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Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010
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Retailer x distribution centre walkround energy survey april 2010

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This is report identifies energy waste in a large warehouse and proposes ways to reduce energy use, improve efficiency and create a better working environment.

This is report identifies energy waste in a large warehouse and proposes ways to reduce energy use, improve efficiency and create a better working environment.

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  • Obviously, I've removed the names of the companies involved, but the fact remains if you have a large warehouse or distribution centre you will suffer from similar problems of over-heating in the summer; too cold in the winter and excessive energy consumption in an effort to modulate the working environment.
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  • 1. Retailer XDistribution Centre Energy SurveyExecutive SummaryThis is a high level report identifying broad problems and solutions. The next step will be toinvestigate each issue in more detail, produce a number of costed options, with clearly statedbenefits and payback periods. Before additional energy-consuming equipment is installed, the thermal efficiency of the building envelope must be improved.Solving the internal comfort issues cannot be solved by mechanical systems without significantlyincreasing energy consumption and costs. Energy costs are going to increase because of the CarbonReduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme for Outsourced Service Provider and Retailer X, soincreasing site energy usage is not advisable.There are also external factors affecting energy prices: There is uncertainty and volatility in the oilmarket, with issues such as the BP oil spillage off Western United States. This will ultimately affectthe cost of a unit of electricity and all other fossil fuels. As most organisations have fixed term utilitycontracts there is a certain amount of luck involved in avoiding a peak in oil prices.The solution needs to be a combination of building fabric improvements as well as the use of lowcarbon/renewable technologies to improve the internal environment, without causing unreasonableincreases in energy costs, consumption and carbon. This is a ‘whole-building solution’.To ensure that capital expenditure is targeted correctly, it is imperative that pressure testing,thermal imaging and building simulation modelling is used to assess the effectiveness of passivedesign solutions.Analysis undertaken and solutions proposed for this building can form the basis for future work onother distribution centres. 1
  • 2. Contents1 The Issues................................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Building Fabric ............................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1.1 Air Leakage............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1.2 Thermal Efficiency .............................................................................................................................. 4 1.2 Building Services ........................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2.1 Heating ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2.2 Air Movement........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.2.3 Air Conditioning ................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2.4 Lighting .................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2.5 Compressed Air .................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2.6 Controls ................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2.7 Metering & Utility Data Management.......................................................................................... 6 1.3 Water Use ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Process and Equipment .............................................................................................................................. 7 1.5 Compliance ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.5.1 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ............................................................................. 82 The Solution .............................................................................................................................................................. 8 2.1 Building Fabric ............................................................................................................................................... 8 2.1.1 Air Leakage............................................................................................................................................. 8 2.1.2 Thermal Efficiency .............................................................................................................................. 9 2.2 Building Services ........................................................................................................................................ 10 2.2.1 Heating .................................................................................................................................................. 10 2.2.2 Air Movement/Ventilation systems .......................................................................................... 10 2.2.3 Air Conditioning ................................................................................................................................ 10 2.2.4 Lighting ................................................................................................................................................. 11 2.2.5 Compressed Air ................................................................................................................................. 11 2.2.6 Controls/Building Management System ................................................................................. 11 2.2.7 Metering & Utility Data Management....................................................................................... 11 2.3 Compliance ................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.3.1 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive .......................................................................... 12 2.3.2 Funding Options ................................................................................................................................ 123 Time to make your warehouse greener ..................................................................................................... 13 2
  • 3. 1 The Issues1.1 Building Fabric1.1.1 Air LeakageAn obvious problem with not being able to control the internalenvironment is the large volume of fresh air entering andconditioned air escaping from the building. This is most apparent onthe west side of the building with all of the loading bay doors havingpoor seals and gaps, causing draughts. There are also a small number of noticeable gaps around joints in the building fabric. In a building of this type and age, it is reasonable to expect a large number of draughts and gaps in fabric to be hidden from view. This can only be quantified with a pressure test and thermal imaging.Where dock seals have been installed, they are either out ofcommission or are not being used by staff. This picture shows adamaged (lorry impact) drive unit for a retractable bay seal. The most significant effect of air leakage (infiltration) is when doors are left open for long periods of time when lorries are not in the loading bay. The ‘pit’ loading bay door (as shown here) is used by staff who need to access the container outside. As this bay is not used for loading, it would be sensible to install a pedestrian access door so that the roller shutter was not left open for long periods. Foam strips have been fitted on level4, which I assume as been used to reduce air ingress. There is only asmall percentage of foam used, so it will be ineffective in reducingdraughts (if that is what it was intended for). The dock shelters are at high risk from driver error. This is not only costly in terms of repair work, but will also affect energy consumption as the shelters are a means of reducing air ingress. 3
  • 4. With no loading bay seal in place, there are large areas of open space between the lorry and loading bay, which results in high levels of air infiltration.The cladding has been removed to accommodate the cardboardbailer leaving a large open space around it, allowing air ingress.1.1.2 Thermal Efficiency1.1.2.1 CladdingThere is insulation fitted between the internal and externalcomponents of the facade cladding, but as the building is 20+years old it will not meet today’s minimum building regulationsrequirements. There is significant solar gain through the roof and south facing elevation of the building. With no buildings in close proximity to provide shading, the facade has no protection from the affects of direct sunshine.1.1.2.2 RoofThe large roof area, with minimal insulation and rooflights withpoor emissivity means the potential for high heat gains on anysunny day throughout the year. It also means that when theheating is needed there is no effective barrier to containing theconditioned air within the building.1.1.2.3 Glazing The reception area is double glazed but suffers from solar gain, making the internal environment uncomfortable for staff and visitors. A Mitsubishi air conditioning split unit has been installed to provide cooling to the reception area. Reflective film has been fitted to the reception and office glazing, but has proved to be ineffective. 4
  • 5. 1.2 Building Services1.2.1 Heating Gas fired warm air blowers are installed throughout the main building. These units can only provide relatively localised heating and so there are significant temperature differences throughout the building. OUTSOURCED SERVICE PROVIDER have made a conscious decision to reduce their usage, but this is leading to problems with staff comfort levels.1.2.2 Air MovementThere are a number of stratification fans mounted to the ceiling, none ofwhich were in operation during the site visit even though there was asignificant temperature difference between level 1 and level 4. There arenot enough installed to have any real impact on improving the comfortlevels on the top floor. These portable fans are a clear indication that there is an overheating problem in the building. There needs to be an effective, permanent solution found so these will no longer be needed, as they are energy intensive and have limited impact. They are also a fire hazard and should not be used.1.2.3 Air ConditioningThese Daikin air conditioning units (>250kW) were installed toaddress the overheating of Level 4. As there is so much solar gain, airleakage and heat rising from lower levels they proved to beineffective and are no longer in use. An Air conditioning Inspectionwill need to be undertaken before the end of 2010 to ensurecompliance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. Theother split units serving office areas will also need to be inspected atthe same time. 5
  • 6. 1.2.4 LightingThe lighting system is mainly fluorescent tubes, with PIRs fitted on each aisle. They proved to be over-sensitive, resulting in lighting being triggered even without entering the aisle. Someone walking from one side of the building to the other will turn on every aisle light, making the use of these PIRs virtually pointless. Lighting close to or even directly under roof lights is on, even withgood levels of daylight entering the building. Much of the lighting is left on above storage or infrequently used areas.1.2.5 Compressed AirThere was no information available regarding thecompressed air system. So questions for furtherinvestigation would be: What is it used for? Is it stillneeded? When was the last service? What is the energyconsumption of the system?1.2.6 ControlsThe controls systems are the original equipment and except for a fewadditions, has not been not been upgraded, some of the features are notworking. Having the controls accessible to all staff is liable to mis- use andtherefore increased energy consumption.1.2.7 Metering & Utility Data Management1.2.7.1 ElectricityThe existing electricity meter is Code 5 and therefore has a pulsed output direct to the electricitysupplier. This means that bills are based on accurate meter readings and there are no estimated 6
  • 7. bills. There is a weekly manual meter reading taken by OSP 2, which is used for generating graphssuch as this: This week-by-week analysis has limited use as an energy management tool as it does not allow the identification of specific energy spikes during a particular period of a day.From the limited access to electricity bills, it was evident that OUTSOURCED SERVICE PROVIDER needto review Supply capacity v Maximum demand as there is the potential for a 200 KVA reduction atSite. This action will realise an annual saving of more than £2500. Not a huge saving, but if the sameexercise was undertaken throughout their entire building stock, the savings could prove to be moresignificant.1.2.7.2 GasThe gas meter is at high level and a close inspection was notpossible. However, it does appear to have the capacity to emit apulsed output, although due to restrictions on availability of billinginformation, it was not possible to confirm during the site visit.1.2.7.3 WaterThe main water meter is housed under a heavy grid with access having Health and Safetyimplications. Regular manual readings are difficult leading to inaccurate billing and budgetmanagement.1.3 Water UseAccess to water consumption and billing data was not available duringthe survey. There have been attempts in the past to reduce waterconsumption. One example of this is the installation of a set ofwaterless urinals. Staff comments suggest that they have proven to beunsuccessful. They do require regular cleaning with a specific cleaningproduct and the cost of replacement modules is high.1.4 Process and EquipmentThere are a large number of electric motors integral to the operation of the automatic garmenttransportation system. All motors emit heat and as these are revamped motors of a 20 year-olddesign it is reasonable to assume that they are not energy efficient. The remit of the survey does notextend to the operations of the Distribution Centre, but motors emit heat and the impact of thismust be considered in any internal comfort solution. 7
  • 8. 1.5 Compliance1.5.1 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive1.5.1.1 Air Conditioning InspectionAs the building exceeds the trigger points of 12kW and 250kW for air conditioning outputs, an ACI isneeded before the end of the year to be compliant with the Directive.1.5.1.2 Energy Performance CertificatesThe trigger for an EPC is usually the sale or lease of a building or part thereof; the other trigger isrefurbishment to fabric or services that significantly alters the carbon footprint of the building. If noproject work is carried out, an EPC will not be needed for this building.1.5.1.3 Display Energy CertificatesThis is not a legal compliance requirement for retailers or their premises, yet. The Directive is beingrecast now with the revision planned for action this year and so there may be a need in the nearfuture to produce a DEC. Considering the size of the electricity bill (~£25K) it would be beneficial toundertake an annual DEC exercise to monitor performance, regardless of it being a compliance issueor not.2 The Solution2.1 Building Fabric2.1.1 Air LeakageThe low cost option is to ensure all staff members are trained to open doors only when necessaryduring cold periods of the year. This should become the responsibility of OUTSOURCED SERVICEPROVIDER to deliver and monitor. OUTSOURCED SERVICE PROVIDER have a continuousimprovement scheme in place, which could be used to feature energy saving training as well as acompany level commitment to reducing energy consumption. OUTSOURCED SERVICE PROVIDER’sfour environmental management standards (shown below) lend themselves to this kind of initiative:  Compliance with regulations  Monitoring and measuring energy consumption  Monitoring and measuring discharges and waste  Internal training and external communicationhttp://www.norbert-dentressangle.co.uk/environmental-site-management.0.39.0.0.gb.html2.1.1.1 Pressure testingAccurate identification of leaks in the building fabric can be achievedthrough pressure testing. The cost of this exercise will easily be justifiedwith the increased understanding of the size of the problem and the abilityto focus on key areas.2.1.1.2 DraughtproofingA detailed draughtproofing and gap sealing work schedule can be devisedfollowing the pressure test. This will allow the work to be prioritised and 8
  • 9. more attention paid to the worst affected areas. This will in turn mean that the cost will be morecontrollable with no additional work being identified after commencement of the project.2.1.1.3 Loading Bay DoorsThe doors are in poor condition and a simple solution would be to ensure that all gaps are sealedand draughtproofing is fitted or replaced. The pressure test may reveal that this is insufficient and soa more effective solution will have to be found. Roller shutter doors are not thermally efficient or draughtproofed so there will always be an issue with air leakage until these doors are replaced. When that happens, it would make sense to consider a solution that improves thermal efficiency, minimises draughts and periods when the doors are left open. Crawford Solutions (or similar) offer one such system which would include refurbishment of the loadingbay, including installation of effective seals, sensors and controllers to automate operation andremove responsibility from staff. Some form of driver warning system should be included to reducethe risk of collisions, thereby ensuring that the bay doors remain effective at maintaining theinternal environment and reducing the cost of repair. The options to undertake a free site surveywith cost/benefit analysis and payback calculations is available.2.1.2 Thermal Efficiency2.1.2.1 ThermographyThe use of thermography will be valuable in the identification of areas ofpoor or no insulation. It will also confirm the extent of refurbishmentrequired regarding the cladding and roof. It will determine whethercomplete replacement is needed or not, which would mean significantsavings in capital expenditure.2.1.2.2 CladdingThe condition of the cladding is acceptable, but the effectiveness of insulation used to meet buildingregulations of the time is very low. We propose to investigate a number of options, includingretrofitting of additional cladding to the facades, as well as the option to replace the cladding with amore thermally efficient system. This exercise will also need to establish the structural integrity ofthe building framework; otherwise, we will be adding extra weight and stresses to a 20 year olduntested structure.2.1.2.3 RoofThe roof has minimal thermal insulation and is therefore subject to high levels of solar gain. Inaddition, the roof lights that make up about 5% of the total area are not thermally efficient andallow solar gain into level 4.A new roof is the simplest solution; with increased insulation, Sunpipes and natural ventilation unitsinstalled at the same time. 9
  • 10. 2.1.2.4 GlazingThe west facing office and reception area glazing should be replaced with thermally efficient, lowemissivity technology that meets, or preferably exceeds current building regulations.2.1.2.5 Office External ShadingAs there are a number of air conditioning split units serving the office area it isevident that the internal environment becomes uncomfortable. Split units incurinstallation and maintenance costs and increase energy consumption/costs for thedistribution centre. There will be an additional cost for the production ofan Air Conditioning Inspection, which will have to be undertaken before the end of the year. With all of these factors, it is reasonable to assume that a passive solution will have long term benefits to the building and its occupants. An external shading system such as this will minimise solar gainthrough the windows without significantly reducing daylight levels.2.2 Building ServicesWhen the building fabric is upgraded, the existing systems may well cope with providing the correctinternal conditions. This can be proven with the use of building simulation modelling.2.2.1 HeatingImproving the thermal efficiency and air leakage of the building fabric will meanthat heat loss and air change rates will reduce, resulting in less energy being usedin an attempt to bring the building up to temperature. Simulation modelling willdetermine if any additional heating is needed.2.2.2 Air Movement/Ventilation systems Monodraught’s Sola-boost is an extension of the Windcatcher design, to provide additional ventilation on sunny days whilst maintaining zero running costs. Combining the use of these with ground level intake vents and strategic use of the bay doors will result in effective natural ventilation being possible.2.2.3 Air ConditioningThe Daikin air conditioning units located on the ground floor are not used1, as they have provedineffective at reducing the high temperatures experienced on Level 4. Once the structure has beenmade thermally efficient, these units may become more effective at dealing with extremes ofsummer temperature. This can be ascertained using building Dynamic Simulation Modelling.1 According to site staff 10
  • 11. 2.2.4 LightingLow energy lighting with an effective controls system and strategy throughout the building andincreased daylighting for Level 4 using Sunpipes (or similar) will reduce energyconsumption and carbon emissions by as much as 70%2. This will be through acombination of higher efficiency lighting, movement, daylighting and dimming controls. There will also be an improvement in comfort levels, as there will be less heat generated by the lights, reducing the need for a mechanical cooling solution. Passive daylight systems have the additional benefit of being maintenance free. This (left) is an example of a high bay hall withnatural daylight only. It will be vital to have a daylight sensing component to the controls systems asthe building is in operation through the night and so there will still be a need for a lighting system onthe top floor.2.2.5 Compressed AirThere was no information available regarding the compressed air system. So questions for furtherinvestigation would be: What is it used for? Is it still needed? When was the last service? What is theenergy consumption of the system?2.2.6 Controls/Building Management SystemAs the annual bill is more than £300,000 (only electricity data available) and inevitable increasesbecause of the CRC, it would be prudent to install a controls system that allows flexibility in the useof systems, that can adapt to changing environmental conditions (internal and external) and can bemonitored and adjusted remotely.2.2.7 Metering & Utility Data ManagementAs the existing electricity meter has a pulsed output,half hour profiling can be accessed. Only when youcan see energy consumption over a 24 hour periodcan it be used as a management and maintenancetool.RWE NPower is the incumbent supplier(OUTSOURCED SERVICE PROVIDER’s national contract)which means that their online Monitoring andTargeting software is available to site-based staff. Arequest should be made to have this information sentthrough to the site team.The staff perception is that the bulk of energy expenditure is from lighting because of the numberand type of fittings used. The installation of sub meters will enable precise analysis of the energy useand by what building service or process. With this level of data available, energy management canbecome effective at identifying energy waste as well as maintenance issues.2 Based on discussions with Outsourced Service Provider Accounts staff. 11
  • 12. Access to and analysis of 24 months of copies of gas (and electricity) bills will identify opportunitiesfor saving consumption and costs. This was not possible during the site visit, but a request has beensubsequently made.The water meter needs to be either replaced or retro-fitted to enable remote monitoring andremoving the health and safety issues related to lifting a heavy cover. Ensuring that the meter couldemit a pulsed output will ensure that a leak could be detected early, avoiding expenditure on unusedwater.2.3 Compliance2.3.1 Energy Performance of Buildings DirectiveThere is value in undertaking the production of the three components of the EPBD for ongoingmonitoring and control of energy cost and consumption.2.3.1.1 Air Conditioning InspectionA Contractor is in the process of gaining ACI accreditation and will be able to produce the relevantcompliance report before the end of the year.2.3.1.2 Energy Performance CertificatesWhen the decision is made to improve the fabric and services of the building, an EPC will be needed.An EPC must be produced using approved building simulation software and depending on the typeand sophistication of the package used, the simulation can be used as a design tool to assess theimpact of various passive and mechanical systems. A building simulation model will ensure that thebest combination of options is identified and specified, minimising the risk to capital expenditure.2.3.1.3 Display Energy CertificatesThis is not a legal compliance requirement for retailers or their premises, yet. The Directive is beingrecast now with the revision planned for action this year and so there may be a need in the nearfuture to produce a DEC. Considering the size of the electricity bill (~£250K) it would be prudent toundertake an annual DEC exercise, regardless of it being a compliance issue or not.2.3.2 Funding OptionsRWE NPower are the incumbent electricity supplier and their Low Carbon and Renewables teamhave several funding options if the project involves the installation of technologies such as CHP, solarPV/thermal, heat pumps etc.The Carbon Trust interest free loan scheme is not an option for RETAILER X, as it applies tosmall/medium size companies only. 12
  • 13. 3 Time to make your warehouse greenerPublished: 01 September 2007 12:00 AMhttp://www.logisticsmanager.com/Home/default.aspxEnvironmental concerns are increasingly coming into play in logistics operations, with more and more companies committing tolow carbon strategies for the future of their businesses. One of the biggest energy consumers in the logistics industry is thewarehouse.The retailer sector especially relies heavily on depots, some of which operate day and night. Various Retailers, are amongthose that recognise the need for action, and are developing energy saving projects that promise significant savings in energyconsumption and carbon dioxide output. RETAILER X is investing in a £200 million environmental plan, which will help itachieve its goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2012. Lee Scott, president of Wal-Mart, has promised to use 100 per centrenewable energy, create zero carbon waste and reduce carbon emissions by 2009, through an investment of £255 million.Meanwhile Tesco has solar power projects across the UK.The bar was set when Adnams Brewery opened its environmentally frieOutsourced Service Providery distribution warehouse,constructed out of hemp and chalk blocks, which absorb carbon dioxide, helping to regulate temperatures naturally efficiently,and reducing energy costs. The warehouse, complete with grass roof, designed to harvest rainwater, was opened last year inSouthwold, Suffolk.However, the financial viability of implementing green initiatives is an issue. Action is apparent in new build warehouses withdevelopers like Gazeley and ProLogis, and designers like sbh.uk committing to eco-frieOutsourced Service Providery initiativesand innovations, and where renewable technologies are integrated during the early stages of the design and build process. Butfor existing warehouses the prospects seem less certain, as many companies remain unsure of how or where to start the ballrolling.The costs of running green warehouses are lower than those of conventional ones. Where energy is reduced, cost savings aremade. For companies wishing to commit to the low carbon initiative, renewable technologies such as wind turbines andphotovoltaic panels are costly investments but will guarantee long-term pay back.Laurie Sice of sbh.uk says: "In some cases, the additional cost of putting in items means that there is an initial increase in costbut then looking at the payback in running costs, these factors make it worthwhile."John Lewis is opening a distribution centre at Gazeleys Magna Park site at Milton Keynes, which will incorporate an increasedrange of sustainable design initiatives contributing to a saving of up to 66 per cent on carbon emissions. Jonathan Fenton-Jones, global procurement and sustainability director of Gazeley, says that operational cost savings for John Lewis will workout to £238,000 per year.Commenting on the project, Dino Rocos, managing director of distribution at John Lewis, said: "It is good for us as a businessand the environment - it has shown that the business agenda and the green agenda can run comfortably along side eachother."Sainsburys is soon to open an energy efficient depot at Pineham, Northampton. Its design incorporates environmental featuresand technologies to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, including wall-mounted photovoltaic panels thatgenerate electricity; solar walls that produce heat from sunlight; an on-site combined heat and power plant that reuses the by-product heat from the chilling process normally wasted to the environment; an on-site recycling facility; energy efficient lightingsystems; and air-tight construction that minimises energy loss through the external fabric of the building. ProLogis estimatesthat Sainsburys warehouse operation will be up to 75 per cent more energy-efficient than a standard warehouse. Ken Hall,ProLogis sustainability guru, says its also developing ongoing retrofit programmes in the US.Laurence Duncan, director of renewable technology consultants Ice Renewables, says there is a lot of misunderstandingregarding what type of renewable technology to use and its potential payback. Wind turbines for instance, are regarded ashaving a rather lengthy payback period, but they can return investment after just four years. According to Duncan, somecompanies are being muscled down the green route as a result of binding legislation such as the Merton Rule, the planningpolicy pioneered by London Borough of Merton, which requires the use of renewable energy on site to reduce annual carbonemissions in the built environment. Others see it as a way of staying competitive and achieving corporate responsibility 13
  • 14. objectives.Yet, for existing warehouses, there are still a lot of grey areas regarding which technologies are worthwhile investing in.A major source of energy consumption in any warehouse is lighting. In response to this, recent efficiency targets introduced bythe national Building Regulations call for electrical consumption and industrial lighting to be reduced by 10 to 15 per cent.Hugh King of Thorn Lighting says 50 per cent savings can be made by use of currently available energy efficient lightingtechnologies (products, lighting controls, natural light) all without loss of lighting conditions. Lighting designers have the powerto hold down carbon emissions and reduce the carbon footprint of lighting installations, (0.42kg of carbon dioxide is saved forevery 1kWh reduction in electrical load).According to King, choice of lighting varies from high intensity discharge (HID) to advance fluorescent luminaires (completelight units). He says: "With regard to the building regulations we have received some instances of large warehouse projectsbeing given a false impression that to comply, the lighting installation needs to take account of both occupancy and daylightlevels and need to be switched as such. This is extremely difficult to do with discharge lighting and hence users seem to bethinking they must go down the fluorescent route…this is not the case."He says that the most important point is the provision of switch controls. The most common approach is the use of microwavepresence detectors for monitoring aisles and switching 50 per cent of the HID luminaires off after 15 minutes of non-detection.King says that four types of control sub-systems are usually employed: daylight-linked, occupancy-linked, localised switchingand timed controls, although frequently a combination is used.Future summer temperatures are predicted to rise by several degrees as a result of global warming. Keeping temperaturesdown, specifically for products that are stored higher up in a warehouse has always been a problem, says Steve Ball,operations director of Jet Environmental.Overheating"Overheating has been the number one critical deficiency in pharmaceutical warehouses for the past five years, but has movedup the agenda because of improvements in the thermal efficiency of warehouses plus the waste heat given off by lighting andmaterials haOutsourced Service Providering equipment and greater use of mezzanines, all of which significantly increaseinternal temperatures. Without cooling stratification occurs as hot air accumulates at a high level in the warehouse, making thetop levels of racking unusable for temperature sensitive products."Air induction technology and controlled ventilation can be used to create greener warehouses which not only require lessenergy, but also use it more efficiently, he says."Traditional heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems which employ energy hungry mechanical cooling, are not onlyexpensive to run but also pump high levels of carbon dioxide into the environment. They are simply not a viable option whenthe government is committed to reducing energy consumption and insuring that UK businesses implement low carbon solutionswhich minimise the impact on the environment."Steve Kirkwood of Seeley International, which makes evaporative-cooling and gas heating products, says: "Climate changelegislation provides companies with financial motivation to cut carbon emissions in the most cost-effective way. Companies thatexceed their emissions limit are penalised while those producing emissions below their limit have the opportunity to develop anew revenue stream."Kirkwood points out that evaporative air-cooling is emission free and cheaper to run than refrigerant based air-conditioning. Itprovides cooling properties and ventilation with minimal energy consumption, using water as a working fluid and avoiding theuse of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as used by compressor type systems. Its a simple technology whichconsumes less than a quarter of the energy of refrigerate air-conditioning systems.Significant savings can also be made by employing building management systems, computer systems which can calculate thepre-set requirements of the building and control the connected plant to meet those needs. Its inputs, such as temperaturesensors and outputs, such as on/off signals are connected into outstations around the building. Programmes within theseoutstations use this information to decide the necessary level of applied control. They are designed to combine maximumbuilding and plant efficiency with minimum energy consumption.PaybackJulian Martin, director of Ice Renewables, says that combined heat and power systems (CHP), initially more well-known in the 14
  • 15. public sector, are becoming increasingly popular.Its one of the cheaper technologies to install and guarantees a fast payback of three to four years, depending on the site.Martin says that retrofitting existing warehouses with a CHP system can be done by running it alongside the existing heatingsystem, with the CHP gradually dominating the original system.Ultimately, there is only so much the architects and designers can do, its up to the end users and their attitudes, to carry on thegreen effort and ensure that their warehouse operations are environmentally beneficial. As Laurie Sice says: "Its a matter ofmoney versus social responsibility." 15

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