Perspective And Contrast

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Perspective And Contrast

  1. 1. Perspective and ContrastDesign Principles for Supporting Self-directed and Incidental Learning<br />Christian Glahn<br />Marcus Specht and Rob Koper <br />CELSTEC, Open University of the Netherlands<br />I-Know + I-Semantics 2009<br />Graz, 4 September 2009<br />
  2. 2. Self-directed LearningIncidental Learning<br />Learner controlled<br />Unguided <br />Unstructured<br />Experience based<br />Hardly recognized as real learning<br />but<br />Most common form of learning <br />
  3. 3. Self-directed LearningIncidental Learningmost common forms of learning amongKnowledge Workers<br />
  4. 4. Knowledge Workers<br />are<br />working environment<br />Specialized <br />Experts<br />Flexible<br />Performance<br />
  5. 5. Knowledge Workers=Working-lifelong Learners<br />Steward, 1997<br />
  6. 6. How to supportself-directed and incidental learningof knowledge workers?<br />No tutoring<br />No prepared learning materials<br />Integrated into practice <br />
  7. 7. Support through feedback :<br />Visualisations of Activity Traces<br />
  8. 8. Reflection is essential forlearning of practitioners<br />Schön, 1983<br />
  9. 9. Reflection<br />Reflection in action <br />Reflection on action<br />Reflection for action <br />
  10. 10. Reflection(in other words)<br />Monitoring<br />Evaluating<br />Planning<br />
  11. 11. Reflection<br />requires<br />Awareness<br />requires<br />Feedback<br />requires<br />Actions<br />
  12. 12. Action - Feedback – Reflection Loop<br />Butler & Winne, 1995<br />
  13. 13. Monitoring – Response Flow<br />Zimmermann, Specht, & Lorenz, 2005<br />
  14. 14. Feedback is related toits Context<br />Ley & Young, 2001<br />
  15. 15. What information is requiredfor giving feedback to knowledge workers?<br />What are the design principles of feedback?<br />
  16. 16. Situated Learning and Context<br />
  17. 17. People can Think<br />The approach relies on the predicate that<br />
  18. 18. People need support to think about their actions<br />
  19. 19. 2 design-research studies innon-artificial settings <br />
  20. 20. Feedback needs perspective<br />1. Design principle<br />
  21. 21. 1. Study<br />Glahn, Specht, & Koper, 2009<br />
  22. 22. Perspective<br />Personal Actions<br />Peer Actions<br />
  23. 23. Results<br />
  24. 24. Feedback needs contrast<br />2. Design principle<br />
  25. 25. 2. Study<br />Glahn, Specht, & Koper, 2008<br />
  26. 26. Contextual Factors and Dimensions<br />
  27. 27. Results<br />
  28. 28. Insights from the Studies<br />Perspective Principle<br />Contrast Principle<br />
  29. 29. Conclusions<br />Supportive feedback can be provided independently from explicit domain knowledge.<br />Perspective is required to focus on relevant information.<br />Contrast is required for meaningful relations between actions and their context.<br />
  30. 30. Thank you <br />

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