Chapter 4 - The Early Greeks


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Chapter 4 - The Early Greeks

  1. 1. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Geography of Greece  Mainland Greece is a peninsula – a body of land surrounded by water on three sides  To the west is the Ionian Sea, to the east is the Aegean Sea, and to the south is the Mediterranean Sea  Most ancient Greeks made a living by the seas as fishers, sailors and traders
  2. 2. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Geography of Greece  Mainland Greece is also very mountainous and rocky, limiting the ability to farm  However, some areas were farmed, growing wheat, barley, olives, and grapes  Many Greek communities grew up independent due to the separation caused by the mountains and seas
  3. 3. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Minoans  The Minoan civilization arose on Crete, an island that lies to the southeast of mainland Greece  Although, the Minoans were not Greeks, Crete would later become part of Greece  In 1900, and English archaeologist, Arthur Evans, discovered the ruins of a grand palace, the center of the Minoan civilization
  4. 4. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Minoans  The grand palace was in the city of Knossos  It had many rooms including private quarters for the royal family, bathrooms, storehouses, and workshops  The Minoans made their wealth from trade and by 2000 B.C. controlled the eastern Mediterranean Sea  The Minoan civilization suddenly collapsed c. 1450 B.C.  Possible theories: earthquake/tsunami, invaded by Mycenaeans, volcanic eruption of Thera
  5. 5. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Mycenaeans  The Mycenaeans were originally from central Asia  They invaded Greece around 1900 B.C., conquering the people and becoming the first Greek kings  Each Mycenaean kingdom had a fortified palace at its center where the ruler lived  Mycenaean palaces were also the center of much artisan work, government oversight, and storehouses
  6. 6. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Mycenaeans  The Mycenaeans soon began to trade with the Minoans, copying much of the Minoan lifestyles and religion  Around 1400 B.C., the Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans as the major power on the Mediterranean Sea  The Mycenaeans were also very successful in battles (i.e. Trojan War)  By 1100 B.C., much of the Mycenaean civilization had
  7. 7. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Mycenaeans  The years between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. became known as the Dark Age  Farmers grew food only for their families  Education ceased  Many Greeks left the mainland, expanding the reach of Greek culture  The Dorians moved in and settled on the Peloponnesus peninsula  Advanced weapons and farm technology
  8. 8. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Mycenaeans  Gradually people began to farm and educate again  Adopted the idea of an alphabet from the Phoenicians  As the Greek population grew, cities began sending people outside Greece to start colonies  Colony – a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland  Colonization led to the growth of trade and industry
  9. 9. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Polis  At the end of the Dark Age, many nobles had overthrown the Greek kings and created city-states, known as a polis  Acropolis – a fortified area at the top of a hill used as a gathering place in the polis  Sometimes a religious center  Agora – an open area below the acropolis that served as both a market and a meeting/debating place
  10. 10. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Citizenship  The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship  Each Greek city-state was run by its citizens  Citizens – members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities  Free native-born men who owned land  Women, children might qualify, but without rights
  11. 11. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Citizenship  Rights – elect officials, pass laws, hold office, own property  In return, citizens must serve in government and fight as citizen soldiers
  12. 12. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  The rule by the nobles began to decline by 650 B.C.  Small farmers demanded changes in the power structure and merchants and artisans wanted to be a part of government  Both groups were very wealthy, but were not citizens because they did not own land  The growing frustration led to the rise of tyrants
  13. 13. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  Tyrant – someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority  Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600’s B.C. with the backing of the common people  Tyrants became popular with the people by building new marketplaces, temples, and walls  However, most Greeks wanted rule by law with all citizens participating in government
  14. 14. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  By 500 B.C., most city-states had become either oligarchies or democracies  Oligarchy – a form of government in which only a few people hold power  Democracy – a form of government in which all citizens share in running the government  Sparta (oligarchy) and Athens (democracy) became two of the most powerful governments of early Greece
  15. 15. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  Sparta was founded by the Dorians who conquered and enslaved their neighbors to be workers  These captive workers were called helots  Fearing the helots might someday rebel, the government firmly controlled the people and trained the men for war  Spartan soldiers were trained until age 30, but remained in the army until age 60  Spartan girls were trained in sports – running & wrestling
  16. 16. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  The Spartan government included two kings which headed a council of elders who presented laws to an assembly  The assembly voted on the laws and chose 5 ephors  Ephor – a person who enforced the laws and managed tax collection  By focusing on military training, the Spartans fell behind in trade, technology and science, but played a key role in defending Greece
  17. 17. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  The Athenian lifestyle and government was much different than that of the Spartans  Athenians focused on providing boys a good education, “the 3 R’s,” sports, and music  At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens  Most Athenian girls were taught at home by their mothers
  18. 18. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks Sparta and Athens  During the 600’s B.C., Athens was an oligarchy ruled by landowning nobles  During the early 500’s B.C., the government was in much turmoil due to rebellion by the farmers  After much reform by a noble, Solon; a tyrant, Peisistratus; and Cleisthenes, the most important leader, the Athenian government became a democracy
  19. 19. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Persian Empire  The people of Persia lived in what is today southwestern Iran  Cyrus the Great (559 B.C. to 530 B.C.) united the Persians into a powerful kingdom, larger than any in the world  In 539 B.C., Cyrus’ armies captured Babylon, northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities
  20. 20. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Persian Empire  Persian leaders who followed Cyrus conquered Egypt, western India, and Thrace  King Darius (521 B.C.) reorganized the government, dividing the empire into 20 states called satrapies  The king’s power depended upon the strength of his army  The Persian government paid people to be full-time soldiers, unlike the Greek city-states (citizen soldiers)
  21. 21. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Persian Wars  The Greeks often clashed with the Persians while setting up colonies in the Mediterranean region  The Greeks and the Persians fought in several key battles  Battle of Marathon – the Athenians successfully defeated the Persians as they attempted to attack Athens  King Xerxes, Darius’ son, vowed revenge against the Athenians
  22. 22. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Persian Wars  An Athenian general, Themistocles, determined the best strategy to defeat the Persians would be to attack their ships and cut off supplies to the Persian army  Battle of Thermopylae – most Greek soldiers survived but Sparta’s King Leonidas and several hundred others fought to the death, losing this battle  Strait of Salamis – naval battle the Greeks won decidedly with smaller, faster, and easier to steer ships
  23. 23. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Persian Wars  Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) – the Greek army crushed the Persian army at Plataea, northwest of Athens  This battle convinced the Persians to retreat to Asia Minor The Fall of the Persian Empire  A weakened army, high taxes which led to rebellions, and fighting within the royal family made Persia vulnerable to attack  Conquered by Alexander the Great in 334 B.C.
  24. 24. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Age of Pericles Population of Athens, 400s B.C. 100,000 Citizens 150,000 Foreigners Slaves 35,000
  25. 25. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Age of Pericles  Persians remained a threat to Greece  Delian League – group of city-states, including Athens, but not Sparta who united in 478 B.C. to defend themselves against the Persians  Also worked to drive Persia out of Greek territories  Most of the troops, commanders and chief officials were from Athens  Soon grew into more than a partnership, but an empire
  26. 26. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Age of Pericles  Democracy in Athens  Their system of government was a direct democracy  People gather at mass meetings to decide government matters and every citizen can vote on laws and policies  Representative democracy (U.S.) – citizens choose a smaller group of representatives to make laws and governmental decisions on their behalf
  27. 27. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Age of Pericles  Usually fewer than 6,000 men attended the assembly meetings, which were held every 10 days  The assembly passed all laws, elected officials, and made decisions on war and foreign affairs  Ten officials known as generals carried out the assembly’s laws and policies
  28. 28. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Age of Pericles  Pericles – one of the leading figures in Athenian politics  Guided Athens for more than 30 years  Helped Athens dominate/control the Delian league  Strived to make Athens more democratic  The Age of Pericles was a period of cultural prosperity – tremendous creativity and learning  Started a major rebuilding program
  29. 29. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C.)  War between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece  Sparta and Athens did not understand or trust each other and clashed over political ideology and perceived aggression  Both city-states thought they could easily win the war  Pericles knew the Spartans could defeat the Athenians in open land battles
  30. 30. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C.)  During the second year of the war, a plague spread throughout Athens, killing one-third of the people  The Spartans made a deal with the Persian Empire  They exchanged Greek territory in Asia Minor for enough money to build a navy  Sparta’s new navy destroyed the Athenian fleet  One year later, after losing more land battles, Athens surrendered
  31. 31. Chapter 4 The Early Greeks The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 B.C.)  Effects of the war  Weakened all of the major Greek city-states  Many people died, farms were destroyed, people lost jobs  Made it impossible for the Greeks to unite and work together again  30 years later, war broke out again, further weakening the kingdom