban Interlude Proposal Formal Study Urban Renewal Intentions Inside the proposal 25
  26. 26. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Sketches Urban Interlude Proposal Geometric analysis and design and approach.Inspired by Le Corbusier. 26
  27. 27. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude The Sketches Urban Interlude Proposal Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 27
  28. 28. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Urban Interlude The Proposal 28
  29. 29. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Zone 1 Spatial characteristics general and architectural object Following the axis of the pedestrian walk and respecting the existing diagonal in the Ban Torget, adapting the function to the first plan, like a dunk gallery towards the exterior, with the objective of creating interaction with the pedestrian frequently from a train station and from lilla fiskaregatan engulfing the walk in a visual interaction and coaxial to the sense of urban ways of human transit. -The proposed functional axis Hall of events and expositions of two levels and amphitheater located in Ban Torget. Conceptual framework -Design Parameters Rhythm Direction and orientation of the pedestrian ways The pedestrian transit and flow that surround the Ban Torget plaza suggest a circular Heights to be proportional to the function of the plaza and acoustic proposition movement, that is framed by a diagonal self traced in the center of the plaza by human Change of levels in the plaza for the generation of acoustic environment erosion of the pedestrian altogether to the spatial distention generated by the decompression of the urban scale at the moment of getting out from Lilla Fiskaregatan, Pedestrian runway accessible from the commercial avenue (Lilla Fiskaregatan). the pedestrian meets with a blend of rhythm, in a dialog generated by the bicycle roads -Spatial program and its cyclists, the urban transport and approximation, most of the users of the train station in direction towards of the city. a. Multiple use areas for exposition and events of formal urban and informal call The main axis, Lilla Fiskaregatan expresses a continuity that is broken and dissolve by b. Urban amphitheater, plaza decomposed in levels, proposal for gathering the urban the plaza Ban Torget, where the proper rhythm dragged from the continuous pauses of pause inside a public character informal space, the expression and reunion and the an avenue dedicated to commerce, it loses its physiognomy, this because of the generation of an acoustic space of comfort. proposal to reconstruct the lost rhythm, generating the elongation of the transporting line of people through a runway that in is development will have implicit too the pause in a different and focused way towards the connection of the proposed buildings. In formalistic terms the rhythm will be translated through vertical elements and those of ordering spatial hierarchy, like pillars, circular axes generated by acoustic structures, lines defined by walls and new pedestrian ways, among others. The compasses and urban sequences are framed by commerce and massive translation of people in the train station and are synchronized within the timeline erected inside the project, translated or represented on the pedestrian runway. Anfitheatre sketches 29
  30. 30. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Frequency Soundscape The behavior of the pedestrian walk is one of the most important aspect of the The open space of the Ban Torget and its environment, it is a condition of the city, proposal and it becomes the generatrix of a large part of the project, the succession of beyond the situation of the neighborhood. As each one of the sites chosen for this proposal, it pauses and linear tours that break generating new spaces, like the case of Iilla is one of the principal ones in reference to the pedestrian and spatial decompression Fiskaregatan, in contrast with the streets around it. Like main axis and latent that takes place at the moment of walking by Iilla Fiskaregatan, by finding inside an connection between the city center and the beginning of the urban division, marked by acoustic tunnel which crawls all the way this commercial way, the acoustic dilution that the train station and its divisor line, which obviously inspires that continuity that the site start to take importance as we approach to the site and find a group of undefined new needs through that linear barrier. The use of the Ban Torget plaza is nowadays sounds generated by the diverse functional situations in the place. What is proposed in undefined in terms of Order, so it is proposed to reorder the plaza, keeping its condition terms of soundscape is to isolate the noises and generating a new environment, in and generating new spaces according to the tour, like the interactive gallery, open terms of vectors distributed for generating a new acoustic environment, cleaner, more towards the main diagonal in function to the direction and sense of the urban user of defined and with more intensity for producing a moment inside the translation inside the the site, having into consideration that one of the strategic objectives of the position of city. The inspiration is born by the observation referred to the tunnel has set the pace to the areas of the proposal is to attract the pedestrian towards the interior of it without work with this idea of the urban prolongation and renewal implicit to it, helping at the any struggling in between. same time the generating idea of a thematic pedestrian runway with its own acoustic content, adding an extra soundscape inside this architectural object that will provide Harmony different acoustic sensations in the translation of the pedestrian and minor scale The Urban Scale happens in this new rubric, assuming the existing proportion in terms distension by mixing the new walkways with the existing buildings, in a functional and of heights and hierarchies, the space generated by the buildings in the complement to conceptual way for incorporating the city to the project and the project to the city. the empty space that starts in the site of the proposal that works as a guideline to start to work this transition in harmonic terms of shape, for example the proposed heights in the amphitheater and its function in relation to the pedestrian movement, the equilibrium between the parts of the city and the proposal are to be expressed in the defined strokes by use and existing function, with clean geometries deduced or inspired in the movement of the site. The proportion between the parts is to be determined by their objective and according to the intention of the place, for example, bleaches for a maximum capacity of 400 people in the amphitheater area, or meeting spaces roofed at the interior by galleries, for over 200 people. 30
  31. 31. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Zone 2 Spatial Program Spatial characteristic and architectural object a- Multiuse program building focused towards the use as gallery and urban commitment towards pedestrians. Inside the existing function in the place, comprehended by the train station the b- New parking underneath bicycle level contiguous area to the subway, there is a space rich in spatial situations in terms of c- Renewal of the bus stop area urban walk and pause, by example, the bus stop, the bicycle transit, the arrival of new d- Terraces and new contextual communications through several mini runways passengers to the train, the use of any bench for resting, etc. all of these lacking a and stair of urban interconnection and of the proposal itself. proper spatial definition which is to be proper if the vocation of detention in the urban e- East runway: Access arm for interconnecting the proposal itself with the city timeline of the site. The spatial tensions between the station and this corner in the city through the connection with the station the participation in the layout generated indicate a good space foe rehabilitation and renewal of this urban continuity at an in the proposal. urban scale and the one of barrio or neighborhood with the incorporation of a new f- Min waterfall and pool next to the west runway. proposed use in the site. Inside this parameter the proposal will have its main building, generating in this proposal a layout which corresponds to the new planned compound. The proposed functional axis Gallery of three levels and bistro located in the west end of the train station of Lund by arriving by the subway, the incorporation of the renewed bus stop area terraces and having it reformulated, waterfall and water mirror next to the side arm of the runway, new and reorder bicycle park. Parameters of Design Inflect the crossed linearity, composed of the axis of Lilla fiskaregatan (east – west ) and Ban Gatan (North – south) Connect walkways by runways and the incorporation of the building to the city. Clean the surrounding pedestrian connection by the fluidity of movements of the urban user. Generate a space of inflection of the proposed height or levels, through elements of acoustic intention for the creation of the soundscape capable of delivering the sensation of fusion between the city and the proposal. Maintain the language of the vertical elements that respond to the virtual geometry and the existing tensions between urban silences, by means of empty and filled spaces functionally adapted. 31
  32. 32. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Conceptual Framework Frequency Rhythm The temporary daily patterns, marked by the schedule of train arrivals, the lunch hour, the closure hour of stores are not different from our general knowledge, but by The public transport and train user, plus the people that lives in the spaces of Iilla delimiting and defining them in hierarchal order it is a good exercise for finding the Fiskaregatan, as both commercial and pedestrian strategic way have one common correct way to dimension and position our proposals, as we have mentioned the orientation with directions the crossover in order to create a body of human acts, pedestrian is the main character of this experimental thesis. In Ban Gatan we have a marked from the diagonal of the Ban Torget plaza by the translation from this city key element for understanding the composition of the site in terms of frequency, called sector to the east sector in Trollebergsvagen through a divisory line described by the dynamic use, where the acts belong to a predictable pattern that repeats day after day, railroads. The cited urban sequence is divided in different acts that repreent the with schedules and weak variations enough for understanding the functional and detention, like rest at the plaza, wait for the bus, the buying of a train ticket inside the spatial physiognomy that ranges, from small scale to big scale, from the train station, train station, the cab, the street billboards, the street musician, all of them contained in having it equilibrium point in the corner formed by Ban Gatan and Trollevergsvagen. different spaces and disaggregated for promoting the loss of unity and the lack of an Having said this, it is proposed to balance this situation and feed the residual space in unifying element or sequencer element, physically defined in this routes. The route of urban term, by giving it a function and a defined spatiality. the human street flows and vehicle ones are marked basically by acoustic sensations, carried by the coming and going, going in and out, moving and stop, which without Harmony ceasing to be ordinary situations, loose this physiognomy and rhythm by meeting with Proportionally, the empty space between the train station and the corner marked Ban Torget that dilutes the condition for facing the city in a new way in a vacuum non between Ban Gatan and Trollevergsvagen has a harmonic structure in physical terms, respondent to the occupied space that generates it and its activities. Every situation but without functionality, according to the patterns mentioned above where the acquires more strength by reaching the main axis of the project, where the equilibrium between use and user has a tendency focused towards leaving the place disconnection becomes bigger because of the presence of Ban Gatan, that breaks any and using this rich space as a permanence space of reduced temporarily, which make possible continuity. The general idea in terms of rhythm is to surround the new building it loose presence of use and connectivity. It is proposed to equilibrate these situations with this rhythms through a function coherent with the pauses and walkways, like a with a space that receives and hosts the activity proposing the diversity of the gallery, a balcony, a restructured bus stop, a thematic runway and sectioned according walkways, with a permanent and structuring equalization of the transition towards the to its accessibility towards proposed buildings. east sector of the city comprehended by the small cemetery, the police building and the residential area around Trollevergsvagen. Soundscape The disturbing acoustic of the train, plus the permanent distraction of the collective locomotion, in the generation of an acoustic environment, that take us to the conclusion of creating a defined space in terms of sound, as it is a close building, but it is critically the contraposition of the idea of participating with the city, for what the acoustic impact has been carefully studied as also the possibility of a location and strategically located for creating an open building towards the city that it is not influenced by an eventual situation of noise or cacophony. One of the parameters to follow is isolating in acoustic terms the area that faces the railroad and creates a new acoustic environment disposed in vectors with vertical elements that create a sound tension between the existing buildings and the proposed buildings, as the elements of isolation form an important part of the design of the proposal. 32
  33. 33. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude "Space Program Zone 3 Library public use of three levels. General spatial characteristic and architectural objective. Acoustics Plaza The last track gateway The rehabilitation of the area and the proposition of a new physiognomy, New green areas restructuration and rethinking of the east sector between the railroad and cemetery, the Small Square last track of the runway from Ban Torget, generation of the major link towards the area Pedestrian access of the train station in its back access, acoustic plaza, mini runway sideway access, incorporate urban connection elements towards the project and acoustic response to the presence of the cemetery. - Proposed Functional axis Responding to the constant acoustic degradation presented in the proposal, from a noise in the city to the cemetery’s silence of the Sankt Peters Klosters, the creation of a space dedicated to resting, in this case it has been chosen the installation of a library of public character in the site and more marked resting spaces, belonging to the change of rhythm and direction of the proposal, as some are areas dedicated to contemplation, open lectures, acoustic isolation of public spaces and a treatment isolating similar to the central building, for isolating the sound in a railroad. -Parameter of Design Following the line of the runway and adapt it to the geometry comprehended in the cemetery. To treat acoustically the dedicated areas to spaces that will mark the more significant pause of the proposal following the logic given by the degradation of the acoustic intensity. Defining the encounter between the station on its backdoor and the proposal keeping the autonomy of the proposal in spatial terms. Connect the plaza between byggmästaregatan and trollevergsvagen and other urban external spaces to the body of the proposed object by using the walkways and pedestrian ways. 33
  34. 34. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude Conceptual framework Harmony Rhythm The proportions of this space are consistent with the presence of the church Sankt Peters klosters, as predominant contextual characteristic element, accentuated in the The third space to intervention is comprehended by the railroad and cemetery of the church proposal, setting free the area which nowadays is a parking lot, transforming it into a of Sankt Peters Klosters, characterized by its acoustic condition and the solitary position in plaza, also focused to unite the back sector of the train station of the trains in the new the urban landscape, this area has different spatial qualities according the proposed method, spaces. Harmonically, the city keeps its scale according to the extension of the site of the spatial distention and the rhythmic perception of the city, they all decay at this point to the landscape, accesses and street will be proportional to the use and the urban scale offer us a moment of rest from daily routine, like an oasis of lost sounds, interrupted by the of the proposal according to the gradually mentioned above. sound of the train. All of the mentioned above would have more strength if the enclosed rhythms inside the city and in the proposal could be touched or being tangent to this space, Soundscape but the accessibility of the place lacks of a formulation that allow us to live its qualities, for The silence, the calm, tranquility, are very similar terms, that pretend using this new this it has been proposed to make flow new walkways from the access point to the cemetery transition of the proposal on itself, that proposes to liberate the spatial tension in an to Ban Torget incorporating new ways to move or transit by the site and he generation of a space dedicated to de functional distension and architectural in structural and acoustic new spatiality that gathers or reads that existing urban pause. It is proposed to feed the site terms, the isolation of the urban sounds is to be kept with more strength, creating a with new pedestrian connections, at a runway level, balconies and small plazas, around the new space (the acoustic plaza) evocated to carry the calm condition of the library to an proposed new space that will be a public library, evocated and focused to the urban vocation open space more engaged with the city. The cemetery Sankt Peters Klosters will help of the site, that is the pause in all its plenitude, proposing an interesting duality the pause as this condition, plus the vacuum comprehended between the church and the train beginning and end of the walkway on the inside of the proposal. The formal rhythmic station and its subway parking. interpretation will be present at the vertical element that start to distribute for creating semi- open spaces and virtual thresholds created for making this spatial filter and acoustic one at Pedestrian Runway the arrival of the proposed object. The over crossed lines by the pedestrians represent the proper diversity of common Frequency movement inside the city, the improvisation, the union of the points through the logic straight lines, inherent to necessity, caused by the human erosion by use and instinct. The travel through the timeline of the new object, the successes or events that occur in the space have different variables, proper of the walkways, fed by the active and dynamic When the urban lines of frequent transit, by urban planners or the user itself and are pauses, with defined functions and determined. Intentionally in the three sideways of the defined by the point to unite, the first we must do to comprehend this situation is, try to proposal, marked by the runways, it is pretended to introduce the pedestrian in a gradual focus on the physiognomy of the component of this situation, try to focus in the way and interesting in terms of spatial situations of spatial richness like changes of light, of physiognomy of the component of these virtual bridges, the variables of the course and acoustic qualities, new environments and rehabilitation of urban components. In this zone of detention or simply the functional structuring functional elements, welcomed by the the proposal the frequency will be defined by the use and the function, constructed by the creation of a way open to transit inside the city. One very particular situation happens plazas, terraces and libraries translating a large part of the Ban Torget to this newly when the lines converge in points like plazas, main streets, civic centers or commercial structured place. The library, for example, will gather the use situations related with the ones, but it is also particular find ourselves with streets, avenues or parts that different acoustic frequency, for example it will gather the use situations related to a different culminate simply in nothing, disintegrating the frequency and the urban rhythm, giving acoustic frequency, as it is the reading inside a library and the spaces that surround this an harmony disproportion that dissolves the structure of a body like the city, that needs central proposed activity. integrated and linked spaces. 34
  35. 35. Mauricio Navarro Urban Interlude u r b a n I n t e r l u d e N Urban Interlude - Mauricio Navarro Lam 2 of 5 35