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PBL PBL Document Transcript

  • <br />TBC 3013<br />INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOLOGY<br />ASSIGNMENT 1: CONTENT ANALYSIS<br />PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL)<br />GROUP MEMBERS:<br />
    • NAMEMATRIC NUMBERAZFATINI BT NAWID20081032320ZETY LIYANA BT ZAINAL ABIDIND20081032351SYAFIQAH BT SHAARID20091034830YIP SOOK HAND20091034841
    LETCURER: ASSOC PROF DR SOPIA MD YASSIN<br />Stage 1 – Group Setting<br />
    • Introduce members
    • NAMEINFORMATIONAzfatini bt NawiMatric number: D20081032320Phone number: 019-4183892LeaderZety Liyana bt Zainal AbidinMatric number: D20081032351Phone number: 017-2907725SecretarySyafiqah bt ShaariMatric number: D20091034830Phone number: 019-5669870Info researcherYip Sook HanMatric number: D20091034841Phone number: 010-2102083Info researcher
    • Establish ground rules
    • Meeting 1: Wednesday, 28 July 2010
    • Time: 9.00 p.m.-11.00 p.m.
    • Place: KHAR Cafe
    • Meeting 1: Wednesday, 4 August 2010
    • Time: 9.00 p.m.-10.00 p.m.
    • Place: KHAR Cafe
    • Presentation: Thursday, 5 August 2010
    • Time: 2.00 p.m.
    • Submit report: Thursday, 12 August 2010
    • Time: 2.00 p.m.
    All members must be punctual for every meeting.<br />All members must wear appropriate clothes during meetings whether they are in campus or college.<br />Every member must give full commitment to any task that they have been given.<br />Others must pay attention when one of the group members gives ideas.<br />Students must bring their thumb drive and laptop for every meeting.<br />All members must give cooperation during the discussion. <br />All the members must find the information and bring that information to be discussed while meeting.<br />
    • Define roles of tutor and students
    • Tutor facilitates students about the PBL process and clarifies the question. Tutor also helps students when there are something about this task that is not understands.
    • Roles of students:
    All the members must finish their task by the due date given.<br />Students should develop the question.<br />Students discuss in the group about the question.<br />Students give ideas about the problem and how to solve it.<br />Student must prepare the report according to their task given.<br />All the members must search the additional information about the task.<br />Students ask lecturer if there are some problems occur about the task.<br />Stage 2- Problem Identification<br />2.1 Present the problem<br /> In 1996, Malaysia identified information and communication technology (ICT) as one of the key foundations for its projected transition from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy by 2020. The Smart Schools initiative is one of the flagship applications that are part of Malaysia’s Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project. The Government of Malaysia aims to capitalize on the presence of leading-edge technologies and the rapid development of the MSC’s infrastructure to jump–start deployment of enabling technology to schools. This was done by creating a group of 90 pilot Smart Schools in 1999 that will serve as the nucleus for the eventual nation-wide rollout of Smart School teaching concepts and materials, skills, and technologies. By 2020, all primary and secondary schools in Malaysia will be Smart Schools.<br />As a senior officer from the Ministry of Education, prepare a presentation to a group of science teachers from Brunei who are interested to know about the Smart Schools initiatives, focusing on the teaching learning component and the use of technology as enablers contained in the Smart Schools Concept. You also need to provide an overview of the progress made so far and challengers face since the inception of Smart Schools in Malaysia.<br />2.2 Identify and clarify the problem.<br />Based on the question, a group of science teachers from Brunei are interested to know about the Smart Schools. A senior officer from the Ministry of Education will prepare a presentation about the Smart Schools initiatives, focusing on the teaching learning component and the use of technology as enablers contained in the Smart Schools Concept. During presentation, the officer also needs to provide an overview of the progress made so far and challengers face since the inception of Smart Schools in Malaysia.<br />2.3 Describe the problem<br />If I as the senior officer from the Ministry of Education, I will prepare a presentation about the Smart Schools initiatives, focusing on the teaching learning component and the use of technology as enablers contained in the Smart Schools Concept. During presentation, I also will provide an overview of the progress made so far and challengers face since the inception of Smart Schools in Malaysia.<br />Stage 3 - Idea Generation<br />3.1 Inquire and generate the possible idea to understand or solve the problem<br />
    • ICT is important to improve knowledge of a society.
    • Knowledgeable society can drive economic growth of country.
    • Smart School has their own concept of teaching and learning component.
    • Smart School is focusing on the using of ICT as enablers in teaching and learning process.
    • The implementation of Smart School is in progress.
    • There are some challengers faced in achieving the objectives of Smart School.
    • There are some solutions to overcome the problems arise due to the implementation of Smart School.
    Stage 4 – Learning Issues<br />
    • How ICT can improve knowledge of a society?
    • What is the relationship between knowledgeable societies with economic growth?
    • What is the teaching and learning component in Smart school concept?
    • How ICT is used as enablers in teaching and learning process?
    • What is the progress of Smart School have been made so far?
    • What are the challenges faced in the implementation of Smart School?
    • How to overcome the problems arise due to the implementation of Smart School?
    Stage 6 – Synthesis and Application<br />
    • How ICT can improve knowledge of a society?
    Today, ICT has become a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal, to those who are previously underserved, especially the scatter and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on campus. <br />In a strict sense, knowledge cannot be shared. Knowledge is not like a commodity that can be passed around freely, it is tied to a knowing subject. To learn something from someone else, as well as to share his or her knowledge, an act of reconstruction is needed. Knowledge sharing presumes a relation between at least two parties, one that possesses knowledge and the other that acquires knowledge. ICT may stimulate the knowledge owners to externalize their knowledge in a form suitable for reconstruction by others. With the ICT, we can enhance knowledge sharing by lowering temporal and spatial barriers between knowledge workers, and improving access to information about knowledge. <br />The important feature of ICT is its ability to transcend time and space. ICT makes possible asynchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its recipient by owners. Online course materials can be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ECT-based educational delivery also dispenses with the need for all learners and the instructor to be in one physical location. Besides, certain types of ICT, such as teleconferencing technologies, enable instruction to be received simultaneously by multiple, geographically dispersed learners.<br />Additionally, teachers and students no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other reading materials housed in libraries for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at any time of the day and by an unlimited number of people. As the result, the quality of knowledge within the society can be improved.<br />
    • What is the relationship between knowledgeable societies with economic growth?
    Knowledge and Technology have become the key drivers of economic growth and international competitiveness. The key to the Industrial Revolution was technology, and technology is knowledge.<br />The rise of our entrepreneurial society, the information economy, global capitalism, and modern prosperity are all inextricably linked together with the cultivation, dissemination, and management of knowledge. Increasingly, knowledge itself and the transfer of knowledge are widely recognized as the key factors in long-term economic growth. <br />The roots of today’s “knowledge economy” can be traced back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution when society first learned how to create, organize, and exchange useful knowledge. A knowledge economy is one in which knowledge is the key resource. This means the generation and exploitation of knowledge play the predominant part in the creation of wealth. Nowadays, in the industrial era, wealth was created by using machines to replace human labour. Many people associate the knowledge economy with high-technology industries such as telecommunications and financial services. In advanced economies such as the US, more than 60 per cent of workers are knowledge workers who manipulate symbols rather than machines.<br />Economists continue to search for the foundations of economic growth. Traditional “production functions” focus on labour, capital, materials and energy whereas knowledge and technology are external influences on production. Now analytical approaches are being developed so that knowledge can be included more directly in production functions. Investments in knowledge can increase the productive capacity of the other factors of production as well as transform them into new products and processes. And since these knowledge investments are characterized by increasing returns, they are the key to long-term economic growth.<br />In new growth theory, knowledge can raise the returns on investment, which can in turn contribute to the accumulation of knowledge. It does this by stimulating more efficient methods of production organization as well as new and improved products and services. There is thus the possibility of sustained increases in investment which can lead to continuous rises in a country's growth rate. Knowledge can also spill over from one firm or industry to another, with new ideas used repeatedly at little extra cost. <br />
    • What is the teaching and learning component in Smart school concept?
    Teaching and learning component in Smart School will be shaped in four main areas, which are curriculum, pedagogy, assessment and teaching-learning material. Each of area will be the critical element in defining the teaching learning environment for Smart School students.<br />The Smart School curriculum is designed by incorporating the element that enables the education system to achieve the goals of National Philosophy of Education. The curriculum shall be meaningful, socially responsible, multicultural, reflective, holistic, global, open-ended, goal-based and technological. It also emphasizes the all-round development that covers domain communication, cognitive, affective and physical. The integration of knowledge, skills, values and correct use of language will form the new curriculum of Smart School. This integration of elements is suitable for the challenge of the Information Age. Curriculum of Smart School also incorporated elements of vertical and horizontal integration. In addition, the co-curriculum activities will reinforce the class learning and also make school more fun and interesting.<br />The Smart School pedagogy is student-centred. The innovative teaching method is used to provide the different learning experience for the student. For example, the possible role of students and teacher in classroom is range from teacher-centred to student-centred. Also, there are appropriate mixing of learning strategies to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promotion of holistic development. So, combination of role in classroom with learning strategies will results in an overview of different classroom environment. The key factor in choosing the classroom environment is the need to deal with diversity of skills, ability and learning style of students. The pedagogy used in Smart School will incorporating high level thinking skills and values in classroom and preserving students enthusiasm for learning with age. <br />The Smart School assessment system is holistic, that covers not only achievement, but also readiness, progress and aptitude. This approach will give various information regarding to the student learning styles and abilities. The assessment also is element-based, where is focused on the element that the student must possess or develop throughout the curriculum. The assessment system also is criterion-referenced, which is evaluating the individual performance based on the predetermined set of criteria. It also learner-centred, where flexible system of assessment which is administered on an individual basis is done. The integration of technology as a tool enables the on-line assessment and conducted in various form in order to allow demonstration of strength, abilities and knowledge. It also uses multiple approaches and instrument and will be continuous and on-going.<br />The teaching-learning material of Smart School is specially designed to support the teaching-learning concept of Smart School. The selection of teaching material will cover five main areas which are meets curricular and instructional needs, is cost effective, as well as cosmetically and technically adequate. Smart School teachers must be able to use technology as a tool in teaching and learning process. The materials used must consider the students learning preferences. This is because each student has different learning styles, so they need a variety of materials to maximise their learning potential. However, whatever materials are being used, it must meet the criteria which are cognitively challenging, attractive, motivates students to learn, and encourages active participation. The use of conventional media such as 3D objects and audio/visual material still feature in Smart School but it is highly integrated with computer-based media such as courseware and the teaching-learning material can be acquired from wide range of source, not limited within the school only.<br />
    • How ICT is used as enablers in teaching and learning process?
    In Smart School, the use of ICT as supporting tool in teaching and learning process has the implication to the process. For each teaching-learning practices, ICT is widely use throughout the process. For example, in self-exploratory learning, the uses of computer provide the source of latest educational materials available locally, as well as to external resources. For collaborative learning, ICT is used as a tool that facilitates group work within the class and across the class. Distance learning also can be convenient by using ICT that enable communication with outside constituencies using technology such as video conferencing or email. The use of software or courseware helps the student to stimulate learning in experimental learning process and very useful for drill and practises purpose, where it allows the students to practise on their own or with peer. In research, reference and data collecting, ICT act as a tool to search, collect and collate information. By using ICT, the electronic assessment can be performing by using built-in assessment courseware. <br />
    • What is the progress of Smart School have been made so far?
    In June 2010, smart technologies announce SMART classroom suite 2010 interactive learning software. SMART Classroom offers an integrated solution that enables teacher to easily manage and assess the entire class while addressing the needs of individuals’ students. The software combines Classroom management, assessment, lesson creation and assignment tool s in one offering. The latest version of SMART Classroom Suite features a number of upgrades, including improved wireless capability, greater support for formative assessment and enhancements to Teacher Tools. <br />
    • What are the challenges faced in the implementation of Smart School?
    Lots of cost or fund needed for effective smart school to build a new school with well equipped infrastructure, to upgrade facilities, maintenance of new technology introduced and to train teacher. The teachers are not ready to change their mindset and to achieve the objective of smart school concept and to learn to use new ICT programs. Student and parent are did not well informed about the unique features of smart school and do not understand the concept of smart school. Lack of parent and community involvement in order to achieve the aim of smart school.<br />
    • How to overcome the problems arise due to the implementation of Smart School?
    Introduce new strategies in teaching approaches that increase student involvement. Introduce a training series that will update teachers on innovative pedagogical approaches. Obtain students’ feedback, review and respond to ensure greater student empowerment. Conduct special programs to help teacher to better manage the relationship between parents and students. Introduces special incentives and mechanisms to encourage teachers to independently gain necessary skills. Ensure continuous innovation in training provision to keep alert with technology changes.<br />Stage 7 – Reflection and Feedback<br />To do this Problem Based Learning (PBL), we identify and clarify the problem, discuss, search the information, write the report and present it together. So from this PBL, we know more details about how to do Problem Based Learning according to the right process. <br />From this PBL we can learn many things, not only knowledge about the Malaysian Smart School, but we also can get the interesting experience such as team work, we can discipline ourselves, we also can help each other to solve all the issue and to complete the task. Every members in this group also give the fully cooperation to finished this task. All of the members obey the rules that we state before do this task. Our group also refers to our lecturer if some problem occurs. By doing this task, we can understand about the Malaysian Smart School more. From this, we also learn about the progress of Smart School have been made so far and the scenario that we will face when we are going to teach in school in the future. <br />