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Perspective And Contrast
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Perspective And Contrast

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Perspective And Contrast Perspective And Contrast Presentation Transcript

  • Perspective and ContrastDesign Principles for Supporting Self-directed and Incidental Learning
    Christian Glahn
    Marcus Specht and Rob Koper
    CELSTEC, Open University of the Netherlands
    I-Know + I-Semantics 2009
    Graz, 4 September 2009
  • Self-directed LearningIncidental Learning
    Learner controlled
    Unguided
    Unstructured
    Experience based
    Hardly recognized as real learning
    but
    Most common form of learning
  • Self-directed LearningIncidental Learningmost common forms of learning amongKnowledge Workers
  • Knowledge Workers
    are
    working environment
    Specialized
    Experts
    Flexible
    Performance
  • Knowledge Workers=Working-lifelong Learners
    Steward, 1997
  • How to supportself-directed and incidental learningof knowledge workers?
    No tutoring
    No prepared learning materials
    Integrated into practice
  • Support through feedback :
    Visualisations of Activity Traces
  • Reflection is essential forlearning of practitioners
    Schön, 1983
  • Reflection
    Reflection in action
    Reflection on action
    Reflection for action
  • Reflection(in other words)
    Monitoring
    Evaluating
    Planning
  • Reflection
    requires
    Awareness
    requires
    Feedback
    requires
    Actions
  • Action - Feedback – Reflection Loop
    Butler & Winne, 1995
  • Monitoring – Response Flow
    Zimmermann, Specht, & Lorenz, 2005
  • Feedback is related toits Context
    Ley & Young, 2001
  • What information is requiredfor giving feedback to knowledge workers?
    What are the design principles of feedback?
  • Situated Learning and Context
  • People can Think
    The approach relies on the predicate that
  • People need support to think about their actions
  • 2 design-research studies innon-artificial settings
  • Feedback needs perspective
    1. Design principle
  • 1. Study
    Glahn, Specht, & Koper, 2009
  • Perspective
    Personal Actions
    Peer Actions
  • Results
  • Feedback needs contrast
    2. Design principle
  • 2. Study
    Glahn, Specht, & Koper, 2008
  • Contextual Factors and Dimensions
  • Results
  • Insights from the Studies
    Perspective Principle
    Contrast Principle
  • Conclusions
    Supportive feedback can be provided independently from explicit domain knowledge.
    Perspective is required to focus on relevant information.
    Contrast is required for meaningful relations between actions and their context.
  • Thank you