standard precautions for infection control measures by Ahmed elashry


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standard precautions for infectin control measures including video illustrations created on office 2010

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standard precautions for infection control measures by Ahmed elashry

  1. 1. Precautions for infection control measures<br />Done by members of <br />group 18<br />
  2. 2. Topics<br />Chain of infection<br />Standard precautions<br />Hand hygiene<br />infectious waste management<br />sharps safety devices<br />PPE<br />respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette<br />
  3. 3. Agent<br />↓<br />Reservoir<br />↓<br />Portal of exit<br />↓<br />Mode of transmission<br />↓<br />Portal of entry<br />↓<br />Susceptible host<br />Chain of Infection<br />
  4. 4. Route of <br />transmission<br />Port <br />Quantity of<br />pathogen<br />Virulence<br />Chain of Infection<br />+<br />Sensitive<br />host<br />
  5. 5. infection control precautions<br /><ul><li>Standard precautions
  6. 6. Basic precautions used to reduce transmission of all infectious agents from one person to another
  7. 7. Should be applied for ALL patients
  8. 8. Transmission-based precautions
  9. 9. Contact
  10. 10. Droplet
  11. 11. Airborne</li></li></ul><li>Standard precautions<br /> Method of infection control that uses <br />work practices, <br />engineering controls, and <br />personal protective equipment (PPE) <br /> to reduce or eliminate exposure to infectious agents. <br />
  12. 12. Standard precautions<br />1) Work practices<br /><ul><li>hand hygiene
  13. 13. no eating, drinking in areas with risk of transmission
  14. 14. no re-capping of used needles</li></ul>2) Engineering controls<br /><ul><li>safety devices on sharp medical devices
  15. 15. sharps containers
  16. 16. hand washing facilities</li></li></ul><li>Standard precautions<br />PPE<br /><ul><li>used as last resort when exposure has not been eliminated by work practices and engineering controls
  17. 17. provides protection to skin, clothing, nose, mouth, eyes
  18. 18. examples: gowns, gloves, goggles, masks</li></li></ul><li>Standard precautions<br />considers all person potentially infectious<br />applies to all individuals, regardless of presence/type of symptoms<br />used against exposure to blood, all body fluids, secretions, excretions (except sweat), mucous membranes, non-intact skin <br />
  19. 19. Standard precautions<br />hand hygiene<br />infectious waste management<br />sharps safety devices<br />PPE<br />respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette<br />
  20. 20. Hand hygiene<br />
  21. 21. Hand hygiene<br /><ul><li>Types:-
  22. 22. sinks, soap, paper towels available in convenient locations
  23. 23. alcohol gel in convenient locations for staff</li></li></ul><li>Hand hygiene<br /><ul><li>Wash hands:</li></ul>before and after client contact<br />after removing gloves and other PPE<br />after contact with contaminated surfaces and items, specimens, even when gloves are worn<br />before eating or drinking<br />after using restroom<br />after coughing, sneezing, blowing nose<br />
  24. 24. Procedure ofhand washing <br />By water and soap<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Infectious waste management<br />
  27. 27. Infectious waste management<br /><ul><li>sharps containers</li></ul>puncture resistant <br />leak-proof, closable<br />labeled with biohazard <br /> symbol or red<br />do not overfill<br />
  28. 28. Infectious waste management<br /><ul><li>biohazard bags
  29. 29. for disposal of items with blood, body fluids that are
  30. 30. pourable
  31. 31. dripable
  32. 32. squeezable
  33. 33. flakable</li></li></ul><li>Sharps safety devices<br />
  34. 34. Sharps safety devices<br /><ul><li>Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act</li></ul>Avoid the use of needles where safe alternatives are available<br />Never shear, break, bend, or recap a needle<br />
  35. 35. Sharps safety devices<br /><ul><li>Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act</li></ul>Dispose needle and sharps in proper container<br /> Never reach into or overfill a sharp container<br />
  36. 36. Sharps safety devices<br /><ul><li>Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act</li></ul>Direct the sharp end away from yourself and others<br />Use safety needles<br />
  37. 37. Sharps safety devices<br />Self-Sheathing Safety Feature: Sliding needle shields attached to disposable syringes and vacuum tube holders<br />
  38. 38. Sharps safety devices<br />Add-on Safety Features:Hinged or sliding shields attached to phlebotomy needles, winged steel needles and blood gas needles<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Personal protective equipment<br />
  41. 41. definition<br />Specialized clothing or equipment worn by employees for protection against health and safety hazards. <br />Personal protective equipment is designed to protect many parts of the body, i.e., eyes, head, face, hands, feet, and ears<br />
  42. 42. Personal protective equipment<br /><ul><li>types
  43. 43. gloves
  44. 44. gowns
  45. 45. aprons
  46. 46. goggles, face shields
  47. 47. surgical/procedure masks
  48. 48. respirators</li></li></ul><li>Types of PPE<br />Gloves<br />Different kinds of gloves<br />Housekeeper gloves<br />Clean gloves <br />Sterile glove<br />Work from clean to dirty<br />Avoid “touch contamination”<br />Eyes, mouth, nose, surfaces<br />Change gloves between patients<br />
  49. 49. Types of PPE<br />Gowns<br />Fully cover torso<br />Have long sleeves<br />Fit snuggly at the wrist<br />
  50. 50. Types of PPE<br />Masks and Respirators: Barriers and Filtration<br />Surgical masks<br />Cotton, paper<br />Protect against body fluids and large particles<br />Particulate respirators (N95)<br />Fit testing essential<br />Protect against small droplets and other airborne particles<br />Alternative materials (barrier)<br />Tissues, cloth <br />
  51. 51. Types of PPE<br />Particulate Respirators<br />Three types: disposable, reusable, powered air purifying respirators<br />Disposable Particulate Respirators<br />Classified N95, N99, N100, R95, R99, R100, P95, P99, P100<br />Letter indicates oil resistance: N = not resistant, R = somewhat resistant, P = strongly resistant<br />Number is percent of airborne particles filtered (e.g. N95 filters 95% of particles)<br />
  52. 52. Types of PPE<br />Boots<br /> (non-hospital settings)<br />Eye Protection<br /><ul><li>Face shields
  53. 53. Goggles</li></li></ul><li>Working with Limited Resources<br />Avoid reuse of disposable PPE items <br />Consider reuse of some disposable items only as an urgent, temporary solution <br />Reuse only if no obvious soiling or damage <br />When prioritizing PPE purchase<br />Masks<br />Gloves <br />Eye protection<br />
  54. 54. Standard precautions<br /><ul><li>Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette</li></ul>cover mouth and nose with tissue when coughing, sneezing<br />immediately toss tissue<br />wash hands with soap and water or use alcohol gel<br />have client wear mask if possible<br />barriers for front line staff<br />
  55. 55. Standard precautions<br /><ul><li>Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette</li></ul>supplies<br />tissue<br />alcohol gel<br />waste baskets<br />education<br />posters<br />signs<br />
  56. 56. Thank you<br />