Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 8 - The Northern and Southern Economies
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 8 - The Northern and Southern Economies


Published on

Published in: Career, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Northern and Southern Economies 1800 to 1860
  • 2. Main Ideas  In the early 1800s, America could be divided into two distinct regions, or sections.  Northern Section: New technologies helped agriculture prosper, while a variety of new industries brought growth – with its benefits and problems – to the North. An increase in people worked in urban areas, or cities.  Southern Section: In the early 1800s, cotton farming became the South’s main economic activity. As a result, the South became dependent on slave labor.
  • 3. The Northern Section  An increasing number of people in the Northeast – the New England states, NY, NJ, and Pennsylvania – worked in factories in urban areas, or cities.  Industrialization, or the development of industries to manufacture finished goods in factories, increased rapidly in the Northeast.  Farming opportunities in the region were limited b/c the population had outgrown the land and thousands of young workers moved to the cities.  A growing number of urban poor people lived in areas with cheap, run-down housing called tenements, or crowded apartments with poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort.
  • 4. The Northern Section – Labor Disputes in Factories  Industries aimed to make a profit at the expense of their workers.  Most factory owners paid their employees very little and did not provide a healthy work environment.  Before long, laborers began to demand more from their bosses and complained mainly about the long hours and low wages.  As workers saw factory owners grow rich, they began to want a slice of wealth that their hard labor produced.
  • 5. The Northern Section – Labor Disputes in Factories  The American government set no minimum wage and workers could not go to their legislatures or courts for help.  Workers had only one real weapon – the could call for a strike, or a work stoppage to demand shorter hours and higher pay.  In 1834, workers organized the first national labor union – an organization of workers formed to protect the interests of its members, usually by negotiating to resolve issues concerning wages.  First national labor union – NTU: National Trades Union.
  • 6. The Northern Section – Labor Disputes in Factories  Nearly 300,000 people joined the NTU or other labor unions in the 1830s.  These early unions died out and factory owners obtained court rulings that outlawed labor organizations.  Despite its failures, the early labor movements showed that some workers were willing to take action against their employers.  By the 1840s, the North had a booming and complex economy with a mixture of industry and agriculture.  It was a region of cities and towns, banks and factories, with huge benefits and problems caused by a growing population.
  • 7. The Southern Section  One famous phrase sums up the economy of the South in the first half of the 1800s: “King Cotton”… the phrase came from the book Cotton Is King by David Christy.  He claimed southern slavery would’ve ended except for the ever-rising demand for cotton products.  Christy said, even Northern critics of slavery continued to use more and more cotton and other products of slave labor – and the American economy had come to depend on the revenue from the sale of raw cotton.
  • 8. The Southern Section  In 1860, King Cotton made up two thirds of the total value of American exports and it created enormous wealth for the South.  Cotton Belt States: North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas – the economy of these states relied almost completely on the production of cotton.
  • 9. The Southern Section – Geography of Southern Farming  Why did the physical geography of the Southern states make farming highly profitable?  The South remained mostly rural, made up of farms and countryside instead of cities.  Farmers could count on 200-290 frost-free days a year to grow crops  Southern land was fertile and had plentiful rains.  15,000 Southern families owned plantations which used a great number of slaves to produce a cash crop.  Hundreds of thousands of families owned just a few slaves and raised their own cash crops, own food, and livestock.
  • 10. The Southern Section – Geography of Southern Farming  Only one fourth of all slaves lived on plantations with more than 50 slaves.  During the early 1800s, farms with six slaves or fewer produced HALF of the Southern cotton crop.  With the invention of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793, Southerners scrambled to put more land into cotton production which increased the number of slaves.  By 1850, of the 3.7 million African Americans nationwide, only 12% (444,000) were free – some lived in the North but most lived in Southern urban areas or rural areas away from large plantations.
  • 11. The Southern Section – The Slavery System  In 1808, Congress banned all further importation of slaves to the United States.  In the South, however, the population growth among people already enslaved contributed to a sharp increase in the internal slave trade for the next 50 years.  Any child born into slavery became a slave.  Slave population:    1820 = 1.5 million 1850 = over 3 million 1860 = slaves made up half the population of SC and MS; two fifths of the population of FL, GA, AL, LA
  • 12. The Southern Section – The Slavery System  On small farms, slaves often worked side by side with their owners in the fields.  Most slaves did not live on small farms but on large cotton plantations.  By 1850, cotton farming employed nearly 60% of the enslaved African Americans in the US.  On the plantations, life was generally harsher than on small farms where workers often toiled in large crews under the supervision of foremen.  Most owners saw slaves as “property” that performed labor for their businesses.
  • 13. The Southern Section – Slave Revolts  Slave rebellions, especially on a large scale, stood little chance of success.  Most were small, spontaneous responses to harsh and cruel punishment and they ended in failure.  Turner’s Rebellion  Nat Turner, a 31-yr-old African American preacher, planned and carried out a violent uprising in 1831  Acting because of “divine inspiration”, he led 70 slaves in raids on white families in southeastern Virginia.  The slaves killed more than 50 people before the local militia captured them.  20 were hanged, including Turner.  In many Southern communities African Americans outnumbered the white population and for this reason, Southern states tightened restrictions on slaves – meeting, learning to read and write…