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Bi2

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  • 1. ÃŒÍÂÅТͧÊÒõ‹Ò§ æ ã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò¹éíÒ â»ÃµÕ¹ ÅÔ¾Ô´¤ÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµ ÊÒÃ͹Թ·ÃՏÍ×è¹ æ ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏÍ×è¹ æ 5% 1% 1% 10% 18% 65%
  • 2. Substance• Inorganic substance --> mineral, H2O, O2• Organic substance --> starch, glycogen, cellulose sugar, vitamin, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid
  • 3. ¾Ñ¹¸Ðà¤ÁÕ (Chemical Bonds) ÍеÍÁÊÒÁÒöÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹¡ÅÒÂ໚¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅ´ŒÇ¾ѹ¸Ð·Ò§à¤ÁÕ â´Âã¹ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµÁվѹ¸Ð·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞ䴌ᡋ 1. Covalent bond ໚¹¾Ñ¹¸Ð·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃ㪌electron ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹µÑé§áµ‹ 2 ÍеÍÁ ઋ¹ H2 , O2 , H2O ,CH4 ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 4. 1.1 nonpolar covalent ໚¹¡ÒÃ㪌 electron ËÇÁ¡Ñ¹â´Â electron ÇÔè§ÃͺÍеÍÁ·Ñé§Êͧ෋ҡ¹ ઋ¹ H2 , O2 áÅÐ CH4 Ñ 1.2 polar covalent ໚¹¡ÒÃ㪌ÍÔàÅ硵Ã͹ËÇÁ¡¹ â´ÂÍеÍÁ Ñ·ÕèÁÕ EN ÊÙ§ ¨Ð´Ö§ electron ÁÒã¡ÅŒµÑÇÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò ¨Ö§·íÒãËŒÁÕ»ÃÐ¨Ø àª‹¹H2O ÍÍ¡«ÔਹÁÕ EN ÊÙ§ÊÒÁÒö´Ö§ electron ࢌÒÁÒǹÃͺµÑÇàͧ䴌ÁÒ¡¡Ç‹Ò H ¨Ö§·íÒãËŒ O ໚¹Åº H ໚¹ºÇ¡
  • 5. 2. Ionic bond ໚¹¾Ñ¹¸Ð·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§ÍеÍÁ·ÕèÁÕ»ÃШص‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ઋ¹ NaCl à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ÍеÍÁ¢Í§ Na ãËŒ electroná¡‹ Cl ¡ÅÒÂ໚¹ Na+ ¢³Ð·Õè Cl ¡ÅÒÂ໚¹ Cl- ¼Å·íÒãËŒelectron ǧ¹Í¡¢Í§ÍеÍÁ Na áÅÐ Cl ¤Ãº 8 ¡ÅÒÂ໚¹ÊÒûÃСͺ NaCl
  • 6. 3. Hydrogen bond ໚¹¾Ñ¹¸Ð·ÕèäÁ‹á¢ç§áç à¡Ô´¡Ñº H·Õ赋ʹŒÇ covalent bond ¡ÑºÍеÍÁ¢Í§¸Òµ·Õè´Ö§´Ù´ electron Øä´´Õ àª‹¹ N ËÃ×Í O â´Â electron 㹾ѹ¸Ð¹Ñé¹ ¨Ð´Ö§´Ù´ä»ã¡ÅŒ ŒN ËÃ×Í O ÁÒ¡¨¹·íÒãËŒ H à¡Ô´à»š¹»ÃÐ¨Ø + ·íÒãËŒÊÒÁÒö´Ö§´Ù´¡ÑºÍеÍÁÍ×è¹·ÕèÁÕ electron ÁÒ¡ ઋ¹ O ËÃ×Í N
  • 7. 4. Van der Waals interaction ໚¹áç´Ö§´Ù´ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§âÁàÅ¡ØÅËÃ×ÍÀÒÂã¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅà´ÕÂǡѹ ÁռŷíÒãËŒà¡Ô´ÃٻËҧ¢Í§âÁàÅ¡ØÅ 5. Hydrophobic interaction áç´Ö§´Ù´ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§âÁàÅ¡ØÅ·ÕèäÁ‹ªÍº¹éíÒ (hydrophobic)
  • 8. ÊÒÃ͹Թ·ÃՏInorganics
  • 9. • Hydrophilic ---> ªÍº¹éíÒ (ÁÕ¢ÑéÇ)• Hydrophobic ---> äÁ‹ªÍº¹éíÒ (äÁ‹ÁÕ¢ÑéÇ)
  • 10. ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¹éíÒ• ʋǹ»ÃСͺ¢Í§à«Åŏ• ¡ÒÃÅíÒàÅÕ§ÊÒÕ µÑÇ¡Åҧ㹡Ò÷íÒ»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ• ª‹Ç¤Ǻ¤ØÁÍسËÀÙÁÔ• ¡ÒâѺ¶‹ÒÂáÅСíҨѴ¢Í§àÊÕÂ
  • 11. Mineral• á˸ҵØËÃ×Íà¡Å×ÍáË໚¹ÊÒÃÍÒËÒÃÍÕ¡»ÃÐàÀ·Ë¹Ö觷ÕèËҧ¡Ò µŒÍ§¡ÒÃáÅТҴäÁ‹ä´Œ à¾ÃÒÐá˸ҵغҧª¹Ô´à»¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§ š ÍÇÑÂÇÐáÅСŌÒÁà¹×éͺҧÍ‹ҧ ઋ¹ ¡Ãд١ ¿˜¹ àÅ×Í´ ºÒ§ª¹Ô´ ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹¢Í§ÊÒõ‹Ò§ æ ·Õèà¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔÞàµÔºâµã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ઋ¹ ÎÍÏâÁ¹ àÎâÁâ¡ÅºÔ¹ à͹ä«Á ໚¹µŒ¹• ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õéá˸ҵØÂѧª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒäǺ¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§ÍÇÑÂÇе‹Ò§ æ ¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡ÒÂãËŒ·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õ軡µÔ ઋ¹ ¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍ áÅÐÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ· ¡ÒÃá¢ç§µÑǢͧàÅ×Í´ áÅЪ‹Ç¤Ǻ¤ØÁÊÁ´ØŢͧ ¹éíÒ㹡ÒÃäËÅàÇÕ¹¢Í§¢Í§àËÅÇã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 12. á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ (calcium)• »ÃÐ⪹ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ·ÕèÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¡Ãд١áÅп˜¹ –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§ËÑÇ㨠¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍáÅÐÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ· –໚¹¸ÒµØ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃá¢ç§µÑǢͧàÅ×Í´
  • 13. á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ (calcium)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍ –¹Á –䢋 –»ÅҡԹ䴌·Ñ駡Ãд١ –¡ØŒ§½Í –¼Ñ¡ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇࢌÁ
  • 14. á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ (calcium)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âä¡Ãд١͋͹áÅп˜¹¼Ø –àÅ×Í´ÍÍ¡§‹ÒÂáÅÐá¢ç§µÑǪŒÒ
  • 15. ¿ÍÊ¿ÍÃÑÊ (phosphorus)• »ÃÐ⪹ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ·ÕèÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¡Ãд١áÅп˜¹ –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧà͹ä«Á·ÕèÁÕâ»ÃµÕ¹áÅФÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµ –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧà«ÅŏÊÁͧáÅлÃÐÊÒ·
  • 16. ¿ÍÊ¿ÍÃÑÊ (phosphorus)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍ ¹Á 䢋 –à¹Â –»ÅҡԹ䴌·Ñ駡Ãд١ –¡ØŒ§½Í –¼Ñ¡µ‹Ò§ æ
  • 17. ¿ÍÊ¿ÍÃÑÊ (phosphorus)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âä¡Ãд١͋͹áÅп˜¹¼Ø –¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔÞàµÔºâµªŒÒ
  • 18. â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁ (potassium)• »ÃÐ⪹ –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍ â´Â੾ÒСŌÒÁà¹×éÍËÑÇ㨠–¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§Ãкº»ÃÐÊÒ· –ÃÑ¡ÉÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³¹éíÒã¹à«ÅŏãËŒ¤§·Õè
  • 19. â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁ (potassium)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍÊѵǏ –¹Á 䢋 –§Ò ¢ŒÒÇ –àËç´ –¼Ñ¡ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇáÅмÅäÁŒºÒ§ª¹Ô´
  • 20. â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁ (potassium)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –·íÒãËŒ¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍ͋͹à¾ÅÕÂáÅÐËÑÇã¨ÇÒÂ
  • 21. ¡íÒÁжѹ (sulfur)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ÊÌҧâ»ÃµÕ¹ã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò –ÊÌҧ¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍʋǹµ‹Ò§ æ
  • 22. ¡íÒÁжѹ (sulfur)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍÊѵǏ –¹Á –䢋
  • 23. ¡íÒÁжѹ (sulfur)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –àÅçºà»ÃÒЧ‹Ò áÅмÁËǧ§‹Ò –âä¼ÔÇ˹ѧÍÑ¡àʺ
  • 24. â«à´ÕÂÁ (sodium)• »ÃÐ⪹ –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍáÅÐÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ· –ÃÑ¡ÉÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³¹éíÒã¹à«ÅŏãËŒ¤§·Õè –ÃÑ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁ໚¹¡Ã´-´‹Ò§¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡ÒÂãËŒÍÂÙ‹ã¹ÊÀÒ¾ÊÁ´ØÅ
  • 25. â«à´ÕÂÁ (sodium)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¡Å×Íᡧ –ÍÒËÒ÷ÐàÅ –ÍÒËÒÃËÁÑ¡´Í§ –䢋 ¹Á à¹Âá¢ç§ –¼Ñ¡ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ
  • 26. â«à´ÕÂÁ (sodium)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âä»ÃÐÊÒ·àÊ×èÍÁ –¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍ͋͹à¾ÅÕÂ
  • 27. àËÅç¡ (iron)• »ÃÐ⪹ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§àÎâÁâ¡ÅºÔ¹ã¹àÁç´àÅ×Í´á´§ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§à͹ä«Á·Õè·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õè㹡ÒÃËÒÂã¨
  • 28. àËÅç¡ (iron)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍÊѵǏ –µÑº –à¤Ã×èͧã¹ÊѵǏ –䢋ᴧ –¼Ñ¡ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ
  • 29. àËÅç¡ (iron)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âäâÅËÔµ¨Ò§ –àÅçºà»ÃÒÐËÑ¡§‹Ò àÊŒ¹¼ÁËÅشËǧ§‹Ò –͋͹à¾ÅÕ «ÖÁ
  • 30. áÁ§¡Ò¹ÕÊ (manganese)• »ÃÐ⪹ –¡Ãе،¹¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§à͹ä«Á
  • 31. áÁ§¡Ò¹ÕÊ (manganese)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¡Ãд١ –µÑº –¸Ñ޾ת
  • 32. áÁ§¡Ò¹ÕÊ (manganese)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –·íÒãˌ໚¹ÍÑÁ¾Òµä´Œ –ÍÒ¡Òêѡã¹à´ç¡ –àÇÕ¹ÈÕÃÉÐáÅÐäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒö䴌ÂÔ¹
  • 33. ·Í§á´§ (copper)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡Òôٴ«ÖÁ¸ÒµØàËÅç¡ –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧàÎâÁ⡺ÔÅã¹àÁç´àÅ×Í´á´§ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§à͹ä«ÁºÒ§ª¹Ô´
  • 34. ·Í§á´§ (copper)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¤Ã×èͧã¹ÊѵǏ –ä¡‹ –Ë͹ҧÃÁ –¾×ª¼Ñ¡áÅмÅäÁŒ
  • 35. ·Í§á´§ (copper)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –ÁÑ¡¾ºã¹·Òá·Õè¤ÅÍ´¡‹Í¹¡íÒ˹´ áÅÐÁÕ¹éíÒ˹ѡáá¤ÅÍ´ ¹ŒÍÂ¡Ç‹Ò 1,500 ¡ÃÑÁ¨Ðà¡Ô´ÀÒÇÐâÅËÔµ¨Ò§ ͋͹à¾ÅÕ ËÒÂ㨼Դ»¡µÔ
  • 36. äÍâÍ´Õ¹ (iodine)• »ÃÐ⪹ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§ÎÍÏâÁ¹ä·ÃÍ¡«¹·ÕèÍÂÙ‹ã¹µ‹ÍÁ Ô ä·ÃÍ´»‡Í§¡Ñ¹âä¤Í¾Í¡
  • 37. äÍâÍ´Õ¹ (iodine)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –ÍÒËÒ÷ÐàÅ –à¡Å×ÍÊÁØ·Ã –à¡Å×Í͹ÒÁÑÂ
  • 38. äÍâÍ´Õ¹ (iodine)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âä¤Í¾Í¡ –Ëҧ¡ÒÂá¤ÃÐá¡Ãç¹
  • 39. âä¤Í¾Í¡ (simple goiter)• ¢Ò´¸ÒµØäÍâÍ´Õ¹·Õè㪌ÊÌҧÎÍÏâÁ¹ä·ÃÍ¡«Ô¹¢Í§µ‹ÍÁ ä·ÃÍ´ ·íÒãËŒµ‹ÍÁ¹Õé·íҧҹ˹ѡ µ‹ÍÁ¨Ö§ÁÕ¢¹Ò´âµ¢Ö鹕 »˜¨¨ØºÑ¹ÁÕ¡ÒÃó礏ãËŒ»ÃЪҪ¹ºÃâÀ¤ÍÒËÒ÷ÕèàµÔÁäÍâÍ´Õ¹ Ô à¾×èÍ»‡Í§¡Ñ¹âä¤Í¾Í¡ ઋ¹ ¹éíÒ»ÅÒäÍâÍ´Õ¹ 䢋à¤çÁäÍâÍ´Õ¹ à¡Å×ÍäÍâʹչ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 40. ¿ÅÙÍÍäô (fluoride)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡Òôٴ«ÖÁ¸ÒµØàËÅç¡ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§ÊÒÃà¤Å×ͺ¿˜¹ ·íÒãËŒ¿˜¹ á¢ç§áç »‡Í§¡Ñ¹¿˜¹¼Ø
  • 41. ¿ÅÙÍÍäô (fluoride)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¹éíÒ´×èÁ¨Ò¡º‹Í¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔºÒ§áË‹§ –ÍÒËÒ÷ÐàÅ
  • 42. ¿ÅÙÍÍäô (fluoride)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –¿˜¹¼Ø§‹ÒÂ
  • 43. áÁ¡¹Õà«ÕÂÁ (magnesium)• »ÃÐ⪹ –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍáÅÐÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ· –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡ÒÃÊÌҧâ»ÃµÕ¹
  • 44. áÁ¡¹Õà«ÕÂÁ (magnesium)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –ÃíÒ¢ŒÒÇ –¾×ªÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ –¶ÑèÇ ¹Á §Ò –ÍÒËÒ÷ÐàÅ
  • 45. áÁ¡¹Õà«ÕÂÁ (magnesium)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§¡Ãд١ áÅÐàÅ×Í´ –à¡Ô´ÍÒ¡ÒüԴ»¡µÔ·Ò§Ãкº»ÃÐÊÒ·áÅСŌÒÁà¹×éÍ ÍÒ¨à¡Ô´ ÍÒ¡Òêѡ
  • 46. Mineral• ¡ÒùíÒá˸ҵØä»ãªŒã¹¾×ª –â«à´ÕÂÁäÍÍ͹ (Na+) –â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁäÍÍ͹ (K+) –á¤Åà«ÕÂÁäÍÍ͹ (Ca2+) –ä¹àµÃ´äÍÍ͹ (NO3- )• ¾×ª¨Ð¹íÒࢌÒÊÙ‹ÃÒ¡ä´Œ â´ÂäÍÍ͹àËÅ‹Ò¹Õé·ÕèÅÐÅÒÂÍÂÙ‹ã¹¹éíÒ
  • 47. ¤ÇÒÁÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧá˸ҵؕ ÃÑ¡ÉÒÊÁ´ØŢͧ¡Ã´-àºÊ• ໚¹µÑÇà˧»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ• ʋǹ»ÃСͺ¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡Ò• ¤Çº¤ØÁÊÁ´ØŢͧ¹éíÒ• ¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§à«Åŏ¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍáÅÐà«Åŏ»ÃÐÊÒ·
  • 48. ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏOrganics
  • 49. Biological molecule• à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ C ÃÇÁ¡Ñº H ¡ÅÒÂ໚¹ÊÒûÃСͺäÎâ´Ã¤ÒϺ͹• functional group ËÁÒ¶֧ ÍеÍÁËÃ×Í¡ÅØ‹Á¢Í§ÍеÍÁ «Öè§ ÁÕ¡ÒÃáÊ´§ÍÍ¡·Õè¨íÒà¾Òе‹ÍâÁàÅ¡ØŢͧÊÒ÷Õè·íÒ»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ
  • 50. ¤ÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµ(Carbohydrate)• ÍѵÃÒʋǹ H : O = 2 : 1• ÊÙµÃâÁàÅ¡ØÅ·ÑèÇä»à»š¹ (CH2O)n â´Â·Õè n ÁÕ¤‹ÒµÑé§áµ‹ 3 ¢Öé¹ä»ËÃ×Í Cx(H2O)y â´Â·Õè x ÁÕ¤‹ÒµÑé§áµ‹ 3 ¢Öé¹ä»• ẋ§Í͡໚¹ 3 ¡ÅØ‹Á monosaccharide oligosaccharide polysaccharide
  • 51. ¡ÒÃÍ‹Ò¹ª×èÍÁÍâ¹á«ç¡¤Òäô¨íҹǹÍеÍÁ¤Òú͹  ª×èÍÁÍâ¹á«ç¡¤Òäô 3 triose 4 tetrose 5 pentose-ribose 6 hexose 7 heptose
  • 52. α-D-Glucose β-D-Galactose β-D-Fructose
  • 53. áËÅ‹§·Õ辺• Glucose ---> ¾ºã¹¢ŒÒÇ ¢ŒÒÇâ¾´ ¼ÅäÁŒ ¹éíÒ¼Öé§ áÅмѡ• Galactose----> ¾ºã¹¹éíÒ¹ÁáÅмÅÔµÀѳ±¨Ò¡¹Áᵋ¾ºã¹ÃÙ» ¢Í§ lactose áÅж١‹ÍÂÊÅÒÂâ´Âà͹ä«Á lactase 䴌໚¹ galactose• Fructose ---> ¾ºã¹¹éíÒàª×èÍÁ ¢ŒÒÇâ¾´ ¼ÅäÁŒ ¹éíÒ¼Öé§ ¼Ñ¡µ‹Ò§ æ áÅÐã¹¹éíÒàÅÕé§ÍÊØ¨Ô ¨Ñ´à»š¹¹éíÒµÒÅ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁËÇÒ¹ÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´
  • 54. Oligosaccharide• à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ monosaccharide µÑé§áµ‹ 2-10 âÁàÅ¡ØŨѺµÑǡѹ ´ŒÇ glycosidic bond â´Â Oligosaccharide ·Õè »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ monosaccharide 2 âÁàÅ¡ØÅ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò disaccharide
  • 55. • Sucrose ໚¹¹éíÒµÒÅ·Õè㪌»ÃСͺÍÒËÒà ¾ºä´Œ·ÑèÇä»ã¹¼ÅäÁŒ ¾×ªµ‹Ò§ æ ઋ¹ ¹éíÒµÒÅ·Õèä´Œ¨Ò¡ÍŒÍ ÁоÌÒÇáÅеÒÅ• Maltose ¾ºã¹¢ŒÒÇÁÍŵ áÅÐà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒËÍÂệ§ «Öè§à»š¹ Çѵ¶Ø´Ôºã¹¡ÒûÃСͺÍÒËÒà áÅТ¹ÁËÇÒ¹• Lactose ໚¹¹éíÒµÒÅã¹¹éíÒ¹Á«Öè§à»š¹áËÅ‹§ÍÒËÒÃÊíÒ¤ÑޢͧÊѵǏ àÅÕé§ÅÙ¡´ŒÇ¹Á ã¹¹éíÒ¹Á¢Í§ÁÒôÒÁÕ lactose ¶Ö§ÃŒÍÂÅÐ 70 äÁ‹¾ºã¹¾×ª
  • 56. Polysaccharide• à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ monosacharide µÑé§áµ‹ 11 ¨¹¶Ö§ 1,000 âÁàÅ¡ØÅ µ‹Í¡Ñ¹à»š¹ polysaccharide ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹·Õ誹ԴáÅШíҹǹ ¢Í§ monosacharide ·Õè໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ ºÒ§ª¹Ô´à»š¹ÊÒ ⫋ÂÒǵç ºÒ§ª¹Ô´ÁÕ¡Ô觡ŒÒ¹á¡Í͡仕 µÑÇÍ‹ҧ¢Í§ polysaccharide ·Õè»ÃСͺ´ŒÇ glucose ÁÒµ‹Í¡Ñ¹ ઋ¹ cellulose ໚¹ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏ·ÕèÁÕÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ã¹âÅ¡ ·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õè໚¹â¤Ã§ÊÌҧËÅÑ¡¢Í§¼¹Ñ§à«Åŏ¾×ª
  • 57. α-1,6 glycosidic linkageα-1,4 glycosidic linkage
  • 58. ˹ŒÒ·Õè¢Í§¤ÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµ• ¾Åѧ§Ò¹ÊÐÊÁ ¾×ªà¡çº¾Åѧ§Ò¹¨Ò¡áʧÍҷԵã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§ monosacharide áÅÐ starch• ÊѵǏà¡çº¾Åѧ§Ò¹·ÕèàËÅ×ͨҡ¡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞ¹éíÒµÒÅã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§ glycogen• ໚¹â¤Ã§ÊÌҧ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ (cellulose, chitin, cell wall)• ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ¢Í§ nucleic acid, ribose ¢Í§ RNA áÅÐ deoxyribose ¢Í§ DNA• ÃÇÁ¡Ñº protein ËÃ×Í lipid ໚¹ glycoprotein ËÃ×Í glycolipid «Öè§à»š¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺ¢Í§ cell membrane
  • 59. Hydrogen H H O H N Cα C O HAmino Group Carboxylic Acid Group R Side Chain
  • 60. • Peptide »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ amino acid µ‹Í¡Ñ¹à»š¹ÊÒ àÃÕ¡ µÒÁ¨íҹǹ amino acid ·ÕèÁÒµ‹Í¡Ñ¹´ŒÇ covalence bond• dipeptide »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ amino acid 2 ˹‹Ç• tripeptide »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ amino acid 3 ˹‹Ç• amino acid ¨íҹǹÁÒ¡àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò polypeptide
  • 61. H2OHydrolysis DehydrationReaction Reaction dipeptide bond
  • 62. • Amino acid ·ÕèËҧ¡ÒµŒÍ§¡ÒÃáÅÐÊѧà¤ÃÒÐˏ¢Öé¹àͧäÁ‹ä´ŒµŒÍ§ ä´ŒÃѺ¨Ò¡ÍÒËÒà àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò essential amino acid ʋǹ amino acid ·ÕèËҧ¡ÒÂÊÒÁÒöÊѧà¤ÃÒÐˏ䴌àͧ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò nonessential amino acid ᵋ¶Ö§Í‹ҧäÃËҧ¡Ò¢ͧ¤¹àÃÒ ¡çµŒÍ§¡Òà amino acid ·Ñé§Êͧª¹Ô´
  • 63. Essential Conditionally Nonessential Nonessential Histidine Arginine Alanine Isoleucine Cysteine Aspartate Leucine Glutamine Glutamate Lysine Glycine Selenocysteine Methionine Proline Pyrrolysine*Phenylalanine Serine Threonine Tyrosine Tryptophan Asparagine Valine
  • 64. Lipid• ¤×Í ÊÒûÃСͺ·ÕèÅÐÅÒÂä´Œ¹ŒÍÂã¹¹éíÒ áµÅÐÅÒÂä´Œ´ã¹ ‹ Õ µÑÇ·íÒÅÐÅÒÂã¹ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏ ઋ¹ ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol ໚¹µŒ¹• »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ C, H, O ᵋÁÕÍѵÃÒʋǹ¨íҹǹ H : O äÁ෋ҡѺ 2:1 àËÁ×͹ carbohydrate ‹• ẋ§Í͡໚¹ fat, oil, phospholipid, wax, steroid
  • 65. • ãËŒ¾Åѧ§Ò¹ 9kcal/g ᵋ carbohydrate áÅÐ protein ãËŒ¾Åѧ§Ò¹ 4 kcal/g àÁ×èÍÁÕ¹éíÒ˹ѡ෋ҡѹ• »‡Í§¡Ñ¹¡ÒÃÊÙÞàÊÕ¹éíÒ à»š¹©¹Ç¹ª‹Ç¤Ǻ¤ØÁÍسËÀÙÁԢͧ Ëҧ¡Ò áÅл‡Í§¡Ñ¹¡ÒáÃзº¡ÃÐá·Ã¡¢Í§ÍÇÑÂÇÐÀÒÂ㹕 ẋ§µÒÁâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ䴌໚¹ 3 ª¹Ô´ ¤×Í –simple lipid –complex lipid –derived lipid
  • 66. • simple lipid »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ fatty acid áÅÐ alcohol 䴌ᡋ fat oil wax• Fat ÁÕʶҹÐ໚¹¢Í§á¢ç§·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔˌͧ ʋǹ oil ໚¹ ¢Í§àËÅÇ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔˌͧ ÊíÒËÃѺ wax ໚¹ÊÒ÷Õè »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ fatty acid âÁàÅ¡ØÅãËÞ‹¡Ñº alcohol ÁÑ¡äÁ‹ ÅÐÅÒ¹éíÒ ¾ºµÒÁ¼ÔÇ˹ѧ ãºäÁŒáÅмÅäÁŒºÒ§ª¹Ô´• âÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ fat áÅÐ oil »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ alcohol ·Õè àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò glycerol and fatty acid
  • 67. • ÊÒûÃСͺ alcohol ÁÕÊٵ÷ÑèÇä» R-OH• ÊÙµÃâÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ glycerol ໚¹ C3H5(OH)3 ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ glycerol ¨Ö§à»š¹ÊÒûÃÐàÀ· alcohol• ¨íҹǹ fatty acid ã¹âÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ fat áÅÐ oil –˹Öè§âÁàÅ¡ØÅ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò monoglyceride –ÊͧâÁàÅ¡ØÅàÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò diglyceride –ÊÒÁâÁàÅ¡ØÅàÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò triglyceride «Öè§à»š¹ lipid ·Õ辺 ÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ã¹ÊѵǏáÅоת
  • 68. • glycerol ¡Ñº fatty acid 1 âÁàÅ¡ØÅ ä´Œ H2O 1 âÁàÅ¡ØÅ• ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ triglyceride ¨Ðä´Œ H2O 3 âÁàÅ¡ØÅ
  • 69. • Fatty acid ẋ§Í͡໚¹ 2 ª¹Ô´ ¤×Í – saturated fatty acid – unsaturated fatty acid• saturated fatty acid ÁÕ¤ÒϺ͹·Ø¡ÍеÍÁ µ‹Í¡Ñ¹ÍÂÙ‹´ŒÇ single bond• unsaturated fatty acid ÁÕºÒ§¾Ñ¹¸ÐÃÐËÇ‹Ò§ ÍеÍÁ¢Í§¤ÒϺ͹໚¹ double bond
  • 70. • ËÒ¡ÃѺ»ÃзҹÍÒËÒ÷ջÃСͺ´ŒÇ oil ËÃ×Í saturated è fatty acid ÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä» ÁռŷíÒãËŒà¡Ô´ä¢ÁѹÍØ´µÑ¹ã¹ËÅÍ´ àÅ×Í´ áÅÐâäËÑÇ㨢ҴàÅ×Í´• saturated fatty acid ä´¨Ò¡ä¢ÁѹÊѵǏ ઋ¹ à¹Â ¹éíÒÁѹ¨Ò¡ Œ ÊѵǏ áÅйéíÒÁѹ¾×ªºÒ§ª¹Ô´ ઋ¹ ¹éíÒÁѹÁоÌÒÇ ¹éíÒÁѹ»ÒŏÁ ໚¹µŒ¹• unsaturated fatty acid ä´¨Ò¡¹éíÒÁѹ¾×ªÊ‹Ç¹ãËÞ‹ ઋ¹ ¹éíÒÁѹ Œ ¢ŒÒÇâ¾´ ¹éíÒÁѹ¶ÑèÇàËÅ×ͧ ¹éíÒÁѹ¨Ò¡àÁÅç´·Ò¹µÐÇѹ ໚¹µŒ¹
  • 71. • Essential fatty acids ; alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), arachidonic acid• conditionally essential ; gamma-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), lauric acid (a saturated fatty acid), and palmitoleic acid (a monounsaturated fatty acid)• Non-Essential fatty ; butyric acid
  • 72. • complex lipid »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ fatty acid áÅÐ alcohol ·ÕèÁÕÊÒûÃСͺÍ×è¹à¨×Í»¹ ઋ¹ phospholipid & glycolipid• phospholipid ໚¹ä¢Áѹ·ÕèÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ·Ò§à¤ÁդŌÒ¡Ѻ triglyceride ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹·ÕèËÁÙ‹¢Í§ fatty acid 1 ËÁÙ‹¨ÐÁÕËÁÙ‹ phosphate ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ• phospholipid ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺËÅÑ¡¢Í§ cell membrane• glycolipid ໚¹ lipid ·ÕèÁÕ carbohydrate ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ ¾ºÁÒ¡ã¹ àÂ×èÍËØŒÁà«Åŏ áÅÐà¹×éÍàÂ×èÍ»ÃÐÊÒ·ÊÁͧ
  • 73. • derived lipid ໚¹ÊÒûÃСͺ·ÕèÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧᵡµ‹Ò§¨Ò¡ lipid ·ÑèÇä» ã¹·Õ蹨Ѵ໚¹ lipid ª¹Ô´Ë¹Öè§ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÁÕÊÁºÑµÔ Õé ·Ò§ physics ¤ÅŒÒ lipid Í×è¹ àª‹¹ ÅÐÅÒÂä´Œã¹ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ ÍÔ¹·ÃՏ µÑÇÍ‹ҧ derived lipid ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞ àª‹¹• Steroid ÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ·ÑèÇä»à»š¹Ç§áËǹ 4 ǧ »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ ¨íҹǹÍеÍÁ¢Í§¤ÒϺ͹ 17 ÍеÍÁ áÅÐ ËÁÙ‹ R «Ö觨Рᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹µÒÁᵋª¹Ô´¢Í§ steroid
  • 74. • steroid ·Õ辺·ÑèÇ令×Í cholesterol ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ¢Í§ cell membrane steroid ºÒ§ª¹Ô´à»š¹ sex hormone ઋ¹ progesterone, testosterone
  • 75. Nucleic acid• ¨Ñ´à»š¹ biomolecule ·ÕèÁÕ¢¹Ò´ãËÞ‹·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õèà¡çºáÅÐ ¶‹Ò·ʹ¢ŒÍÁÙÅ·Ò§¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ¨Ò¡ÃØ‹¹Ë¹Öè§ä»ÂѧÃØ‹¹ µ‹Íä»ãËŒáÊ´§Åѡɳе‹Ò§ æ ¢Í§ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ·íÒ Ë¹ŒÒ·Õè¤Çº¤ØÁ¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔÞàµÔºâµáÅСÃкǹ¡Òõ‹Ò§ æ ¢Í§ ÊÔè§ÁÕªÕÇÔµ ẋ§Í͡໚¹ –DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) –RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  • 76. • âÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ nucleic acid »ÃСͺ´ŒÇÂ˹‹Ç‹ͷÕàÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò è nucleotide ´Ñ§ÀÒ¾ âÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ nucleotide »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ ʋǹ‹Í 3 ʋǹ 䴌ᡋ phosphate group, pentose, nitrogenous base ໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺ• nucleotide ÁÕÍÂÙ‹´ŒÇ¡ѹËÅÒª¹Ô´ ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹µÒÁ ʋǹ»ÃСͺ·à»š¹ base, sugar Õè
  • 77. Nucleoside
  • 78. Nucleotide
  • 79. • ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé nucleotide Âѧ໚¹ÊÒÃãËŒ¾Åѧ§Ò¹ ઋ¹ ATP (adenosine triphosphate) â´Â nucleotide ¨ÐàÃÕ§ µÑÇÍ‹ҧµ‹Í¡Ñ¹à»š¹ÊÒÂÂÒÇ àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò polynucleotide
  • 80. • âÁàÅ¡ØÅ DNA »ÃСͺ´ŒÇ polynucleotide 2 ÊÒ àÃÕ§ µÑÇÊÅѺ·ÔÈ·Ò§¡Ñ¹áÅÐÁÕʋǹ¢Í§ base àª×èÍÁµ‹Í¡Ñ¹´ŒÇ hydrogen bond ´Ñ§ÀÒ¾âÁàÅ¡ØźԴ໚¹à¡ÅÕÂǤŌÒÂºÑ¹ä´ àÇÕ¹ʋǹ RNA ໚¹ polynucleotide à¾Õ§ÊÒÂà´ÕÂÇ• DNA áÅÐ RNA ÁÕ sugar ·Õè໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ ã¹ DNA ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹ deoxyribose sugar ʋǹ㹠RNA ໚¹Ê‹Ç¹ ribose sugar â´Â base ·Õ辺㹠DNA áÅÐ RNA ÁÕºÒ§ ª¹Ô´·ÕèàËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ áÅкҧª¹Ô´µ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹
  • 81. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ (Vitamin)• ÁÒ¨Ò¡¤íÒÇ‹Ò Vita «Öè§ËÁÒ¶֧ ªÕÇÔµ ¡Ñº¤íÒÇ‹Ò Amin «Öè§ ËÁÒ¶֧ ÊÒûÃСͺà¤ÁÕËÃ×ÍÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ Vitamin ¨Ö§ËÁÒ¶֧ ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃՏ·ÕèÊíÒ¤ÑÞµ‹ÍªÕÇÔµ• ÇÔµÒÁԹ໚¹ÊÒÃÍÒËÒ÷ÕèËҧ¡ÒµŒÍ§¡ÒÃã¹»ÃÔÁÒ³¹ŒÍ ᵋäÁ‹ ÊÒÁÒö¢Ò´ä´Œ ¶ŒÒ¢Ò´¨Ð·íÒãËŒÃкºµ‹Ò§ æ ¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ¼Ô´»¡µÔ ËÃ×Íà¡Ô´â䵋ҧ æ ä´Œ
  • 82. »ÃÐàÀ·¢Í§ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹• 1. Fat Soluble Vitamins 䴌ᡋ A D E K• 2. Water Soluble Vitamins 䴌ᡋ C B
  • 83. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍ (retinol)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇºíÒÃاÊÒÂµÒ áÅÐá¡ŒâäµÒÁÑǵ͹¡ÅÒ§¤×¹ –ª‹ÇÂãËŒ¡Ãд١ áÅп˜¹á¢ç§áç –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧ¤ÇÒÁµŒÒ¹·Ò¹ãËŒÃкºËÒÂ㨠–ª‹ÇÂÅ´¡ÒÃÍÑ¡àʺ¢Í§ÊÔÇáÅЪ‹ÇÂź¨Ø´´‹Ò§´íÒ
  • 84. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍ (retinol)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¼Ñ¡áÅмÅäÁŒ·ÕèÁÕÊàËÅ×ͧ ÊŒÁ á´§ áÅÐà¢ÕÂÇࢌÁ Õ –µÑº –à¹Â –䢋ᴧ –¹ÁÊ´ –Ë͹ҧÃÁ
  • 85. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍ (retinol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –·íÒãËŒÁͧàËç¹ä´ŒÂÒ¡ã¹àÇÅÒ¡ÅÒ§¤×¹ (âäµÒºÍ´µÍ¹¡ÅÒ§¤×¹) –·íÒãËŒ¼ÔǾÃó¢Ò´¤ÇÒÁªØ‹Áª×é¹ –ÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹µèíÒ
  • 86. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍ (retinol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä» –á·Œ§ÅÙ¡ËÃ×;ԡÒà «Öè§ÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒà´ç¡ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ·Õè·Ò§à´Ô¹ »˜ÊÊÒÇÐ ¡Ãд١¼Ô´ÃÙ» ËÃ×ÍÁÕµÔ觻ٴÍÍ¡ÁÒ·ÕèºÃÔàdzËÙ –͋͹à¾ÅÕ ËҡËҧ¡ÒÂä´ŒÃѺÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍà¡Ô¹¤ÃÑé§ÅÐ 15,000 µg ¨ÐÁռŷíÒãËŒÃÙŒÊ֡͋͹à¾ÅÕÂáÅÐÍÒà¨Õ¹䴌
  • 87. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹àÍ (retinol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä» –à¨çº¡Ãд١áÅТŒÍµ‹Í àº×èÍÍÒËÒà à«×èͧ«ÖÁ ¹Í¹äÁ‹ËÅѺ ¡ÃÐǹ¡ÃÐÇÒ ¼ÁËǧ »Ç´ÈÕÃÉÐ ·ŒÍ§¼Ù¡ –ã¹ÊѵǏ¡ÃÐà¾ÒÐà´ÕèÂÇàÁ×èÍä´ŒÃѺà¡Ô¹¤ÇÒÁµŒÍ§¡Òà 4-10 à·‹Ò ¨Ð·íÒãËŒâ¤Ã§¡Ãд١¼Ô´»¡µÔ ã¹ÊѵǏà¤ÕéÂÇàÍ×éͧàÁ×èÍ ä´ŒÃѺà¡Ô¹ 30 à·‹Ò ¨Ðà¡Ô´ÍÒ¡ÒüԴ»¡µÔ
  • 88. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹´Õ (calciferol)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹Ç´ٴ«ÖÁá¤Åà«ÕÂÁ –¤Çº¤ØÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³á¤Åà«ÕÂÁã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃÊÌҧ¡Ãд١áÅп˜¹
  • 89. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹´Õ (calciferol)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –䢋 –»ÅÒ –áʧᴴ –¹éíÒÁѹµÑº»ÅÒ –¹Á à¹Â
  • 90. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹´Õ (calciferol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –»Ç´¢ŒÍáÅСÃд١ –»Ç´àÁ×èÍ –¡Ãд١ËÑ¡§‹ÒÂ
  • 91. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ (tocopherol)• »ÃÐ⪹ –໚¹µÑÇ antioxidant ¤×Í ·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞâ´ÂÁÕ ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ໚¹µÑÇ¡ÒÃÊíÒ¤ÑÞ·íÒãˌËҧ¡ÒÂà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞä´Œ´Õ –໚¹µÑǪ‹ÇÂ䢡Ãд١㹡ÒÃÊÌҧàÅ×Í´ ª‹Ç¢ÂÒÂàÊŒ¹àÅ×Í´ µŒÒ¹¡ÒÃá¢ç§µÑǢͧàÅ×Í´ Å´¤ÇÒÁÊÒÁÒö㹡ÒèѺµÑÇ໚¹ ÅÔèÁàÅ×Í´ áÅÐÅ´ÍѵÃÒàÊÕ觢ͧâä·Õèà¡ÕèÂǡѺËÅÍ´àÅ×Í´ ÊÁͧáÅÐËÑÇã¨
  • 92. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ (tocopherol)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ºíÒÃاµÑº –ª‹ÇÂã¹ÃкºÊ׺¾Ñ¹¸Ø à«Åŏ»ÃÐÊÒ· áÅСŌÒÁà¹×éÍãËŒ·íÒ§Ò¹ ä´ŒµÒÁ»¡µÔ –ª‹ÇÂãËŒ¼ÔǾÃóʴãÊ áÅЪ‹ÇÂÊÁÒ¹á¼Åä¿äËÁŒ ¹éíÒÌ͹ÅÇ¡ãËŒËÒÂàÃçÇ¢Öé¹ –ª‹ÇÂãËŒ»Í´·íÒ§Ò¹´Õ¢Öé¹áÅÐäÁ‹Í‹Í¹à¾ÅÕ§‹ÒÂ
  • 93. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ (tocopherol)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¹éíÒÁѹ¨Ò¡¸Ñ޾תáÅжÑèÇ»ÃÐàÀ·à»Å×Í¡á¢ç§
  • 94. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ (tocopherol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âäËÑÇ㨡íÒàÃÔº ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕÁÕ˹ŒÒ·Õè㹡ÒèѺÊÒ÷ÕèࢌÒÁÒ·íÒÅÒ ÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ¡ÒâҴÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ·íÒãËŒÊÒÃàËÅ‹Ò¹ÕéࢌÒä» ·íÒ»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂҡѺä¢Áѹã¹àÅ×Í´·íÒãËà¹×éÍàÂ×èÍ Œ µ‹Ò§ æ àÊ×èÍÁÊÀÒ¾àÃçÇÂÔ觢Öé¹ ¹íÒä»ÊÙ‹ÀÒÇÐËÅÍ´àÅ×Í´á´§á¢ç§ ¡‹ÍãËŒà¡Ô´¡ŒÍ¹àÅ×Í´áÅзÕèÊØ´·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´âäËÑÇ㨡íÒàÃԺ䴌
  • 95. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕ (tocopherol)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –Ãкº»ÃÐÊÒ·ÁÕ»˜ÞËÒ ã¹¡Ã³Õ¢Í§¤¹·ÕèËҧ¡ÒÂÁÕ»˜ÞËÒã¹ ¡Òôٴ«ÖÁä¢ÁѹáÅÐã¹à´ç¡·Òá·Õè¤ÅÍ´¡‹Í¹¡íÒ˹´ ¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ÍÕµèíÒ¡Ç‹Ò»ÃÔÁÒ³·Õè¡íÒ˹´ÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´ ¤ÇÒÁàÊÕÂËÒµ‹ÍÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ·áÅÐ໚¹ anemia ä´Œ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡à«ÅŏàÁç´àÅ×Í´á´§ã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò¶١·íÒÅÒÂ
  • 96. ÇÔµÒÁԹठ(phytonadione)• Vitamin K I ËÃ×Í phylloquinone໚¹ÃٻẺ·Õ辺㹾ת áÅÐÊѵǏ• Vitamin K II ËÃ×Í menaquinone ໚¹ÃٻẺ·Õ辺㹠à¹×éÍàÂ×è͵Ѻ áÅÐÂѧÊÒÁÒöÊÌҧ䴌â´ÂẤ·ÕàÃÕ·ÕèÍÒÈÑÂÍÂً㹠Ëҧ¡Ò• Vitamin K III ËÃ×Í menadione ¹Ñé¹ à»š¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅ·Õè Êѧà¤ÃÒÐˏ¢Öé¹ «Ö觨ж١à»ÅÕè¹໚¹ menaquinone â´ÂµÑº
  • 97. ÇÔµÒÁԹठ(phytonadione)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃá¢ç§µÑǢͧàÅ×Í´ –໚¹Í§¤»ÃСͺÊíÒ¤Ñޢͧ¡Ãд١
  • 98. ÇÔµÒÁԹठ(phytonadione)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –ºÃÍ¡â¤ÅÕ –¼Ñ¡¡ÐËÅèíÒ –䢋ᴧ –¹éíÒÁѹ¶ÑèÇàËÅ×ͧ –¹éíÒÁѹµÑº»ÅÒ
  • 99. ÇÔµÒÁԹठ(phytonadione)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –àÅ×Í´äËÅäÁ‹ËÂØ´ –Áռŵ‹ÍÃкº¡Òôٴ«ÖÁã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò ÀÒÇÐÇÔµÒÁÔ¹à¤à»š¹¾ÔÉ (Hypervitaminosis K)¤×Í ¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÇÔµÒÁÔ¹à¤ÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä» ÊÒÁÒö·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´ÀÒÇÐàÁç´àÅ×ʹᴧᵡ áÅÐÀÒÇкÔÅÔÃÙºÔ¹ã¹àÅ×Í´µèíÒã¹·Òá䴌
  • 100. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 1 (Thiamin)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà¨ÃÔÞàµÔºâµ¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡Ò –ª‹ÇÂ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§Ãкº»ÃÐÊÒ· ËÑÇã¨áÅСŌÒÁà¹×éÍ –ª‹ÇÂà¾ÔèÁ¡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞ carbohydrate
  • 101. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 1 (Thiamin)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¸Ñ޾ת ¢ŒÒÇ«ŒÍÁÁ×Í –¶Ñèǵ‹Ò§ æ –§Ò –¢¹Á»˜§¢ÒÇ
  • 102. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 1 (Thiamin)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à˹×èͧ‹Ò –àº×èÍÍÒËÒà –»Ç´¡ÅŒÒÁà¹×éÍ –໚¹µÐ¤ÃÔÇ –âäà˹纪ҵÒÁÁ×ÍáÅÐà·ŒÒ
  • 103. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 2 (Riboflavin)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞ lipid –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒޡôÍÐÁÔâ¹ tryptophan –໚¹Ê‹Ç¹»ÃСͺÊíÒ¤ÑޢͧÊÕ·Õè retina ¢Í§ÅÙ¡µÒ
  • 104. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 2 (Riboflavin)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –ÂÕʵ –䢋 –¹ÁÊ´ –à¹Â –à¹×éÍÊѵǏ –¼Ñ¡ãºà¢ÕÂÇ
  • 105. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 2 (Riboflavin)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à˹×èͧ‹Ò –àº×èÍÍÒËÒà –໚¹á¼Å·ÕèÁØÁ»Ò¡ËÃ×Íâä»Ò¡¹¡¡ÃШ͡
  • 106. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 3 (Niacin)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ÃÑ¡ÉÒâääÁà¡Ã¹ –Å´¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹âÅËÔµÊÙ§ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞ¤ÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµ –ÃÑ¡ÉÒâäà¡ÕèÂǡѺ¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ·Ò§ÊÁͧ
  • 107. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 3 (Niacin)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍËÁÙ à¹×éÍÇÑÇ –¢¹Á»˜§âÎÅÁÕÅ –䢋 –à¹Â
  • 108. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 3 (Niacin)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ¢Í§Ãкº·Ò§à´Ô¹ÍÒËÒà áÅÐÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ·
  • 109. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 5 (pantothenic acid)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧÎÍÏâÁ¹¨Ò¡µ‹ÍÁËÁÇ¡äµ áÅÐÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹ –ª‹ÇÂãËŒºÒ´á¼ÅËÒÂàÃçÇ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹ä¢Áѹ໚¹¹éíÒµÒÅ –ª‹ÇÂãˌËҧ¡ÒÂËÒ¨ҡ¡ÒêçÍ¡ËÅѧ¡Òü‹ÒµÑ´ãËÞ‹ –ª‹ÇÂãËÍÒ¡ÒÃ͋͹à¾ÅÕÂËÒÂàÃçÇ¢Öé¹ Œ
  • 110. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 5 (pantothenic acid)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¤Ã×èͧã¹ÊѵǏ –µÑº –§Ò –¶ÑèÇÅÔʧ
  • 111. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 5 (pantothenic acid)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à˹×èͧ‹Ò ͋͹à¾ÅÕ –àº×èÍÍÒËÒà –¹Í¹äÁ‹ËÅѺ
  • 112. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 6 (pyridoxine)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂÊÌҧà«ÅŏàÁç´àÅ×Í´ –ª‹ÇÂÃÑ¡ÉÒÊÀÒ¾¼ÔÇ˹ѧãˌ໚¹»¡µÔ –ª‹ÇÂËҧ¡ÒÂÊÌҧ¹éíÒ‹ÍÂ㹡ÃÐà¾ÒÍÒËÒà –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒÃà¼Ò¼ÅÒÞâ»ÃµÕ¹
  • 113. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 6 (pyridoxine)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –à¹×éÍÊѵǏ –µÑº –¡ÅŒÇ –¼Ñ¡µ‹Ò§ æ –»ÅÒ
  • 114. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 6 (pyridoxine)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à˹×èͧ‹Ò ͋͹à¾ÅÕ –໚¹âäËÅÍ´àÅ×Í´ÍØ´µÑ¹ –໚¹âäâÅËÔµ¨Ò§
  • 115. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 7 (biotin) or vitamin H• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ㹡ÒËͤÒÏâºäÎà´Ãµãˌ໚¹¡ÅÙâ¤Ê –ª‹ÇÂãËŒÃкº»ÃÐÊÒ··íÒ§Ò¹»¡µÔ –ª‹ÇºíÒÃا¼ÔÇ˹ѧ àÊŒ¹¼Á µÒ áÅлҡ
  • 116. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 7 (biotin) or vitamin H• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¶ÑèÇÅÔʧ ÍÑÅÁ͹´ –䢋ᴧ –µÑº –àÁÅç´§Ò –à¹Â
  • 117. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 7 (biotin) or vitamin H• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –à˹×èͧ‹Ò ͋͹à¾ÅÕ –«ÖÁàÈÃŒÒ –ÁÕ¼×è¹¢Öé¹µÒÁËҧ¡ÒÂ
  • 118. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 9 (Folic acid) or vitamin M• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹ÇÂ䢡Ãд١㹡ÒÃÊÌҧàÁç´àÅ×Í´á´§ –ÊÌҧÀÙÁÔµŒÒ¹·Ò¹âä ¡Òö‹Ò·ʹÊÒ÷ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ –¡Ãе،¹¶Ø§¹éíÒ´ÕãËŒ¼ÅÔµ¹éíÒ´Õ –¤Çº¤ØÁ¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹¢Í§ÊÁͧáÅÐÍÒÃÁ³ãˌ໚¹»¡µÔ
  • 119. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 9 (Folic acid) or vitamin M• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¼Ñ¡ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇࢌÁ –¼ÅäÁÊ´Œ –µÑº –Áѹ½ÃÑè§ ¿˜¡·Í§ á¤ÃÍ· ¶ÑèÇ ÃíÒ¢ŒÒÇ –䢋ᴧ
  • 120. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹ºÕ 9 (Folic acid) or vitamin M• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –âäâÅËÔµ¨Ò§ –Ëҧ¡Ò¢ҴÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹âä –ÁÕÍÒ¡Ò÷ŒÍ§Ã‹Ç§ËÃ×Íà¡Ô´ÍÒ¡ÒüԴ»¡µÔã¹ÅíÒäÊŒ –Ëҧ¡ÒÂàµÔºâµäÁ‹àµçÁ·Õè –¼Á˧͡àÃçÇ à©×èÍÂªÒ ¢ÕéÅ×Á ͋͹à¾ÅÕ ˧ش˧Դ ¹Í¹äÁ‹ËÅѺ –ÁÕÍÒ¡Ò÷ҧ»ÃÐÊҷ͋͹ æ ઋ¹ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´ÊѺʹ
  • 121. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ (ascorbic acid)• »ÃÐ⪹ –ª‹Ç»¡»‡Í§à«Åŏ àÊÃÔÁÊÌҧÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹ ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾áÅФÇÒÁ á¢ç§áç¢Í§à¹×éÍàÂ×èÍã¹Ã‹Ò§¡Ò·Õèà¡ÕèÂÇ¢ŒÍ§¡Ñº àÊŒ¹àÍç¹ áÅÐ ¤ÍÅÅÒਹ –໚¹ÊÒà antioxidant ·Õè´Õ ¨Ö§ÊÒÁÒö»‡Í§¡Ñ¹¡Ò÷íÒÅÒ à«Åŏ¨Ò¡Í¹ØÁÙÅÍÔÊÃÐ䴌໚¹Í‹ҧ´Õ
  • 122. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ (ascorbic acid)• áËÅ‹§·Õ辺 –¼ÅäÁÊ´ äÁ‹¨íÒ໚¹µŒÍ§à»š¹ Œ ¼ÅäÁŒÃÊà»ÃÕéÂÇ µÑÇÍ‹ҧઋ¹ ½ÃÑè§ ÊŒÁ ÁйÒÇ ÁТÒÁ»‡ÍÁ ÁÐà¢×Íà·È –¼Ñ¡ãºà¢ÕÂǵ‹Ò§ æ ઋ¹ ºÅçͤâ¤ÅÕè ¤Ð¹ŒÒ
  • 123. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ (ascorbic acid)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –͋͹à¾ÅÕ àº×èÍÍÒËÒà »Ç´µÒÁ¢ŒÍµ‹Í¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡Ò àÅ×Í´ÍÍ¡µÒÁäÿ˜¹ à¨çº¡Ãд١ –á¼ÅËÒªŒÒ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ·íÒ˹ŒÒ·Õ赋͵ŒÒ¹¡ÒÃÍÑ¡àʺáÅÐ ª‹Ç«‹ÍÁá«Áʋǹ·ÕèÊÖ¡ËÃͧ͢Ëҧ¡Ò ¡ÒÃä´ŒÃѺÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ äÁà¾Õ§¾Í¨Ð·íÒãËŒàÊŒ¹àÅ×Í´ã¹Ã‹Ò§¡ÒÂ͋͹áÍ áÅзíÒãËŒ ‹ ºÒ´á¼Å·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹µÒÁʋǹµ‹Ò§ æ ¢Í§Ã‹Ò§¡ÒÂËÒªŒÒ¡Ç‹Ò»¡µÔ
  • 124. ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ (ascorbic acid)• ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒâҴ –໚¹âäµÔ´àª×éÍä´Œ§‹Ò ¤Ø³ÊÁºÑµÔ¢Í§ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ ¤×Í à»š¹µÑÇ µ‹ÍµŒÒ¹ÊÒá‹ÍÁÐàÃç§áÅЪ‹Ç¤Ǻ¤ØÁÃкºÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹ ¨Ö§¨Ð Ê‹§¼ÅãËŒÃкºÀÙÁԤ،Á¡Ñ¹ã¹Ã‹Ò§¡ÒÂÅ´µèíÒŧáÅзíÒãËŒµÔ´àª×éÍ äÇÃÑÊáÅÐẤ·ÕàÃÕÂä´Œ –âäÅÑ¡»´Åѡແ´ 㹡óբͧà´ç¡ËÃ×ͼٌÊÙ§ÍÒÂØ·Õèä´ŒÃѺÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«Õ ¹ŒÍ¡NjÒÇѹÅÐ 10 ÁÔÅÅÔ¡ÃÑÁ ÍÒ¨·íÒãˌ໚¹âäÅÑ¡»´Åѡແ´ä´Œ ËҡËҧ¡Ò¢ҴÇÔµÒÁÔ¹«ÕÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹»¡µÔÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒÁÕÅÙ¡ÂÒ¡ –໚¹âäâÅËÔµ¨Ò§áÅÐÁÕÀÒÇФÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ·Ò§¨Ôµä´Œ
  • 125. ¡Å͹ÇÔµÒÁÔ¹• àÍµÒ ªÒºÕ• «Õ¿˜¹ ËÁѹÍÕ• ´Õ´Ù¡à´‹ à¤àÅ×Í´ÍÍ¡• ¨Í¡ºÕÊͧ ºÕÊÔºÊͧàÅ×Í´¨Ò§
  • 126. ÈÖ¡ÉÒà¡ÕèÂǡѺÊÒêÕÇâÁàÅ¡ØÅä´Œ·ÕèàÇ红ͧÁËÔ´Å• http://www.snw.ac.th/media/12/content.html
  • 127. Enzyme• Enzyme ¨Ñ´à»š¹ biocatalyst ·íÒãËŒÍѵÃÒàÃçǢͧ reaction à¾ÔèÁÊÙ§¢Öé¹ä´Œ¶Ö§ 106-1012• ¨Ö§¡Å‹ÒÇä´ŒÇ‹Ò enzyme ÁÕ˹ŒÒ·Õè໚¹µÑÇ catalysis ·íÒãËŒ reaction à¡Ô´ä´ŒÃÇ´àÃçÇ¢Ö鹕 â´Â substrate ¨ÐࢌҨѺËÃ×Í·íÒ reaction ¡Ñº enzyme áÅŒÇä´Œ product ÍÍ¡ÁÒ
  • 128. • ¾.È. 2437 Ostwald ãËŒ¤íÒ¨íÒ¡Ñ´¤ÇÒÁ¢Í§ catalyst Ç‹Ò໚¹ “ÊÒ÷Õè·íÒãËŒÍѵÃÒàÃçǢͧ reaction à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ áÅÐàÁ×èÍ reaction ÊÔé¹ÊØ´ áÅŒÇ catalyst ¨ÐäÁ‹ÁÕ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ã´ æ ·íÒãËŒÊÒÁÒöà˧ reaction ä´«éíÒáŌǫéíÒÍÕ¡” Œ• Enzyme ÁÕÅѡɳоÔàÈÉᵡµ‹Ò§¨Ò¡ catalyst ã¹»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒà¤ÁÕ¸ÃÃÁ´Ò ´Ñ§µ‹Í仹Õé
  • 129. • 1. Enzyme ໚¹ catalyst ·Õè specificity ·Ñ駵‹Í substrate, product, reaction –enzyme ª¹Ô´Ë¹Öè§ æ àÁ×èÍà˧ reaction ·ÕèÁÕ substrate ª¹Ô´ã´ª¹Ô´Ë¹Öè§áŌǨÐä´Œ product ·Õè੾ÒÐÍÍ¡ÁÒ â´Â enzyme ºÒ§ª¹Ô´¨ÐÁÕ specificity ÁÒ¡ ËÃ×Í ¹ŒÍ ᵡµ‹Ò§¡Ñ¹ÍÍ¡ä»
  • 130. • 2. Enzyme »ÃÔÁÒ³¹ŒÍ æ ÊÒÁÒö catalyst ä´Í‹ҧÁÕ Œ effciency ¤×Í ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ enzyme ·Õèãªã¹ reaction Œ ¨Ð¹ŒÍÂÁÒ¡ (˹‹Ç micromolar) àÁ×èÍà·Õº¡Ñº¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹ ¢Í§ substrate (˹‹Ç millimolar)• 3. Enzyme ¨ÐäÁ‹ÁÕ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ã´ æ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡·Õèà¡Ô´¡Òà à˧ reaction áÅŒÇ ·íÒãËŒà¡Ô´ reaction ä´ãËÁ‹ â´ÂÊÒÁÒö Œ ºÍ¡ä´Œà»š¹¤‹Ò·ÕèàÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò turnover number ¤×Í ¤‹Ò·ÕèºÍ¡Ç‹Ò enzyme ˹Öè§âÁàÅ¡ØÅÊÒÁÒöà˧»¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒà»ÅÕè¹ substrate à¾×èÍãˌ䴌 product ä´Œ¨íҹǹ¡Õè¤ÃÑé§ã¹Ë¹Öè§Ë¹‹ÇÂàÇÅÒ
  • 131. • 4. Enzyme ¨ÐäÁ‹à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¤‹Ò¢Í§¼Åµ‹Ò§¢Í§ free energy change, G ËÃ×ͤ‹Ò¤§·Õè equilibrum constant ¢Í§ enzyme ¤×Í äÁ‹à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÃдѺ¾Åѧ§Ò¹·Õè¨Ø´àÃÔèÁµŒ¹ áÅШشÊØ´·ŒÒÂã¹ enzyme à¾Õ§ᵋä»à˧ÍѵÃÒàÃçÇãËŒä»ÊÙ‹ ÊÁ´ØÅä´ŒàÃçÇ¢Öé¹ â´ÂÅ´ activation energy ËÃ×Í free energy of activation ãˌŴŧ
  • 132. ¡ÒÃ᡹éíÒâ´Â㪌¾Åѧ§Ò¹ä¿¿‡Ò »¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´¹éíÒ
  • 133. Substrate Active site Competitive inhibitor Enzyme Noncompetitive inhibitor(a) Normal binding (b) Competitive inhibition (c) Noncompetitive inhibition
  • 134. »˜¨¨Ñ·ÕèÁռŵ‹Í rate of reaction• ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ substrate ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ substrate ¨Ð·íÒãËŒÍѵÃÒàÃçÇàÃÔèÁµŒ¹à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ Í‹ҧÃÇ´àÃçÇ㹪‹Ç§·Õè¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹ ¢Í§ substrate Âѧ¹ŒÍÂÍÂÙ‹ ᵨÐà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ã¹ÍѵÃÒ·Õ誌Òŧ㹪‹Ç§·Õè ‹ ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ substrate ÊÙ§ÁÒ¡áÅÐã¹·ÕèÊØ´ÍѵÃÒàÃçÇàÃÔèÁµŒ¹¨Ð ÊÙ§¤§·ÕèäÁ‹á»Ã¼Ñ¹¡Ñº¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ substrate ÍÕ¡µ‹Í仕 ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ substrate ·ÕèãËŒÍѵÃÒ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇÊÙ§ÊØ´àÃÕÂ¡Ç‹Ò saturating concentration ¢Í§ substrate
  • 135. ¤‹Ò pH• Enzyme áµÅеÑǨÐÁÕ¤‹Ò pH ·Õè·íҧҹ䴌´Õ·ÕèÊØ´ «Öè§Ê‹Ç¹ãËÞ‹ ‹ ¨ÐÍÂً㹪‹Ç§ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§ pH 5 ¶Ö§ pH 9 ¤ÇÒÁÊÒÁÒö¢Í§ enzyme 㹡ÒèѺ¡Ñº substrate áÅÐ㹡ÒÃà˧ reaction ÍÒ¨¢Öé¹ÍÂÙ‹¡Ñº¤ÇÒÁÊÁ´ØŢͧ»ÃШآͧËÁµ‹Ò§ æ 㹺ÃÔàdzà˧ Ù‹ áÅкÃÔàdz¨Ñº¢Í§ enzyme ÃÇÁ·Ñ駻ÃШآͧ substrate àͧ´ŒÇ·Õè pH µèíÒËÃ×ÍÊÙ§à¡Ô¹ä»ÁÑ¡·íÒãËŒ»ÃШØà»ÅÕè¹仨¹äÁ‹ àËÁÒÐÊÁ·Õè¨Ð reaction ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õ·Õè pH ÊÙ§ÁÒ¡ËÃ×͵èíÒÁÒ¡ é ÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒâ¤Ã§ÊÌҧ¢Í§ enzyme àÊÕÂÃٻËҧÊÒÁÁÔµÔ à»ÅÕè¹仨¹ inactive
  • 136. ÍسËÀÙÁÔ• àÁ×èÍà¾ÔèÁÍسËÀÙÁԨзíÒãËŒ reaction ÁÕÍѵÃÒàÃçÇÊÙ§¢Öé¹à¾ÃÒШР·íÒãËŒâÁàÅ¡ØŢͧ substrate ÁÕ¾Åѧ§Ò¹ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ ÍسËÀÙÁԨзíÒãËÍѵÃÒàÃçǢͧ reaction à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹´ŒÇÂᵋËÒ¡ Œ ÍسËÀÙÁÊÙ§à¡Ô¹ä»ÍÒ¨·íÒãËŒ enzyme àÊÕÂÊÀÒ¾¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ Ô ÍѵÃÒàÃçÇ¡ç¨ÐŴŧ·Ñ¹·Õ
  • 137. • àÁ×èÍ reaction à¡Ô´·Õè¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹ÍÔèÁµÑǢͧ substrate ÍѵÃÒàÃçÇàÃÔèÁµŒ¹¨Ð໚¹ÊѴʋǹâ´ÂµÃ§¡Ñº»ÃÔÁÒ³ enzyme ·Õè㪌• Í‹ҧäáçµÒÁ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ¤ÇÒÁࢌÁ¢Œ¹¢Í§ enzyme â´ÂÁÕ substrate Í‹ҧà¾Õ§¾Í ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ reaction ¨Ðà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ ä´Œà¾Õ§ÃÐÂÐ˹Öè§ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ reaction ¨Ð¤§·Õè à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¤‹Ò Vmax ¢Í§ enzyme ໚¹¢ŒÍ¡íÒ˹´ à¾ÃÒÐ໚¹ ¤‹Ò·ÕèºÍ¡ÍѵÃÒàÃçÇÊÙ§ÊØ´¢Í§ enzyme ¹Ñé¹ æ ÍÂÙ‹áÅŒÇ