Marine Mammal Conservation-Caribbean Context
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Marine Mammal Conservation-Caribbean Context

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Regional considerations for marine mammal conservation in the Caribbean

Regional considerations for marine mammal conservation in the Caribbean

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  • Good morning Thank you for invitation Representing NA gov’t, work closely with DCNA Photo : island of Saba as seen from the Saba Bank

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  • 1. Marine Mammal Conservation in the Caribbean Regional context Paul Hoetjes Dept. of Environment & Nature Conservation Netherlands Antilles
  • 2. Wider Caribbean
    • Political context
    • Regional issues
    • Regional/international instruments
    • Conservation activities
    • Socio-political considerations
    • Recommendations
  • 3. Political context
    • 13 island nations
    • 12 continental nations
    • 13 territories (UK, France, Netherlands, US)
    • 38 political unities
  • 4. political context (2)
    • Island Nations
    • Antigua & Barbuda
    • Bahamas
    • Barbados
    • Cuba
    • Dominica
    • Dominican Republic
    • Grenada
    • Haiti
    • Jamaica
    • St. Kitts & Nevis
    • St. Lucia
    • St. Vincent and the Grenadines
    • Trinidad & Tobago
    • Continental Nations
    • Belize
    • Colombia
    • Costa Rica
    • Guatemala
    • Guyana
    • Honduras
    • Mexico
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama
    • Surinam
    • US
    • Venezuela
    Territories
    • Aruba
    • Netherlands Antilles
    • Anguilla
    • Cayman Islands
    • Monserrat
    • Turks & Caicos Islands
    • British Virgin Islands
    • French Guyana
    • Guadeloupe
    • St. Martin – St. Barth
    • Martinique
    • Puerto Rico
    • US Virgin Islands
  • 5. Political context (3)
    • Three languages
      • English, Spanish, French (and Dutch)
    • Two law systems
      • Common Law (English speaking countries)
      • Civil Law (everyone else)
    • Wealthy and poor
    • Nevertheless, active regional cooperation
  • 6. Regional issues
    • One of the busiest shipping areas in the world
      • Oil transshipment
      • Cruise tourism
      • General cargo
    • Tourism economic mainstay
    • Biodiversity hotspo t
  • 7. Regional issues
    • Relatively little known about Caribbean Cetaceans
    • Still targeted hunt in a few islands
    • Increasing popularity of captive facilities
    • Increasing marine mammal watching industry
    • High ship traffic volume with unknown effects
      • (noise) pollution
      • Collisions
    • Pollution
  • 8. Regional/international instruments
    • UNEP-CEP & Cartagena Convention
      • LBS Protocol (Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution)
      • SPAW Protocol (Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife)
    • Western Hemisphere Migratory Species Initiative (WHMSI)
    • Convention on Migratory Species
    • International Whaling Commission (IWC)
    • Marpol Annex I-V
      • Caribbean Special Area – need for implementation
  • 9. Regional/international instruments (2)
    • SPAW Protocol
    • (Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife)
    • 14 member countries
    • Total protection and recovery all cetaceans (Annex 2)
    • Protection of areas critical to endangered species
    • Protected Area guidelines  PA network
    • Marine Mammal Action Plan (MMAP)
  • 10. Regional/international instruments (3)
    • Few member states in Caribbean (5)
    • Protection and recovery of endangered species (appendix I)
    • Cooperation for protection and m anagement of species (appendix II)
    • Caribbean cetaceans protected under SPAW
    • MoU with SPAW
  • 11. Regional/international instruments (4)
    • Western Hemisphere Migratory Species Initiative (WHMSI)
    • Supported by OAS
    • Cooperation for the conservation of migratory species of the Americas
    • Strengthening communication and cooperation
    • Open, informal partnership, not a legal instrument
  • 12. marine mammal conservation activities
    • MMAP
    • Stranding response training workshops and stranding network
    • Manatee reintroduction (Fr)
    • MPA network
      • French Whale sanctuary
      • Silver Bank sister sanctuary (Dom. Rep.-US)
    • Marine Mammal expert network
  • 13. Socio-political considerations
    • Extractive use (consumption or live capture) is a sensitive issue
    • (perceived) tourism competitiveness is a driving force
    • SIDS: lack of capacity, lack of capacity, lack of capacity (people, money, facilities )
  • 14. Recommendations
    • Integrate with regional instruments, MMAP
    • Need for sustainability – incorporate economic and social aspects
    • Communicate results
  • 15. Thank you
    • Photographs courtesy of George Kieffer, Dolphin Academy Curaçao