NUTRITION
 BY PHILOMINA
NUTRITION
• Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the
  provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials
  ...
Carbohydrates
• Calories/gram: 4
• Carbohydrates may be classified as
  monosaccharides, disaccharides, or
  polysaccharid...
Fat

• Calories/gram: 9
• Fats are composed of fatty acids (long
  carbon/hydrogen chains) bonded to a
  glycerol. Fat may...
Fibre

• Calories/gram: 0
• provides bulk to the intestinal contents
• stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic
  muscular contrac...
Protein

    • Calories/gram: 4
    • Most meats such as
      chicken contain all
      the essential amino
      acids n...
PROTEIN
• Dietary sources of protein include meats,
  eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products
  such as milk and cheese
...
Minerals

• Calories/gram: 0
• Dietary minerals are the chemical
  elements required by living organisms,
  other than the...
Minerals

• Calories/gram: 0
• Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required
  by living organisms, other than the f...
Minerals
• Sometimes these quot;mineralsquot; come from natural
  sources such as ground oyster shells.
• Sometimes minera...
Minerals

  Calcium (for muscle and digestive system
•




  health, builds bone, neutralizes acidity, clears
  toxins, he...
Minerals
  Potassium required electrolyte (heart and
•




  nerves health)
• Sodium electrolyte
• Sulfur for three essent...
Trace minerals
• A variety of elements are required in trace
  amounts, unusually because they play a
  role in catalysis ...
Trace minerals
• Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12
  family of coenzymes
• Copper required component of many...
Trace minerals
    Manganese (processing of oxygen)
•




•   Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related
    oxi...
IODINE
• Iodine is required in larger quantities than
  the other trace minerals in this list and is
  sometimes classifie...
Vitamins
• Calories/gram: 0
• Mineral and/or vitamin deficiency or excess
  may yield symptoms of diminishing health
  suc...
Water

• Calories/gram: 0
• About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human
  body is made of water[citation needed]. To
  func...
Balanced diet

Balanced diet is a diet which consists
   of all the nutrients in a required
proportion with water and roug...
Illnesses caused by improper
               nutrient consumption
   NUTRIENTS             DEFICIENCY                      ...
Illnesses caused by improper
              nutrient consumption
Sodium       hyponatremia           Hypernatremia, hyperte...
Illnesses caused by improper
          nutrient consumption
                           dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, bir...
Xerophthalmia
• Definition: An abnormal dryness of the eyeball
  produced usually by long-continued
  inflammation and sub...
Marasmus
Anaemia
Goiter
Beri-Beri
Pellagra
Scurvy
Rickets
Hemorrhage
SANITATION
 BY PHILOMINA
SANITATION
• Sanitation is the hygienic means of
  preventing human contact from the
  hazards of wastes to promote health...
SANITATION
• Wastes that can cause health problems are
  human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic
  wastewater (sewa...
TYPES OF SANITATION
    Basic sanitation - refers to the management of
•




    human feces at the household level. This
...
TYPES OF SANITATION
• Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic
  measures for ensuring food safety.
• Environmental sanita...
ECOLOGICAL SANITATION
    Ecological sanitation - a concept and an
•




    approach of recycling to nature the nutrients...
SANITATION PROBLEMS
SANITATION PROBLEMS
SANITATION PROBLEMS
SANITATION PROBLEMS
SANITATION PROBLEMS
ANY QUESTIONS???



     THANK YOU
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Nutrition1

  1. 1. NUTRITION BY PHILOMINA
  2. 2. NUTRITION • Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. • Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with good nutritionPoor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi, and kwashiorkor; health- threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.
  3. 3. Carbohydrates • Calories/gram: 4 • Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides by the number of sugar units they contain • Monosaccharides contain 1 sugar unit, disaccharides contain 2, and polysaccharides contain 3 or more
  4. 4. Fat • Calories/gram: 9 • Fats are composed of fatty acids (long carbon/hydrogen chains) bonded to a glycerol. Fat may be classified as saturated or unsaturated
  5. 5. Fibre • Calories/gram: 0 • provides bulk to the intestinal contents • stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic muscular contractions passing along the digestive tract) • Lack of dietary fiber in the diet leads to constipation (failure to pass motions).
  6. 6. Protein • Calories/gram: 4 • Most meats such as chicken contain all the essential amino acids needed for humans. • Protein is composed of amino acids, that are body's structural (muscles, skin, hair etc.) materials
  7. 7. PROTEIN • Dietary sources of protein include meats, eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese • Proteins can be converted into carbohydrates through a process called gluconeogenesis.
  8. 8. Minerals • Calories/gram: 0 • Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules.
  9. 9. Minerals • Calories/gram: 0 • Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. • The term quot;mineralquot; is archaic, since the intent of the definition is to describe ions, not chemical compounds or actual minerals. Some dietitians recommend that these heavier elements should be supplied by ingesting specific foods (that are enriched in the element(s) of interest), compounds, and sometimes including even minerals, such as calcium carbonate.
  10. 10. Minerals • Sometimes these quot;mineralsquot; come from natural sources such as ground oyster shells. • Sometimes minerals are added to the diet separately from food, such as mineral supplements, the most famous being iodine in quot;iodized salt.quot;Macrominerals • A variety of elements are required to support the biochemical processes, many play a role as electrolytes or in a structural role • In Human nutrition, the dietary bulk quot;mineral elementsquot; (RDA > 200 mg/day) are in alphabetical order (parenthetical comments on folk medicine perspective):
  11. 11. Minerals Calcium (for muscle and digestive system • health, builds bone, neutralizes acidity, clears toxins, helps blood stream) • Chloride • Magnesium required for processing ATP and related reactions (health, builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity) • Phosphorus required component of bones (see apatite) and energy processing and many other functions (bone mineralization)
  12. 12. Minerals Potassium required electrolyte (heart and • nerves health) • Sodium electrolyte • Sulfur for three essential amino acids and many proteins and cofactors (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas health)
  13. 13. Trace minerals • A variety of elements are required in trace amounts, unusually because they play a role in catalysis in enzymes • Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are (alphabetical order):
  14. 14. Trace minerals • Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes • Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase • Chromium required for sugar metabolism • Iodine required for the biosynthesis of thyroxin • Iron required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin
  15. 15. Trace minerals Manganese (processing of oxygen) • • Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases • Nickel present in urease • Selenium reqiured for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) • Vanadium (There is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is found in lower organisms.) • Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase. Zinc is pervasive.
  16. 16. IODINE • Iodine is required in larger quantities than the other trace minerals in this list and is sometimes classified with the bulk minerals. Sodium is not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food
  17. 17. Vitamins • Calories/gram: 0 • Mineral and/or vitamin deficiency or excess may yield symptoms of diminishing health such as goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, weak immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others
  18. 18. Water • Calories/gram: 0 • About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is made of water[citation needed]. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors[citation needed]. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.
  19. 19. Balanced diet Balanced diet is a diet which consists of all the nutrients in a required proportion with water and roughage. Malnutrition Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients
  20. 20. Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption NUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY EXCESS Obesity, diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular Calories Starvation disease Marasmus, Simple carbohydrates diabetes mellitus starvation Complex Marasmus, Obesity carbohydrates starvation Saturated fat / trans none Cardiovascular disease, fat Unsaturated fat Rabbit starvation Obesity Cholesterol none Cardiovascular disease Ketoacidosis, Rabbit starvation, kidney Protein Marasmus disease
  21. 21. Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption Sodium hyponatremia Hypernatremia, hypertension Hepatitis C, cirrhosis, heart Iron Anemia disease Goiter, Iodine Toxicity (goiter, Iodine hypothyroidism hypothyroidism) Xeropthalmia and Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, Vitamin A Night Blindness hair loss, birth defects) Vitamin B1 Beri-Beri Cracking of skin and Corneal Vitamin B2 Unclearation
  22. 22. Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth Niacin Pellagra defects Pernicious Vitamin B12 Anemia Vitamin C Scurvy Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, Vitamin D Rickets vomiting, constipation) Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: Vitamin E excessive bleeding) Vitamin K Hemorrhage
  23. 23. Xerophthalmia • Definition: An abnormal dryness of the eyeball produced usually by long-continued inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the conjunctiva.
  24. 24. Marasmus
  25. 25. Anaemia
  26. 26. Goiter
  27. 27. Beri-Beri
  28. 28. Pellagra
  29. 29. Scurvy
  30. 30. Rickets
  31. 31. Hemorrhage
  32. 32. SANITATION BY PHILOMINA
  33. 33. SANITATION • Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health. • Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.
  34. 34. SANITATION • Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes and now appliances in disuse wastes like cars, computers,household appliances, electronic appliances(bulbs, regulators) Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g.latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).
  35. 35. TYPES OF SANITATION Basic sanitation - refers to the management of • human feces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation. On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment • of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.
  36. 36. TYPES OF SANITATION • Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety. • Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control
  37. 37. ECOLOGICAL SANITATION Ecological sanitation - a concept and an • approach of recycling to nature the nutrients from human and animal wastes.
  38. 38. SANITATION PROBLEMS
  39. 39. SANITATION PROBLEMS
  40. 40. SANITATION PROBLEMS
  41. 41. SANITATION PROBLEMS
  42. 42. SANITATION PROBLEMS
  43. 43. ANY QUESTIONS??? THANK YOU

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