Sections 1 & 2: The Road to Independence
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sections 1 & 2: The Road to Independence

on

  • 329 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
329
Views on SlideShare
248
Embed Views
81

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
1
Comments
0

2 Embeds 81

http://coachrogersushistory.weebly.com 55
http://www.weebly.com 26

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Sections 1 & 2: The Road to Independence Sections 1 & 2: The Road to Independence Presentation Transcript

  • The Road to IndependenceThe Road to Independence Chapter 4Chapter 4 (1753 – 1783)(1753 – 1783)
  • Section 1 – The French and IndianSection 1 – The French and Indian WarWar Main Idea: The war that the colonists fought againstMain Idea: The war that the colonists fought against the French and Indians caused them to rethink theirthe French and Indians caused them to rethink their relationship with Britain.relationship with Britain. It was called the “French and Indian War” b/c theIt was called the “French and Indian War” b/c the British and American colonists waged it against theBritish and American colonists waged it against the French and their Indian allies.French and their Indian allies. The French claimed a vast region of North AmericaThe French claimed a vast region of North America that stretched from the Appalachian Mountains in thethat stretched from the Appalachian Mountains in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the West.east to the Rocky Mountains in the West. Conflict arose b/c the English claimed some of thisConflict arose b/c the English claimed some of this territory as well – that of the upper Ohio River valley.territory as well – that of the upper Ohio River valley.
  • The French and Indian WarThe French and Indian War BritishBritishFrenchFrench Ohio RiverOhio River ValleyValley
  • French and Indian WarFrench and Indian War A meeting of delegates from seven northern coloniesA meeting of delegates from seven northern colonies convened in Albany, NY where they hoped toconvened in Albany, NY where they hoped to strengthen ties with the Iroquois League.strengthen ties with the Iroquois League. Benjamin Franklin offered an ambitious plan for aBenjamin Franklin offered an ambitious plan for a permanent union of the colonies named thepermanent union of the colonies named the AlbanyAlbany Plan of UnionPlan of Union – this plan called for a council of– this plan called for a council of delegates from each colony, all elected by their colonialdelegates from each colony, all elected by their colonial legislatures.legislatures. The Albany Plan of Union is important because itThe Albany Plan of Union is important because it provided a model for the later government of theprovided a model for the later government of the United States.United States.
  • French and Indian WarFrench and Indian War At first, the war went poorly for the British.At first, the war went poorly for the British. The British tended to fight in the open and in straightThe British tended to fight in the open and in straight lines, as was common in Europe.lines, as was common in Europe. They were no match for an enemy that hid behindThey were no match for an enemy that hid behind rocks and trees, as did the Native Americans androcks and trees, as did the Native Americans and taught the French this tactic.taught the French this tactic. In 1757, William Pitt became prime minister andIn 1757, William Pitt became prime minister and believing that the entire empire could be at stake, Pittbelieving that the entire empire could be at stake, Pitt persuaded Parliament to raise taxes and borrow largepersuaded Parliament to raise taxes and borrow large sums of money to fight the war.sums of money to fight the war. In 1758, better-prepared and better-led British troopsIn 1758, better-prepared and better-led British troops began to overwhelm French and Indian forces.began to overwhelm French and Indian forces.
  • French and Indian WarFrench and Indian War With the fall of Quebec, the capital of New France,With the fall of Quebec, the capital of New France, the war was nearly over. By 1760, the Britishthe war was nearly over. By 1760, the British controlled all of New France.controlled all of New France. In 1763, representatives of Great Britain, France, andIn 1763, representatives of Great Britain, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris.Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. France turned present-day Canada over to Britain andFrance turned present-day Canada over to Britain and surrendered its claims to ALL lands east of thesurrendered its claims to ALL lands east of the Mississippi River.Mississippi River. New Orleans was given to Spain.New Orleans was given to Spain. The British returned Cuba, which they had capturedThe British returned Cuba, which they had captured during the war, to Spain in exchange for Florida.during the war, to Spain in exchange for Florida.
  • French and Indian WarFrench and Indian War Weakened Loyalty to BritainWeakened Loyalty to Britain – The war seriously strained relations b/t Britain and theThe war seriously strained relations b/t Britain and the American colonists.American colonists. – The British thought the colonists had not provided enoughThe British thought the colonists had not provided enough support for the long and costly war Britain had fought tosupport for the long and costly war Britain had fought to “protect them”.“protect them”. – The Americans were shocked at the weakness of militaryThe Americans were shocked at the weakness of military tactics and demanded to be led by Colonial commanders –tactics and demanded to be led by Colonial commanders – viewed by the British as treason.viewed by the British as treason. – The end of the war left the colonists with two strongThe end of the war left the colonists with two strong impressions: (1) They felt a loss of respect for British militaryimpressions: (1) They felt a loss of respect for British military power; (2) They believed the British did not treat them withpower; (2) They believed the British did not treat them with proper respect and did not hold the same values.proper respect and did not hold the same values. – With the new land acquired, the colonists saw no reasonWith the new land acquired, the colonists saw no reason why they shouldn’t expand and prosper on their own,why they shouldn’t expand and prosper on their own, without British help.without British help.
  • Section 2 – Issues Behind theSection 2 – Issues Behind the RevolutionRevolution The British colonists were not hunters and traders like theThe British colonists were not hunters and traders like the French. As farmers, they represented a much greater threatFrench. As farmers, they represented a much greater threat to Indian land and resources.to Indian land and resources. As Native Americans approached British officials withAs Native Americans approached British officials with their concerns, they realized the British gov’t was also atheir concerns, they realized the British gov’t was also a threat – the British Commander in North America, Jeffreythreat – the British Commander in North America, Jeffrey Amherst ended the flow of trade goods with the NativeAmherst ended the flow of trade goods with the Native Americans.Americans. Indians in the Great Lakes regions rebelled against theIndians in the Great Lakes regions rebelled against the British in the spring of 1763, called Pontiac’s Rebellion.British in the spring of 1763, called Pontiac’s Rebellion. By the end of the year, Native Americans had destroyedBy the end of the year, Native Americans had destroyed every British fort in the area west of the Appalachian Mtnsevery British fort in the area west of the Appalachian Mtns except for only two – 2,000 colonists were killed and/orexcept for only two – 2,000 colonists were killed and/or captured.captured.
  • Issues Behind the RevolutionIssues Behind the Revolution In October, King George issued theIn October, King George issued the Proclamation ofProclamation of 17631763 which closed the region west of the Appalachianwhich closed the region west of the Appalachian Mtns to all settlement by colonists.Mtns to all settlement by colonists. Despite it, colonists continued to move west andDespite it, colonists continued to move west and Britain’s lack of success to stop them furtherBritain’s lack of success to stop them further undermined its authority in America.undermined its authority in America. By 1763, the British were among the most heavilyBy 1763, the British were among the most heavily taxed people in the world while its American coloniestaxed people in the world while its American colonies prospered.prospered. The British gov’t posed the idea, why shouldn’t theThe British gov’t posed the idea, why shouldn’t the colonists begin to pay some of the costs of their owncolonists begin to pay some of the costs of their own government and defense?government and defense?
  • British Policies in the ColoniesBritish Policies in the Colonies The Sugar ActThe Sugar Act – reduce tax on imported molasses– reduce tax on imported molasses The Quartering ActThe Quartering Act – required colonial assemblies to house– required colonial assemblies to house and provision the British soldiersand provision the British soldiers The Stamp ActThe Stamp Act – taxed legal and commercial documents and– taxed legal and commercial documents and printed matter; newspapers, magazinesprinted matter; newspapers, magazines The Declaratory ActThe Declaratory Act – it repealed the Stamp Act BUT declared– it repealed the Stamp Act BUT declared England could rule the colonies any way it saw fitEngland could rule the colonies any way it saw fit The Townshend ActsThe Townshend Acts – taxes on lead, paper, tea, paint, & glass– taxes on lead, paper, tea, paint, & glass and used to support British troops, royal governors, and royaland used to support British troops, royal governors, and royal judgesjudges Tea ActTea Act – created to save the East India Company and sell its– created to save the East India Company and sell its surplus to the colonies and to retain the Tea tax from failingsurplus to the colonies and to retain the Tea tax from failing Townshend Acts.Townshend Acts. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) – targeted Massachusetts;– targeted Massachusetts; closed the Port of Boston until “Tea Party” was paid for;closed the Port of Boston until “Tea Party” was paid for; eliminated self-government in Mass.; colonists forced to houseeliminated self-government in Mass.; colonists forced to house British soldiers in private homes when necessaryBritish soldiers in private homes when necessary
  • Boston MassacreBoston Massacre To put down resistance to the Townshend Act,To put down resistance to the Townshend Act, Britain sent troops to Boston.Britain sent troops to Boston. March 5, 1770 – a small crowd threatenedMarch 5, 1770 – a small crowd threatened British troops and they opened fire on theBritish troops and they opened fire on the crowd, killing 5 colonists.crowd, killing 5 colonists. Soon after, Parliament canceled theSoon after, Parliament canceled the Townshend Acts except for the Tea tax as aTownshend Acts except for the Tea tax as a reminder of its authority over the colonies.reminder of its authority over the colonies. Only the boycott of tea continued.Only the boycott of tea continued.
  • Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party Tea Act created to help the failing East IndiaTea Act created to help the failing East India Company which gave them the right to sell its tea toCompany which gave them the right to sell its tea to the colonists without paying the normal tax.the colonists without paying the normal tax. Colonists had been smuggling tea to avoid those taxesColonists had been smuggling tea to avoid those taxes but the Tea Act would make E.I.C.’s tea cheaper thanbut the Tea Act would make E.I.C.’s tea cheaper than the smuggled tea, putting the tea smugglers out ofthe smuggled tea, putting the tea smugglers out of business.business. E.I.C.’s sales agents were forced to resign, their shipsE.I.C.’s sales agents were forced to resign, their ships weren’t allowed to dock in some ports, and on theweren’t allowed to dock in some ports, and on the night of Dec., 16night of Dec., 16thth , 1773 colonists disguised as Indians, 1773 colonists disguised as Indians boarded three tea ships in Boston.boarded three tea ships in Boston. They broke open every crate on board and dumpedThey broke open every crate on board and dumped the tea into the harbor in defiance of the Tea Act.the tea into the harbor in defiance of the Tea Act.
  • First Continental CongressFirst Continental Congress On Sept., 5 1774, a gathering of 56 delegates from allOn Sept., 5 1774, a gathering of 56 delegates from all colonies except GA, met at Carpenter’s Hall incolonies except GA, met at Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia.Philadelphia. They adopted a renewed boycott of British goods andThey adopted a renewed boycott of British goods and a call to all people of the English colonies to arma call to all people of the English colonies to arm themselves and form militias.themselves and form militias. ““It is a right of the people to participate in theirIt is a right of the people to participate in their legislative council; and as the English people are notlegislative council; and as the English people are not represented…they are entitled to a free and exclusiverepresented…they are entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincialpower of legislation in their several provincial legislatures…”legislatures…” King George III, on November 18King George III, on November 18thth wrote, “The Newwrote, “The New England governments are in a state of rebellion, blowsEngland governments are in a state of rebellion, blows must decide.”must decide.”